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Technical Paper

Development of High Pressure H2 Gas Injectors, Capable of Injection at Large Injection Rate and High Response Using a Common-rail Type Actuating System for a 4-cylinder, 4.7-liter Total Displacement, Spark Ignition Hydrogen Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-2005
Key requirements of engines for vehicles are large output power and high efficiency, low emission as well as small size and light weight. Hydrogen combustion engines with direct injection have the characteristics to meet these factors. Tokyo City University, former Musashi Institute of Technology, has studied hydrogen fueled engines with direct injection since 1971. The key technology in the development of hydrogen fueled engines is the hydrogen injector for direct injection with the features such as high injection rate, high response and no hydrogen gas leakage from the needle valve of the hydrogen injector. A common-rail type system to actuate the needle valves of the high pressure hydrogen injectors was intentionally applied to fulfill good performances such as large injection rate, high response and no hydrogen gas leakage.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Hydrogen Jet Configuration by Single Hole Nozzle and High Speed Laser Shadowgraphy in High Pressure Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines

2011-08-30
2011-01-2002
A new ignition-combustion concept named PCC (Plume Ignition Combustion Concept), which ignite rich mixture plume in the middle of injection period or right after injection of hydrogen is completed, is proposed by the authors in order to reduce NOx emissions in high engine load conditions with minimizing trade-offs on thermal efficiency. In this study fundamental requirements of hydrogen jet to optimize PCC are investigated by using single and multi-hole nozzle with a combination of high speed laser shadowgraphy to visualize propagating flame. As a result, it was infered that igniting the mixture plume in the middle of injection period with minimizing jet penetration to chamber wall is effective reducing NOx formation even further.
Journal Article

Study of DME Diesel Engine for Low NOx and CO2 Emission and Development of DME Trucks for Commercial Use

2011-08-30
2011-01-1961
Study of DME diesel engines was conducted to improve fuel consumption and emissions of its. Additionally, DME trucks were built for the promotion and the road tests of these trucks were executed on EFV21 project. In this paper, results of diesel engine tests and DME truck driving tests are presented. As for DME diesel engines, the performance of a DME turbocharged diesel engine with LPL-EGR was evaluated and the influence of the compression ratio was also explored. As for DME trucks, a 100,000km road test was conducted on a DME light duty truck. After the road test, the engine was disassembled for investigation. Furthermore, two DME medium duty trucks have been developed and are now the undergoing practical road testing in each area of two transportation companies in Japan.
Technical Paper

Development Project of a Multi-cylinder DISI Hydrogen ICE System for Heavy Duty Vehicles

2010-10-25
2010-01-2175
The planned development of a hydrogen ICE system for trucks is one of the technological candidates for air pollution reduction and global warming prevention for the large-sized (heavy-duty) trucks supporting Japanese freightage. This project is the first to develop a DISI multi-cylinder hydrogen ICE system aimed at combining high power output and low NOx generation.
Technical Paper

Study of NOx Emissions Reduction Strategy for a Naturally Aspirated 4-Cylinder Direct Injection Hydrogen ICE

2010-10-25
2010-01-2163
Hydrogen engines are required to provide high thermal efficiency and low nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions. There are many possible combinations of injection timing, ignition timing, lambda and EGR rate that can be used in a direct-injection system for achieving such performance. In this study, NOX emissions of natural aspirated 4 cylinders engine with management strategies involving the injection timing, ignition timing, lambda and the EGR rate were evaluated under a Japanese JE05 emissions test cycle. Finally, the paper projects the potential of direct injection hydrogen engine for obtaining high output power and attaining low NOX emissions of 0.7 g/kWh under the emission test cycle.
Technical Paper

Controlling the Heat Release in HCCI Combustion of DME with Methanol and EGR

2010-05-05
2010-01-1489
The effects of methanol and EGR on HCCI combustion of dimethyl ether have been tested separately in a diesel engine. The engine was equipped with a common rail injection system which allowed for random injection of DME. The engine could therefore be operated either as a normal DI CI engine or, by advancing the injection timing 360 CAD, as an HCCI engine. The compression ratio of the engine was reduced to 14.5 by enlarging the piston bowls. The engine was operated in HCCI mode with DME at an equivalence ratio of 0.25. To retard the combustion timing, methanol was port fuel injected and the optimum quantity required was determined. The added methanol increased the BMEP by increasing the total heat release and retarding the combustion to after TDC. Engine knock was reduced with increasing quantities of methanol. The highest BMEP was achieved when the equivalence ratio of methanol was around 0.12 at 1000 RPM, and around 0.76 at 1800 RPM. EGR was also used to retarding the timing.
Journal Article

Summary and Progress of the Hydrogen ICE Truck Development Project

2009-06-15
2009-01-1922
A development project for a hydrogen internal combustion engine (ICE) system for trucks supporting Japanese freightage has been promoted as a candidate for use in future vehicles that meet ultra-low emission and anti-global warming targets. This project aims to develop a hydrogen ICE truck that can handle the same freight as existing trucks. The core development technologies for this project are a direct-injection (DI) hydrogen ICE system and a liquid hydrogen tank system which has a liquid hydrogen pump built-in. In the first phase of the project, efforts were made to develop the DI hydrogen ICE system. Over the past three years, the following results have been obtained: A high-pressure hydrogen gas direct injector developed for this project was applied to a single-cylinder hydrogen ICE and the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) corresponding to a power output of 147 kW in a 6-cylinder hydrogen ICE was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Development of DME Engine for Heavy-duty Truck

2006-04-03
2006-01-0052
In recent years, attention has focused on smokeless, sulfur-free dimethyl ethyl (DME) as a clean fuel for heavy-duty diesel vehicles [1]. In this development, the DME engine applied for 20-ton GVW truck was developed under the auspices of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Japan, the first known instance worldwide. With careful design of the fuel system considering DME's unique fuel characteristics and suitable combustion improvement, higher torque was obtained with DME, compared to diesel fueling. and also use of the proper EGR and catalyst, exhaust emissions levels were generally less than one-fourth of new long-term regulation value promulgated in 2005 Japan.
Technical Paper

Development of NOx Storage Reduction System for a Heavy-Duty Dimethyl Ether Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-1088
To establish NOx Storage Reduction(NSR) system, the effect of post fuel injection in exhaust pipe with rich spike on NOx conversion rate was investigated. With post fuel injection, a higher injection pressure and the rich spike close to the NSR catalyst (just before the NSR catalyst) shows better NOx reduction performance. Based on these results, exhaust emission was tested in transient driving mode (JE-05). In this driving mode test, it was possible to reduce NOx emission less than 0.5 g/kWh for only a 1% of fuel penalty controlling the rich spike injection precisely.
Technical Paper

The Performance of a Diesel Engine for Light Duty Truck Using a Jerk Type In-Line DME Injection System

2004-06-08
2004-01-1862
Over the last few years much interest has been shown in Dimethyl Ether (DME) as a new fuel for diesel cycle engines. DME combines the advantages of a high cetane number with soot-free combustion, making it eminently suitable for compression engines. According, however, to past engine test results, the engine output of a DME engine lacking compatibility as a DME injection system, is low in comparison with a diesel engine. Required is development of a DME injection system conforming to DME properties. The purpose of this work is to investigate the feasibility of DME application for a conventional jerk-type in-line injection system that has the actual result of use of a comparatively low lubricity fuel such as methanol.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure on Combustion of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine With Common Rail DME Injection Equipment

2004-06-08
2004-01-1864
Recently there has been much interest in Dimethyl Ether (DME) as a new fuel for diesel cycle engines. DME combines the advantages of a high cetane number with soot-free combustion, which makes it eminently suitable for compression engines. According to the latest engine test results, however, DME engine energy consumption was inferior to a diesel engine's under a heavy load. DME probably requires strong air-fuel mixing and short fuel injection. Some tests have reported that DME engine performance almost equals a diesel engine's by injecting high rail pressure DME into standard or slightly modified diesel common rail injection equipment. The effect, however, of higher injection pressure on the rates of heat release and spray distribution is unclear. In this study the rail pressure levels examined included 20, 25, 30, and 35 MPa. The results obtained from a single cylinder heavy-duty engine test show that the rate of heat release increases during the premixed combustion phase.
Technical Paper

Development of NOx Storage Reduction System for a Dimethyl Ether Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1832
In recent years, the dimethyl ether (DME) fuel has been attracting attention as an alternative engine in terms of diesel utilization. This is (a) because its cetane number is close to that of diesel fuel, (b) an innovative chemical process has been developed to produce DME efficiently from natural gas and coal, and (c) DME as a fuel has fewer environment-polluting characteristics than diesel fuel. Inasmuch as DME fuel have lower molecular weights, a molecular C-O bond, and are much more volatile or evaporative than diesel fuel, it is possible to control particulate matters much more easily when DME is used instead of diesel fuel. As for NOx, however, even when using DME, there still remain problems under stringent exhaust gas regulations. Developed and optimized accordingly has been the NOx storage-reduction (NSR) system, using the DME engine with a common-rail injection system. The NSR system is coated with an NOx storage catalyst principally comprised of Pt and Rh.
Technical Paper

Research and Development Program of the Next-generation Environmentally Friendly Vehicles(EFVs) in Japan

2004-03-08
2004-01-0644
The increase in number of automobiles due to its convenience brought serious increases in environmental load. The rate of attainment of environmental standards for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in urban areas is still low in Japan. Diesel vehicles emit the vast majority of air pollutants from exhaust. Therefore, developing emission measures, particularly for diesel vehicles, is an urgent task for addressing air pollution. Furthermore, at the Third Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 3) held in Kyoto in December 1997, Japan pledged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 6 percent below 1990 levels for the first commitment period of 2008 to 2012. To address vehicle emissions, Japan is gradually introducing increasingly strict NOx and particulate matter regulations.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Characteristics on Heat Release and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine Operated on DME

2001-09-24
2001-01-3634
In this study, an experimental investigation was conducted using a direct injection single-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a test common rail fuel injection system to clarify how dimethyl ether (DME) injection characteristics affect the heat release and exhaust emissions. For that purpose the common rail fuel injection system (injection pressure: 15 MPa) and injection nozzle (0.55 × 5-holes, 0.70 × 3-holes, same total holes area) have been used for the test. First, to characterize the effect of DME physical properties on the macroscopic spray behavior: injection quantity, injection rate, penetration, cone angle, volume were measured using high-pressure injection chamber (pressure: 4MPa). In order to clarify effects of the injection process on HC, CO, and NOx emissions, as well as the rate of heat release were investigated by single-cylinder engine test. The effects of the injection rate and swirl ratio on exhaust emissions and heat release were also investigated.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on DME Spray Characteristics and Evaporation Processes in a High Pressure Chamber

2001-09-24
2001-01-3635
In this study, the spray characteristics and evaporating processes of DME fuel were investigated using the SCHLIEREN optical system and single-hole injectors in a constant volume chamber at room temperature. The photographs taken at different chamber pressures, injection pressures, orifice diameters and injection quantities were compared and analyzed. The results show that DME spray has a slower penetrating speed, wider spray angle, and much quicker evaporating processes than the diesel spray.
Technical Paper

Combustion Improvement and Exhaust Emissions_Characteristics in a Direct Injection Natural Gas Engine by Throttling and Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2001-03-05
2001-01-0737
A natural gas direct injection test engine equipped with a newly developed natural gas injector was built. High total hydrocarbon (THC) emission at part-load and high NOx emission at high-load remain as problems for direct injection natural gas engines. THC reduction and combustion improvement by throttling and NOx reduction by EGR were investigated. The following results were obtained: (1) the combustion at light and medium load conditions is improved by throttling. It is possible to improve the thermal efficiency at light-load in spite of the pumping loss by throttling. THC emissions are greatly decreased in this condition; (2) a large NOx reduction can be obtained without combustion deterioration by appropriate EGR at high-load conditions; and (3) it is possible to decrease both THC and NOx emissions by both throttling and EGR at part-load conditions.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Rate of Multiple Fuel Injection with Diesel Fuel and DME

2001-03-05
2001-01-0527
The accuracy of the injection rate meter based on W. Zeuch's method in the measurement of multiple injection rate and amount was calibrated using a small cam driven piston that is driven by an electric motor. For the pre- or early-injection, a sensor with a high sensitivity can be applied to measure the small pressure increase due to the small injection amount. In case of the multiple injection that has the post and/or late injection, a pressure sensor with a low sensitivity must cover not only the large pressure increase due to the main injection but also the small pressure increase due to the post and/or late injection because the output of the high sensitivity sensor is saturated after the main injection. So the linearity of the low sensitivity pressure sensor was calibrated with the cam driven piston prior to the experiment with the actual injection system.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Operated on Dimethyl Ether Applying EGR with Supercharging

2000-06-19
2000-01-1809
This research investigates engine performance and the possibility of reducing exhaust emissions by using Dimethyl Ether (DME). There are high expectations for DME as a new alternative fuel for diesel engines for heavy-duty vehicles. In this experiment, a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with displacement of 1.05 liter and a compression ratio of 18:1 was used as a base engine. Common rail type DME fuel injection equipment for the single cylinder engine experiment was installed, and direct injection in the cylinder of DME was tried. Results indicated that high injection pressure, high swirl ratio, and supercharging using multi-hole injectors are effective for combustion promotion in the DME fueled diesel engine (DME engine). The output of the DME engine using supercharging with an intercooler and EGR was higher than that of a diesel engine. By increasing the EGR rate Nox emission was reduced to about 1/3 that of the diesel engine. Smoke was not completely emitted.
Technical Paper

NOx Reduction on Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines

1999-10-25
1999-01-3608
Direct injection natural gas engines need to produce in the mixing process between the fuel jet and the air in the cylinder a “stratified” fuel-air mixture, with an easily ignitable composition near the spark plug at the time of ignition. Stratified-charge engines have a tendency to produce high NOx emissions due to the high temperature of burning areas at the start of combustion since the fuel-air mixture is not uniform. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce NOx emissions from direct injection natural gas engines. The objective of this study is to investigate measures to reduce emissions, especially NOx emissions, from direct injection natural gas engines. A single cylinder test engine was equipped with a newly developed high-pressure electromagnetic injector and a spark plug.
Technical Paper

Combustion and NOx Emission Characteristics in a DI Methanol Engine Using Supercharging with EGR

1997-05-01
971647
In this study, we investigated the combustion technology for the direct injection (DI) methanol engine for a heavy-duty vehicle that makes use of the fuel characteristics of methanol and achieves smokeless burning with high efficiency and low NOx emissions under the heavy load condition. A 3.3-liter 4-cylinder spark-assisted DI methanol engine was tested to investigate the combustion and NOx emission characteristics under the full load condition with supercharging and/or EGR. We believe that supercharging suppressed the stratified charge combustion, but accelerated the premixed combustion to increase the indicated mean effective pressure. Moreover, supercharging was helpful in carrying out EGR under the full load condition without deteriorating the thermal efficiency. Furthermore, heavy EGR during supercharging reduced the NOx emissions dramatically while maintaining the high thermal efficiency and controlling the unburned hydrocarbons emissions.
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