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Technical Paper

Low-Temperature NH3 Storage, Isothermal Desorption, Reactive Consumption, and Thermal Release from Cu-SSZ-13 and V2O5-WO3/TiO2 Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalysts

2019-04-02
2019-01-0735
Worldwide, regulations continue to drive reductions in brake-specific emissions of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from on-highway and nonroad diesel engines. NOx, formed as a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels (e.g., natural gas, gasoline, diesel, etc.), can be converted to dinitrogen (N2) through ammonia (NH3) selective catalytic reduction (SCR). In this study, we closely examine the low-temperature storage, isothermal desorption, reactive consumption, and thermal release of NH3 on commercial Cu-SSZ-13 and V2O5-WO3/TiO2 SCR catalysts. Catalyst core-reactor, N2 adsorption (BET) surface area, and in-situ diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) experiments are utilized to investigate the fundamental chemical processes relevant to low-temperature (T < 250°C) NH3 SCR.
Technical Paper

NO2 Formation and Mitigation in an Advanced Diesel Aftertreatment System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0651
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is known to pose a risk to human health and contributes to the formation of ground level ozone. In recognition of its human health implications, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) set a Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 0.2 ppmv NO2 in 2012. For mobile sources, NO2 is regulated as a component of NOx (NO + NO2). In addition, the European Commission has indicated it is considering separate Euro 6 light-duty diesel and Euro VI heavy-duty diesel NO2 emissions limits likely to mitigate the formation of ground level ozone in urban areas. In this study, we conduct component-level reactor-based experiments to understand the effects that various aftertreatment catalyst technologies including diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalyst have on the formation and mitigation of NO2 emissions.
Technical Paper

Formation and Decomposition of Ammonium Nitrate on an Ammonia Oxidation Catalyst

2018-04-03
2018-01-0342
Achieving high NOx conversion at low-temperature (T ≤ 200 °C) is a topic of active research due to potential reductions in regulated NOx emissions from diesel engines. At these temperatures, ammonium nitrate may form as a result of interactions between NH3 and NO2. Ammonium nitrate formation can reduce the availability of NH3 for NOx conversion and block active catalyst sites. The thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate may result in the formation of N2O, a regulated Greenhouse Gas (GHG). In this study, we investigate the formation and thermal and chemical decomposition of ammonium nitrate on a state-of-the-art dual-layer ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalyst. Reactor-based constant-temperature ammonium nitrate formation, temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and NO titration experiments are used to characterize formation and decomposition.
Journal Article

The Dynamics of Methane and NOx Removal by a Three-Way Catalyst: A Transient Response Study

2018-04-03
2018-01-1270
Natural gas-powered engines are widely used due to their low fuel cost and in general their lower emissions than conventional diesel engines. In order to comply with emissions regulations, an aftertreatment system is utilized to treat exhaust from natural gas engines. Stoichiometric burn natural gas engines use three-way catalyst (TWC) technology to simultaneously remove NOx, CO, and hydrocarbon (HC). Removal of methane, one of the major HC emissions from natural gas engines, is difficult due to its high stability, posing a challenge for existing TWC technologies. In this work, degreened (DG), standard bench cycle (SBC)-aged TWC catalysts and a DG Pd-based oxidation catalyst (OC) were evaluated and compared under a variety of lean/rich gas cycling conditions, simulating stoichiometric natural gas engine emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lab Reactor System for the Evaluation of Aftertreatment Catalysts for Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0999
Natural gas powered vehicles are attractive in certain applications due to their lower emissions in general than conventional diesel engines and the low cost of natural gas. For stoichiometric natural gas engines, the aftertreatment system typically consists only of a three-way catalyst (TWC). However, increasingly stringent NOx and methane regulations challenge current TWC technologies. In this work, a catalyst reactor system with variable lean/rich switching capability was developed for evaluating TWCs for stoichiometric natural gas engines. The effect of varying frequency and duty-cycle during lean/rich gas switching experiments was measured with a hot-wire anemometer (HWA) due to its high sensitivity to gas thermal properties. A theoretical reactor gas dispersion model was then developed and validated with the HWA measurements. The model is capable of predicting the actual lean/rich gas exposure to the TWC under different testing conditions.
Journal Article

Impact of Hydrothermal Aging on the Formation and Decomposition of Ammonium Nitrate on a Cu/zeolite SCR Catalyst

2017-03-28
2017-01-0946
Low-temperature (T ≤ 200°C) NOx conversion is receiving increasing research attention due to continued potential reductions in regulated NOx emissions from diesel engines. At these temperatures, ammonium salts (e.g., ammonium nitrate, ammonium (bi)sulfate, etc.) can form as a result of interactions between NH3 and NOx or SOx, respectively. The formation of these salts can reduce the availability of NH3 for NOx conversion, block active catalyst sites, and result in the formation of N2O, a regulated Greenhouse Gas (GHG). In this study, we investigate the effect of hydrothermal aging on the formation and decomposition of ammonium nitrate on a state-of-the-art Cu/zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. Reactor-based constant-temperature ammonium nitrate formation, temperature programmed oxidation (TPO), and NO titration experiments are used to characterize the effect of hydrothermal aging from 600 to 950°C.
Technical Paper

Effect of Reductive Regeneration Conditions on Reactivity and Stability of a Pd-Based Oxidation Catalyst for Lean-Burn Natural Gas Applications

2016-04-05
2016-01-1005
Regulations on methane emissions from lean-burn natural gas (NG) and lean-burn dual fuel (natural gas and diesel) engines are becoming more stringent due to methane’s strong greenhouse effect. Palladium-based oxidation catalysts are typically used for methane reduction due to their relative high reactivity under lean conditions. However, the catalytic activity of these catalysts is inhibited by the water vapor in exhaust and decreases over time from exposure to trace amounts of sulfur. The reduction of deactivated catalysts in a net rich environment is known to be able to regenerate the catalyst. In this work, a multicycle methane light-off & extinction test protocol was first developed to probe the catalyst reactivity and stability under simulated exhaust conditions. Then, the effect of two different regeneration gas compositions, denoted as regen-A and regen-B, was evaluated on a degreened catalyst and a catalyst previously tested on a natural gas engine.
Journal Article

Conversion of Short-Chain Alkanes by Vanadium-Based and Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts

2016-04-05
2016-01-0913
The oxidation of short-chain alkanes, such as methane, ethane, and propane, from the exhaust of lean-burn natural gas and lean-burn dual-fuel (natural gas and diesel) engines poses a unique challenge to the exhaust aftertreatment community. Emissions of these species are currently regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as either methane (Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards) or non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC). However, the complete catalytic oxidation of short-chain alkanes is challenging due to their thermodynamic stability. The present study focuses on the oxidation of short-chain alkanes by vanadium-based and Cu/zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, generally utilized to control NOx emissions from lean-burn engines. Results reveal that these catalysts are active for short-chain alkane oxidation, albeit, at conversions lower than those generally reported in the literature for Pd-based catalysts, typically used for short-chain alkane conversion.
Journal Article

Desulfation of Pd-based Oxidation Catalysts for Lean-burn Natural Gas and Dual-fuel Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-0991
Lean-burn natural gas (NG) engines are used world-wide for both stationary power generation and mobile applications ranging from passenger cars to Class 8 line-haul trucks. With the recent introduction of hydraulic fracturing gas extraction technology and increasing availability of natural gas, these engines are receiving more attention. However, the reduction of unburned hydrocarbon emissions from lean-burn NG and dual-fuel (diesel and natural gas) engines is particularly challenging due to the stability of the predominant short-chain alkane species released (e.g., methane, ethane, and propane). Supported Pd-based oxidation catalysts are generally considered the most active materials for the complete oxidation of low molecular weight alkanes at temperatures typical of lean-burn NG exhaust. However, these catalysts rapidly degrade under realistic exhaust conditions with high water vapor concentrations and traces of sulfur.
Journal Article

Impact of Hydrocarbons on the Dual (Oxidation and SCR) Functions of Ammonia Oxidation Catalysts

2014-04-01
2014-01-1536
Ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts are critical parts of most diesel aftertreatment systems around the world. These catalysts are positioned downstream of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts and remove unreacted NH3 that passes through the SCR catalyst. In many configurations, the AMOX catalyst is situated after a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed diesel particulate filter that oxidize CO and hydrocarbons. However, in Euro V and proposed Tier 4 final aftertreatment architectures there is no upstream oxidation catalyst. In this study, the impact of hydrocarbons is evaluated on two different types of AMOX catalysts. One has dual washcoat layers-SCR washcoat on top of PGM washcoat-and the other has only a PGM washcoat layer. Results are presented for NH3 and hydrocarbon oxidation, NOx and N2O selectivity, and hydrocarbon storage. The AMOX findings are rationalized in terms of their impact on the individual oxidation and SCR functions.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrothermal Aging on the Catalytic Performance and Morphology of a Vanadia SCR Catalyst

2013-04-08
2013-01-1079
Titania supported vanadia catalysts have been widely used for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems. Vanadia SCR (V-SCR) catalysts are preferred for many applications because they have demonstrated advantages of catalytic activity for NOx removal and tolerance to sulfur poisoning. The primary shortcoming of V-SCR catalysts is their thermal durability. Degradation in NOx conversion is also related to aging conditions such as at high temperatures. In this study, the impact that short duration hydrothermal aging has on a state-of-the-art V-SCR catalyst was investigated by aging for 2 hr intervals with progressively increased temperatures from 525 to 700°C. The catalytic performance of this V-SCR catalyst upon aging was evaluated by three different reactions of NH₃ SCR, NH₃ oxidation, and NO oxidation under simulated diesel exhaust conditions from 170 to 500°C.
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