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Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Optimal Rooftop Punch Shape for Force Reduction and Dimensional Accuracy Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-1091
The rooftop punch is proposed to reduce the maximum cutting force during the trimming operation for advanced high strength steels (AHSS), by introducing a shearing angle at the tool edge. However, such non-simultaneous shearing mechanism results in the inconsistent deformation around the hole perimeter, and consequently affects the dimensional accuracy of the trimmed hole. A numerical study was conducted to investigate the effects of punch tipping angle and tipping heights on the force reduction and dimensional discrepancies. The 60mm hole punching operation for DP 1180 (1.2mm) material was simulated with finite element analysis. The tipping height was reduced by introducing flat portions to the rooftop punch and it can mitigate the material deformation difference before trimming. The results showed tipping height played a significant role of dimensional accuracy control by adopting small tipping angle and broad flat portions.
Technical Paper

Tooling Effects on Edge Stretchability of AHSS in Mechanical Punching

2019-04-02
2019-01-1086
Edge stretchability reduction induced by mechanical trimming is a critical issue in advanced high strength steel applications. In this study, the tooling effects on the trimmed edge damage were evaluated by the specially designed in-plane hole expansion test with the consideration of three punch geometries (flat, conical, and rooftop), three cutting clearances (6%, 14%, and 20%) and two materials grades (DP980 and DP1180). Two distinct fracture initiation modes were identified with different testing configurations, and the occurrence of each fracture mode depends on the tooling configurations and materials grades. Digital Image Correlations (DIC) measurements indicate the materials are subject to different deformation modes and the various stress conditions, which result in different fracture initiation locations.
Technical Paper

Effects of Punch Shapes and Cutting Configurations on the Dimensional Accuracy of Punched Holes on an AHSS Sheet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0800
Dimensional accuracy of punched hole is an essential consideration for high-quality sheet metal forming. An out-of-shape hole can give rise to manufacturing issues in the subsequent production processes thus inducing quality defects on a vehicle body. To understand the effects of punch shapes and cutting configurations on punched hole diameter deviations, a systematical experimental study was conducted for multiple types of AHSS (DP1180, DP980, DP590) and one mild steel. Flat, conical and rooftop punches were tested respectively with three cutting clearances on each material. The measurement results indicated different diameter enlargement modes based on the punch profiles, and dimensional discrepancies were found to be more significant with the stronger materials and higher cutting clearance. To uncover the mechanism of punched hole enlargement, a series of finite element simulations were established for numerical investigation.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Model for Spring-Back Prediction in U-Channel Forming with Advanced High Strength Steel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0805
Spring-back phenomena are critical in stamping procedures for advanced high strength steel. An analytical model is developed to predict the spring-back effect for a U-channel part with post-stretching process. The stress distribution is obtained by direct application of material constitutive relationship. The subjected loading conditions are sequentially bending, (un-bending), and uniform stretching, based on different zones in the part. Both the loading history and the friction effects are considered in the model. The bending moments are obtained to generate a theoretical spring-back shape. Great performance in spring-back control is achieved by applying certain high level of external forces. FE simulation is conducted for the identical stamping process with post-stretching. Good correlation is observed between the analytical and numerical solutions/experimental results under various scenarios.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Twist Spring-back Control with an Unbalanced Post-stretching Approach for Advanced High Strength Steel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0806
Twist spring-back would interfere with stamping or assembling procedures for advanced high strength steel. A “homeopathic” resolution for controlling the twist spring-back is proposed using unbalanced post-stretching configuration. Finite element forming simulation is applied to evaluate and compare the performance for each set of unbalanced post-stretching setup. The post-stretching is effectuated by stake bead application. The beads are separated into multiple independent segments, the height and radii of which can be adjusted individually and asymmetrically. Simulation results indicate that the twist spring-back can be effectively controlled by reducing the post-stretching proximate to the asymmetric part area. Its mechanism is qualitatively revealed by stress analyses, that an additional but acceptable cross-sectional spring-back re-balances the sprung asymmetrical geometry to counter the twist effect.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study of Hole Punching Force for AHSS

2018-04-03
2018-01-0802
The elevated strength of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) leads to enormous challenges for the sheet metal processing, one of which is hole punching operation. The total tonnage must be estimated at each trimming stage to ensure successful cutting and protect the press machine. This paper presents the effects of hole punch configurations on the punching force with the consideration of punch shape, cutting clearance and material grade. The hole punching experiments were performed with DP590, DP980, DP1180 and one mild steel as a reference. The punching force coefficient is defined and presents a negative correlation with the material strength based on the experimental data. Surface quality was examined to analyze the damage accumulation during the punching process. The cutting mechanisms with various punch shapes were revealed through an extensive finite element simulation study.
Journal Article

A Comprehensive Plasticity and Fracture Model for Metal Sheets under Multi-axial Stress and Non-Linear Strain Path

2017-03-28
2017-01-0315
A comprehensive plasticity and fracture model was built for metal sheets with application to metal sheet forming and vehicle crash simulations. The combined Bai-Wierzbicki (BW [1]) and CPB06ex2 [2] (or Yld2000-2D [3]) anisotropic plasticity model was further extended to consider elevated temperature effects in additional to the effect of multiaxial stress states. A fully modularized framework was established to combine isotropic, kinematic, and cross hardening behaviors under non-linear loading conditions. The all strain based modified Mohr-Coulomb (eMMC) fracture model was used to consider material anisotropy and nonlinear strain path. The model has been implemented into Abaqus/Explicit as a user material subroutine (VUMAT). Test results on advanced high strength steels, aluminum alloy sheets and magnesium alloy sheets are used to validate the modeling and testing methodologies. Very good correlation was observed between experimental and simulation results.
Journal Article

A New Combined Isotropic, Kinematic and Cross Hardening Model for Advanced High Strength Steel under Non-Linear Strain Loading Path

2017-03-28
2017-01-0367
A fully modularized framework was established to combine isotropic, kinematic, and cross hardening behaviors under non-monotonic loading conditions for advanced high strength steels. Experiments under the following types of non-proportional loading conditions were conducted, 1) uniaxial tension-compression-tension/compression-tension-compression full cycle reversal loading, 2) uniaxial reversal loading with multiple cycles, and 3) reversal shear. The calibrated new model is decoupled between isotropic and kinematic hardening behaviors, and independent on both anisotropic yield criterion and fracture model. Nine materials were calibrated using the model, include: DP590, DP600, DP780, TRIP780, DP980LY, QP980, AK Steel DP980, TBF1180, and AK Steel DP1180. Good correlation was observed between experimental and modeled results.
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