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Technical Paper

Degradation of DeNOx Performance of a Urea-SCR System in In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles Complying with the New Long-Term Regulation in Japan and Estimation of its Mechanism

Degradation of the deNOx performance has been found in in-use heavy-duty vehicles with a urea-SCR system in Japan. The causes of the degradation were studied, and two major reasons are suggested here: HC poisoning and deactivation of pre-oxidation catalysts. Hydrocarbons that accumulated on the catalysts inhibited the catalysis. Although they were easily removed by a simple heat treatment, the treatment could only partially recover the original catalytic performance for the deNOx reaction. The unrecovered catalytic activity was found to result from the decrease in conversion of NO to NO2 on the pre-oxidation catalyst. The pre-oxidation catalyst was thus studied in detail by various techniques to reveal the causes of the degradation: Exhaust emission tests for in-use vehicles, effect of heat treatment on the urea-SCR systems, structural changes and chemical changes in active components during the deactivation were systematically investigated.
Technical Paper

BSFC Improvement and NOx Reduction by Sequential Turbo System in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Reduction of exhaust emissions and BSFC has been studied using a high boost, a wide range and high-rate EGR in a Super Clean Diesel, six-cylinder heavy duty engine. In the previous single-turbocharging system, the turbocharger was selected to yield maximum torque and power. The selected turbocharger was designed for high boosting, with maximum pressure of about twice that of the current one, using a titanium compressor. However, an important issue arose in this system: avoidance of high boosting at low engine speed. A sequential and series turbo system was proposed to improve the torque at low engine speeds. This turbo system has two turbochargers of different sizes with variable geometry turbines. At low engine speed, the small turbocharger performs most of the work. At medium engine speed, the small turbocharger and large turbocharger mainly work in series.
Technical Paper

Effective BSFC and NOx Reduction on Super Clean Diesel of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine by High Boosting and High EGR Rate

Reduction of exhaust emissions and BSFC was studied for high pressure, wide range, and high EGR rates in a Super-clean Diesel six-cylinder heavy duty engine. The GVW 25-ton vehicle has 10.52 L engine displacement, with maximum power of 300 kW and maximum torque of 1842 Nm. The engine is equipped with high-pressure fuel injection of a 200 MPa level common-rail system. A variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) was newly designed. The maximum pressure ratio of the compressor is about twice that of the previous design: 2.5. Additionally, wide range and a high EGR rate are achieved by high pressure-loop EGR (HP-EGR) and low pressure-loop EGR (LP-EGR) with described VGT and high-pressure fuel injection. The HP-EGR can reduce NOx concentrations in the exhaust pipe, but the high EGR rate worsens smoke. The HP-EGR system layout has an important shortcoming: it has great differences of the intake EGR gas amount into each cylinder, worsens smoke.
Technical Paper

Reduction of NOx and PM for a Heavy Duty Diesel Using 50% EGR Rate in Single Cylinder Engine

For reducing NOx emissions, EGR is effective, but an excessive EGR rate causes the deterioration of smoke emission. Here, we have defined the EGR rate before the smoke emission deterioration while the EGR rate is increasing as the limiting EGR rate. In this study, the high rate of EGR is demonstrated to reduce BSNOx. The adapted methods are a high fuel injection pressure such as 200 MPa, a high boost pressure as 451.3 kPa at 2 MPa BMEP, and the air intake port that maintains a high air flow rate so as to achieve low exhaust emissions. Furthermore, for withstanding 2 MPa BMEP of engine load and high boosting, a ductile cast iron (FCD) piston was used. As the final effect, the installations of the new air intake port increased the limiting EGR rate by 5%, and fuel injection pressure of 200 MPa raised the limiting EGR rate by an additional 5%. By the demonstration of increasing boost pressure to 450 kPa from 400 kPa, the limiting EGR rate was achieved to 50%.
Technical Paper

Real-time Analysis of Benzene in Exhaust Gas from Driving Automobiles Using Jet-REMPI Method

Real-time analysis of benzene in automobile exhaust gas was performed using the Jet-REMPI (supersonic jet / resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization) method. Real-time benzene concentration of two diesel trucks and one gasoline vehicle driving in Japanese driving modes were observed under ppm level at 1 s intervals. As a result, it became obvious that there were many differences in their emission tendencies, because of their car types, driving conditions, and catalyst conditions. In two diesel vehicle, benzene emission tendencies were opposite. And, in a gasoline vehicle, emission pattern were different between hot and cold conditions due to the catalyst conditions.
Technical Paper

Effective NOx Reduction in High Boost, Wide Range and High EGR Rate in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

The emission reduction from diesel engines is one of major issues in heavy duty diesel engines. Super Clean Diesel (SCD) Engine for heavy-duty trucks has also been researched and developed since 2002. The main specifications of the SCD Engine are six cylinders in-line and 10.5 l with a turbo-intercooled and cooled EGR system. The common rail system, of which the maximum injection pressure is 200 MPa, is adopted. The turbocharger is capable of increasing boost pressure up to 501.3 kPa. The EGR system consists of both a high-pressure loop (HP) EGR system and a low-pressure loop (LP) EGR system. The combination of these EGR systems reduces NOx and PM emissions effectively in both steady-state and transient conditions. The emissions of the SCD Engine reach NOx=0.2 g/kWh and PM=0.01 g/kWh with aftertreatment system. The adopted aftertreatment system includes a Lean NOx Trap (LNT) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF).
Technical Paper

Diesel Emissions Improvement by RME in a High Boost and EGR Single Cylinder Engine

The biomass fuel is expected to solve the global warming due to a carbon neutral. A rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) as biomass fuel was selected, and also a low sulfur diesel fuel is tested as reference fuel in this study. The experiments were carried out to improve diesel emissions and engine performance using high boost and high rate EGR system and a common rail injection system in a single cylinder engine. The diesel emissions and engine performance have been measured under the experimental conditions such as charging boost pressure from atmospheric pressure to 401.3kPa maximum and changing EGR rate from 0% to 40% maximum. RME contain about 10 mass % oxygen in the fuel molecule. Furthermore, RME does not contain aromatic hydrocarbons in the fuel. Due to these chemical properties, RME can be used at 40% high EGR condition.
Technical Paper

Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Exhaust Emissions from Diesel Engines Fuelled with Biodiesel

Application of biodiesel fuel (BDF) to diesel engine is very effective to reduce CO2 emission, because bio-diesel is carbon neutral in principle. However, when biodiesel was applied to conventional diesel engines without modification for biodiesel, NOx emission was increased by the change in fuel characteristics. It is necessary to introduce some strategies into diesel engines fuelled with biodiesel for lower NOx emission than conventional diesel fuel case. The purpose of this study is to reveal that exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the solutions for the reduction of NOx emission and meeting the future emission regulations when using biodiesel. Neat Rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) as a biodiesel (B100) was applied to diesel engines equipped with high pressure loop (HPL) EGR system and low pressure loop (LPL) EGR system. Cooled HPL EGR was increased during steady-state operations and JE05 transient mode tests.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Engine System for Application of Biodiesel Fuel

Application of biodiesel fuel (BDF) to diesel engine is very effective to reduce CO2 emission, because biodiesel is carbon neutral in principle. However, biodiesels yield an increase in NOx emission from conventional diesel engine, compared with diesel fuel case. Therefore, some strategies are needed for meeting the future emission regulations when using biodiesel. In this study, rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) was applied to diesel engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system and NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst. NOx reduction rate of NSR catalyst was drastically decreased by using RME, even if injection quantity of RME for rich spike was enhanced. However, an increase in EGR rate could reduce NOx emission without the deterioration in smoke and PM emissions.
Technical Paper

SOF Component of Lubricant Oil on Diesel PM in a High Boosted and Cooled EGR Engine

The engine in the research is a single cylinder DI diesel using the emission reduction techniques such as high boost, high injection pressure and broad range and high quantity of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The study especially focuses on the reduction of particulate matter (PM) under the engine operating conditions. In the experiment the authors measured engine performance, exhaust gases and mass of PM by low sulfur fuel such as 3 ppm and low sulfur lubricant oil such as 0.26%. Then the PM components were divided into soluble organic fraction (SOF) and insoluble organic fraction (ISOF) and they were measured at each engine condition. The mass of SOF was measured from the fuel fraction and lubricant oil fraction by gas chromatography. Also each mass of soot fraction and sulfate fraction was measured as components of ISOF. The experiment was conducted at BMEP = 2.0 MPa as full load condition of the engine and changing EGR rate from 0% to 40 %.
Technical Paper

Advanced Diesel Combustion Using of Wide Range, High Boosted and Cooled EGR System by Single Cylinder Engine

For reducing exhaust emissions of heavy-duty diesel engines, the authors made an experimental study of diesel combustion using a single cylinder engine. The engine performance and exhaust emissions have been measured using a wide range and high EGR rate under the conditions of high boost intake pressure. The engine test cell has been equipped the external supercharger that is able to raise the boost pressure to 500 kPa, and also equipped the EGR system to increase the EGR rate until 50% under the 500 kPa boost condition. In various test conditions of load and engine speeds the authors have obtained the results, that is, NOx has been reduced drastically without increasing Particulate Matter (PM).
Technical Paper

Development of a Real-time NH3 Gas Analyzer Utilizing Chemi-luminescence Detection for Vehicle Emission Measurement

Recently, after-treatment techniques for diesel engine emission have made remarkable progress with the development of suitable De-NOx catalysts. The urea-injection SCR system is one of the candidates for a high efficiency De-NOx method for diesel engine emissions. This system reduces NOx through a reaction with ammonia (NH3) that is generated from injected urea. In this system, it is very important to control the amount and timing of the urea injection so as to minimize the NH3 gas slip. Therefore, NH3 gas measurement is becoming important during the development of NOx after-treatment systems even though NH3 is not a target component of the current emission regulations. In this paper, a new NH3 gas analyzer utilizing a chemi-luminescence detection (CLD) method has been developed. The new NH3 analyzer consists of dual detectors (DCLDs) and a furnace for a NH3 oxidization catalyst. Real-time concentration of NH3 can be calculated from the difference of NOx readings of two detectors.
Technical Paper

Comparative Measurement of Nano-Particulates in Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas by Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS)

Particulate Matter (PM) from diesel engines is thought to be seriously hazardous for human health. Generally, it is said that the hazard depends on the total number and surface area of particles rather than total mass of PM. In the conventional gravimetric method, only the total mass of PM is measured. Therefore, it is very important to measure not only the mass of PM but also size and number density of particulates. Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) is a useful diagnostic for transient measurement of soot particulate volume fraction and primary particle size. On the other hand, Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) is also used to measure the size distribution of soot aggregate particulates at a steady state condition. However, the measurement processes and the phenomena used to acquire the information on soot particulate are quite different between the LII and SMPS methods. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the detailed characteristics of both LII and SMPS.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emission Behavior of Mixed Fuels having Different Component Cetane Number and Boiling Point

To clarify the effect of fuel properties on diesel exhaust emissions, direct injection of two component fuels with approximately zero aromatic content and sulfur were attempted in a diesel engine. Fuels were prepared using paraffins having different cetane numbers and boiling points. Parameters considered are the Average Boiling Point (ABP) by volume and the difference of component characteristics for the same ABP. The results indicate that the trade off relation between NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions depends significantly on ABP or density and is independent of the fuel component. On the other hand, components of the mixed fuels have significant influence on SOF and THC emissions. Fuels having higher amount of low boiling point components emit higher THC. Mixtures of low boiling point-high cetane number fuel and high boiling point-low cetane number fuel or fuel that contains normal paraffins only emit higher SOF.
Technical Paper

N2O Emissions from Vehicles Equipped with Three-Way Catalysts in a Cold Climate

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a strong green house effect gas and three-way catalyst is one of the major sources. N2O is mostly emitted at temperatures during the process of light off in the catalyst and the frequency of this temperature range over total temperature range distribution affects strongly on N2O emission. The effect of cold ambient on N2O emission was analyzed based on N2O-catalyst temperature characteristics and catalyst temperature data gained by road driving test at north part of Japan in winter. As results, N2O emission may drastically increase in colder cities and winter city traffic conditions.
Technical Paper

Combustion Improvement and Exhaust Emissions_Characteristics in a Direct Injection Natural Gas Engine by Throttling and Exhaust Gas Recirculation

A natural gas direct injection test engine equipped with a newly developed natural gas injector was built. High total hydrocarbon (THC) emission at part-load and high NOx emission at high-load remain as problems for direct injection natural gas engines. THC reduction and combustion improvement by throttling and NOx reduction by EGR were investigated. The following results were obtained: (1) the combustion at light and medium load conditions is improved by throttling. It is possible to improve the thermal efficiency at light-load in spite of the pumping loss by throttling. THC emissions are greatly decreased in this condition; (2) a large NOx reduction can be obtained without combustion deterioration by appropriate EGR at high-load conditions; and (3) it is possible to decrease both THC and NOx emissions by both throttling and EGR at part-load conditions.