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Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Low Cost, Low Thermal Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coating on HCCI Combustion, Efficiency, and Emissions

2020-04-14
2020-01-1140
In-cylinder surface temperature is of heightened importance for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion, as the combustion mechanism is thermo-kinetically driven. Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) selectively manipulate the in-cylinder surface temperature, providing an avenue for improving thermal and combustion efficiency. This thermal phenomenon sidesteps charge preheating during gas exchange, while a surface temperature swing during combustion/expansion reduces heat transfer losses, leading to more complete combustion and reduced emissions. The magnitude and profile of the dynamic surface temperature swing was found to be affected by the material properties and TBC thickness. This study is the continuation of the author’s work to systematically engineer coatings that are best suited for HCCI. A parametric study was used to assess the impacts of various TBC material properties (density, specific heat, thermal conductivity) on the temperature swing effect.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Thermal Barrier Coatings on HCCI Engine Combustion Using CFD Simulations with Conjugate Heat Transfer

2019-04-02
2019-01-0956
Thermal barrier coatings with low conductivity and low heat capacity have been shown to improve the performance of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. These coatings improve the combustion process by reducing heat transfer during the hot portion of the engine cycle without the penalty thicker coatings typically have on volumetric efficiency. Computational fluid dynamic simulations with conjugate heat transfer between the in-cylinder fluid and solid piston of a single cylinder HCCI engine with exhaust valve rebreathing are carried out to further understand the impacts of these coatings on the combustion process. For the HCCI engine studied with exhaust valve rebreathing, it is shown that simulations needed to be run for multiple engine cycles for the results to converge given how sensitive the rebreathing process is to the residual gas state.
Journal Article

Transient Power Optimization of an Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-0133
This paper presents the transient power optimization of an organic Rankine cycle waste heat recovery (ORC-WHR) system operating on a heavy-duty diesel (HDD). The optimization process is carried on an experimentally validated, physics-based, high fidelity ORC-WHR model, which consists of parallel tail pipe and EGR evaporators, a high pressure working fluid pump, a turbine expander, etc. Three different ORC-WHR mixed vapor temperature (MVT) operational strategies are evaluated to optimize the ORC system net power: (i) constant MVT; (ii) constant superheat temperature; (iii) fuzzy logic superheat temperature based on waste power level. Transient engine conditions are considered in the optimization. Optimization results reveal that adaptation of the vapor temperature setpoint based on evaporation pressure strategy (ii) provides 1.1% mean net power (MNP) improvement relative to a fixed setpoint strategy (i).
Technical Paper

Influence of Directly Injected Gasoline and Porosity Fraction on the Thermal Properties of HCCI Combustion Chamber Deposits

2015-09-06
2015-24-2449
The limited operational range of low temperature combustion engines is influenced by near-wall conditions. A major factor is the accumulation and burn-off of combustion chamber deposits. Previous studies have begun to characterize in-situ combustion chamber deposit thermal properties with the end goal of understanding, and subsequently replicating the beneficial effects of CCD on HCCI combustion. Combustion chamber deposit thermal diffusivity was found to differ depending on location within the chamber, with significant initial spatial variations, but a certain level of convergence as equilibrium CCD thickness is reached. A previous study speculatively attributed these spatially dependent CCD diffusivity differences to either local differences in morphology, or interactions with the fuel-air charge in the DI engine. In this work, the influence of directly injected gasoline on CCD thermal diffusivity is measured using the in-situ technique based on fast thermocouple signals.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Knock Determination Techniques for Diesel-Natural Gas Dual Fuel Engines

2014-10-13
2014-01-2695
The recent advent of highly effective drilling and extraction technologies has decreased the price of natural gas and renewed interest in its use for transportation. Of particular interest is the conversion of dedicated diesel engines to operate on dual-fuel with natural gas injected into the intake manifold. Dual-fuel systems with natural gas injected into the intake manifold replace a significant portion of diesel fuel energy with natural gas (generally 50% or more by energy content), and produce lower operating costs than diesel-only operation. Diesel-natural gas engines have a high compression ratio and a homogeneous mixture of natural gas and air in the cylinder end gases. These conditions are very favorable for knock at high loads. In the present study, knock prediction concepts that utilize a single step Arrhenius function for diesel-natural gas dual-fuel engines are evaluated.
Technical Paper

Refinement and Validation of the Thermal Stratification Analysis: A post-processing methodology for determining temperature distributions in an experimental HCCI engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1276
Refinements were made to a post-processing technique, termed the Thermal Stratification Analysis (TSA), that couples the mass fraction burned data to ignition timing predictions from the autoignition integral to calculate an apparent temperature distribution from an experimental HCCI data point. Specifically, the analysis is expanded to include all of the mass in the cylinder by fitting the unburned mass with an exponential function, characteristic of the wall-affected region. The analysis-derived temperature distributions are then validated in two ways. First, the output data from CFD simulations are processed with the Thermal Stratification Analysis and the calculated temperature distributions are compared to the known CFD distributions.
Technical Paper

Deaeration Device Study for a Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle

2012-09-24
2012-01-2038
This paper investigates the development of a deaeration device to remove nitrogen from the hydraulic fluid in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). HHVs, which use accumulators to store and recycle energy, can significantly reduce vehicle emissions in urban delivery vehicles. In accumulators, nitrogen behind a piston cylinder or inside a bladder pressurizes an incompressible fluid. The permeation of the nitrogen through the rubber bladder into the hydraulic fluid limits the efficiency and reliability of the HHV system, since the pressure drop in the hydraulic fluid can in turn cause cavitation on pump components and excessive noise in the system. The nitrogen bubbles within the hydraulic fluid may be removed through the employment of commercial bubble eliminators if the bubbles are larger than a certain threshold. However, gas is also dissolved within the hydraulic fluid; therefore, novel design is necessary for effective deaeration in the fluid HHV circuit.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Hybrid Powertrain-In-the-Loop Integration for Analyzing Real-World Fuel Economy and Emissions Improvements

2011-09-13
2011-01-2275
The paper describes the approach, addresses integration challenges and discusses capabilities of the Hybrid Powertrain-in-the-Loop (H-PIL) facility for the series/hydrostatic hydraulic hybrid system. We describe the simulation of the open-loop and closed-loop hydraulic hybrid systems in H-PIL and its use for concurrent engineering and development of advanced supervisory strategies. The configuration of the hydraulic-hybrid system and details of the hydraulic circuit developed for the H-PIL integration are presented. Next, software and hardware interfaces between the real components and virtual systems are developed, and special attention is given to linking component-level controllers and system-level supervisory control. The H-PIL setup allows imposing realistic dynamic loads on hydraulic pump/motors and accumulator based on vehicle driving schedule.
Journal Article

Impact of Model-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Control Strategy on Battery Sizing and Fuel Economy in Heavy-Duty HEVs

2011-09-13
2011-01-2253
Electrification and hybridization show great potential for improving fuel economy and reducing emission in heavy-duty vehicles. However, high battery cost is unavoidable due to the requirement for large batteries capable of providing high electric power for propulsion. The battery size and cost can be reduced with advanced battery control strategies ensuring safe and robust operation covering infrequent extreme conditions. In this paper, the impact of such a battery control strategy on battery sizing and fuel economy is investigated under various military and heavy-duty driving cycles. The control strategy uses estimated Li-ion concentration information in the electrodes to prevent battery over-charging and over-discharging under aggressive driving conditions. Excessive battery operation is moderated by adjusting allowable battery power limits through the feedback of electrode-averaged Li-ion concentration estimated by an extended Kalman filter (EKF).
Journal Article

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain and Control Strategy Optimization to Maximize the Synergy with a Gasoline HCCI Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0888
This simulation study explores the potential synergy between the HCCI engine system and three hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configurations, and proposes the supervisory control strategy that maximizes the benefits of combining these two technologies. HCCI operation significantly improves fuel efficiency at part load, while hybridization aims to reduce low load/low speed operation. Therefore, a key question arises: are the effects of these two technologies additive or overlapping? The HEV configurations include two parallel hybrids with varying degrees of electrification, e.g. with a 5kW integrated starter/motor (“Mild”) and with a 10 kW electric machine (“Medium”), and a power-split hybrid. The engine is a dual-mode, SI-HCCI system and the engine map reflects the impact of HCCI on brake specific fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Turbulence Intensity Calculation from Cylinder Pressure Data in a High Degree of Freedom Spark-Ignition Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0175
The number of control actuators available on spark-ignition engines is rapidly increasing to meet demand for improved fuel economy and reduced exhaust emissions. The added complexity greatly complicates control strategy development because there can be a wide range of potential actuator settings at each engine operating condition, and map-based actuator calibration becomes challenging as the number of control degrees of freedom expand significantly. Many engine actuators, such as variable valve actuation and flow control valves, directly influence in-cylinder combustion through changes in gas exchange, mixture preparation, and charge motion. The addition of these types of actuators makes it difficult to predict the influences of individual actuator positioning on in-cylinder combustion without substantial experimental complexity.
Journal Article

Simulation-based Assessment of Various Dual-Stage Boosting Systems in Terms of Performance and Fuel Economy Improvements

2009-04-20
2009-01-1471
Diesel engines have been used in large vehicles, locomotives and ships as more efficient alternatives to the gasoline engines. They have also been used in small passenger vehicle applications, but have not been as popular as in other applications until recently. The two main factors that kept them from becoming the major contender in the small passenger vehicle applications were the low power outputs and the noise levels. A combination of improved mechanical technologies such as multiple injection, higher injection pressure, and advanced electronic control has mostly mitigated the problems associated with the noise level and changed the public notion of the Diesel engine technology in the latest generation of common-rail designs. The power output of the Diesel engines has also been improved substantially through the use of variable geometry turbines combined with the advanced fuel injection technology.
Technical Paper

Thermal Characterization of Combustion Chamber Deposits on the HCCI Engine Piston and Cylinder Head Using Instantaneous Temperature Measurements

2009-04-20
2009-01-0668
Extending the operating range of the gasoline HCCI engine is essential for achieving desired fuel economy improvements at the vehicle level, and it requires deep understanding of the thermal conditions in the cylinder. Combustion chamber deposits (CCD) have been previously shown to have direct impact on near-wall phenomena and burn rates in the HCCI engine. Hence, the objectives of this work are to characterize thermal properties of deposits in a gasoline HCCI engine and provide foundation for understanding the nature of their impact on autoignition and combustion. The investigation was performed using a single-cylinder engine with re-induction of exhaust instrumented with fast-response thermocouples on the piston top and the cylinder head surface. The measured instantaneous temperature profiles changed as the deposits grew on top of the hot-junctions.
Technical Paper

Control of a Multi-Cylinder HCCI Engine During Transient Operation by Modulating Residual Gas Fraction to Compensate for Wall Temperature Effects

2007-04-16
2007-01-0204
The thermal conditions of an engine structure, in particular the wall temperatures, have been shown to have a great effect on the HCCI engine combustion timing and burn rates through wall heat transfer, especially during transient operations. This study addresses the effects of thermal inertia on combustion in an HCCI engine. In this study, the control of combustion timing in an HCCI engine is achieved by modulating the residual gas fraction (RGF) while considering the wall temperatures. A multi-cylinder engine simulation with detailed geometry is carried out using a 1-D system model (GT-Power®) that is linked with Simulink®. The model includes a finite element wall temperature solver and is enhanced with original HCCI combustion and heat transfer models. Initially, the required residual gas fraction for optimal BSFC is determined for steady-state operation. The model is then used to derive a map of the sensitivity of optimal residual gas fraction to wall temperature excursions.
Technical Paper

Characterizing the Effect of Combustion Chamber Deposits on a Gasoline HCCI Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3277
Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines offer a good potential for achieving high fuel efficiency while virtually eliminating NOx and soot emissions from the exhaust. However, realizing the full fuel economy potential at the vehicle level depends on the size of the HCCI operating range. The usable HCCI range is determined by the knock limit on the upper end and the misfire limit at the lower end. Previously proven high sensitivity of the HCCI process to thermal conditions leads to a hypothesis that combustion chamber deposits (CCD) could directly affect HCCI combustion, and that insight about this effect can be helpful in expanding the low-load limit. A combustion chamber conditioning process was carried out in a single-cylinder gasoline-fueled engine with exhaust re-breathing to study CCD formation rates and their effect on combustion. Burn rates accelerated significantly over the forty hours of running under typical HCCI operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Simulation of an Integrated Starter Alternator (ISA) System for the HMMWV

2006-04-03
2006-01-0442
The development and use of a simulation of an Integrated Starter Alternator (ISA) for a High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) is presented here. While the primary purpose of an ISA is to provide electric power for additional accessories, it can also be utilized for mild hybridization of the powertrain. In order to explore ISA's potential for improving HMMWV's fuel economy, an ISA model capable of both producing and absorbing mechanical power has been developed in Simulink. Based on the driver's power request and the State of Charge of the battery (SOC), the power management algorithm determines whether the ISA should contribute power to, or absorb power from the crankshaft. The system is also capable of capturing some of the braking energy and using it to charge the battery. The ISA model and the power management algorithm have been integrated in the Vehicle-Engine SIMulation (VESIM), a SIMULINK-based vehicle model previously developed at the University of Michigan.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Load and Speed Transitions in an HCCI Engine Using 1-D Cycle Simulation and Thermal Networks

2006-04-03
2006-01-1087
Exhaust gas rebreathing is considered to be a practical enabler that could be used in HCCI production engines. Recent experimental work at the University of Michigan demonstrates that the combustion characteristics of an HCCI engine using large amounts of hot residual gas by rebreathing are very sensitive to engine thermal conditions. This computational study addresses HCCI engine operation with rebreathing, with emphasis on the effects of engine thermal conditions during transient periods. A 1-D cycle simulation with thermal networks is carried out under load and speed transitions. A knock integral auto-ignition model, a modified Woschni heat transfer model for HCCI engines and empirical correlations to define burn rate and combustion efficiency are incorporated into the engine cycle simulation model. The simulation results show very different engine behavior during the thermal transient periods compared with steady state.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Thermal Shock in a Piezoelectric Pressure Transducer

2005-05-11
2005-01-2092
One of the major problems limiting the accuracy of piezoelectric transducers for cylinder pressure measurements in an internal-combustion (IC) engine is the thermal shock. Thermal shock is generated from the temperature variation during the cycle. This temperature variation results in contraction and expansion of the diaphragm and consequently changes the force acting on the quartz in the pressure transducer. An empirical equation for compensation of the thermal shock error was derived from consideration of the diaphragm thermal deformation and actual pressure data. The deformation and the resulting pressure difference due to thermal shock are mainly a function of the change in surface temperature and the equation includes two model constants. In order to calibrate these two constants, the pressure inside the cylinder of a diesel engine was measured simultaneously using two types of pressure transducers, in addition to instantaneous wall temperature measurement.
Technical Paper

Using Neural Networks to Compensate Altitude Effects on the Air Flow Rate in Variable Valve Timing Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-0066
An accurate air flow rate model is critical for high-quality air-fuel ratio control in Spark-Ignition engines using a Three-Way-Catalyst. Emerging Variable Valve Timing technology complicates cylinder air charge estimation by increasing the number of independent variables. In our previous study (SAE 2004-01-3054), an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used successfully to represent the air flow rate as a function of four independent variables: intake camshaft position, exhaust camshaft position, engine speed and intake manifold pressure. However, in more general terms the air flow rate also depends on ambient temperature and pressure, the latter being largely a function of altitude. With arbitrary cam phasing combinations, the ambient pressure effects in particular can be very complex. In this study, we propose using a separate neural network to compensate the effects of altitude on the air flow rate.
Technical Paper

New Heat Transfer Correlation for an HCCI Engine Derived from Measurements of Instantaneous Surface Heat Flux

2004-10-25
2004-01-2996
An experimental study has been carried out to provide qualitative and quantitative insight into gas to wall heat transfer in a gasoline fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Fast response thermocouples are embedded in the piston top and cylinder head surface to measure instantaneous wall temperature and heat flux. Heat flux measurements obtained at multiple locations show small spatial variations, thus confirming relative uniformity of in-cylinder conditions in a HCCI engine operating with premixed charge. Consequently, the spatially-averaged heat flux represents well the global heat transfer from the gas to the combustion chamber walls in the premixed HCCI engine, as confirmed through the gross heat release analysis. Heat flux measurements were used for assessing several existing heat transfer correlations. One of the most popular models, the Woschni expression, was shown to be inadequate for the HCCI engine.
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