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Supply Chain Vulnerabilities Impacting Commercial Aviation

2019-09-04
Written by Kirsten Koepsel, a lawyer and engineer whose work has focused on aviation cybersecurity, Supply Chain Vulnerabilities Impacting Commercial Aviation addresses the big question facing aircraft manufacturers today: keep the work in house or outsource it? The ongoing battle between cost cutting and supply-chain control is ever more visible as aircraft OEMs have full order books and tight delivery schedules. Since the 1980s, commercial aviation, like many other industries, looked for ways of more economically sourcing parts and services. The new partnerships between OEMs and suppliers at multiple levels, did make the industry nimbler and more flexible. Yet, it also introduced a higher level of instability, risks and vulnerabilities to the aviation ecosystem.
Book

The World of Civil Aerospace

2019-05-28
Collaboratively written by eleven experts with extensive experience in the field of commercial aviation, The World of Civil Aerospace is a unique book that defines its own category. Covering the beginnings of commercial aviation, aircraft design and certification, manufacturing and testing, airline operation, maintenance and safety, among other topics, The World of Civil Aerospace shows the reader the fundamental (yet almost invisible) aspects of how the planes and airports we use every day actually function. The title, edited by Prof. Ian Jennions, from Cranfield University in the UK, came about from the desire to share the inner workings of what it takes to create, test, approve, certify and launch a new aircraft. Not mention how to maintain it and make the user experience of flying it positive. With the commercial aviation industry expected to continue to grow for decades to come, the challenges of keeping aircraft in the air safely, reliably and economically are enormous.
Book

Allied Aircraft Piston Engines of World War II, 2nd Edition

2019-05-16
Allied Aircraft Piston Engines of World War II, now in its second edition, coalesces multiple aspects of war-driven aviation and its amazing technical accomplishments, leading to the allied victory during the second world war. Not by chance, the air battles that took place then defined much of the outcome of one of the bloodiest conflicts in modern history. Forward-thinking airplane design had to be developed quickly as the war raged on, and the engines that propelled them were indeed the focus of intense cutting-edge engineering efforts. Flying higher, faster, and taking the enemy down before they even noticed your presence became a matter of life or death for the allied forces. Allied Aircraft Piston Engines of World War II, Second Edition, addresses British- and American-developed engines. It looks at the piston engines in detail as they supported amazing wins both in the heat of the air battles, and on the ground supplying and giving cover to the troops.
Book

Damage and Repair of Aerospace Composite Materials

2019-04-30
Damage and Repair of Aerospace Composite Materials reports the latest developments on the detection and repair of composite structures from the perspective of ten SAE technical papers, especially chosen for this book. This micro-collection of papers offers an overview of composite utilization on large-scale commercial aircraft as well as an outline of general damage inspection and repair of composite structures. On the damage detection side, really important techniques are explained, including: • Porosity inspection of large composite panels. • Damage detection of large composites using acoustic ultrasonic and radio frequency methods. • Discrimination of damaged and undamaged composite panels using acoustic emission sensors. • Automated defect inspection system integrated in the production line by utilizing laser sensors and cameras.
Book

Materials and Process Modeling of Aerospace Composites

2019-04-30
Since the successful production of carbon fibers in early 1960s, composite materials have emerged as the materials of choice for general aviation aircraft, military aircraft, space launch vehicles, and unmanned air vehicles. This has revolutionized the aerospace industry due to their excellent mechanical and physical properties, as well as weight-reducing ability. The next- generation material development model should operate in an integrated computational environment, where new material development, manufacturability, and product design practice are seamlessly interconnected.
Book

Fundamentals of Electric Aircraft

2018-12-18
Fundamentals of Electric Aircraft was developed to explain what the electric aircraft stands for by offering an objective view of what can be expected from the giant strides in innovative architectures and technologies enabling aircraft electrification. Through tangible case studies, a deep insight is provided into this paradigm shift cutting across various aircraft segments – from General Aviation to Large Aircraft. Addressing design constraints and timelines foreseen to reach acceptable performance and maturity levels, Fundamentals of Electric Aircraft puts forward a general view of the progress made to date and what to expect in the years to come. Drawing from the expertise of four industry veterans, Pascal Thalin (editor), Ravi Rajamani, Jean-Charles Mare and Sven Taubert (contributors), it addresses futuristic approaches but does not depart too far from the operational down-to-earth realities of everyday business.
Book

Gas Turbine Blade Cooling

2018-12-10
Gas turbines play an extremely important role in fulfilling a variety of power needs and are mainly used for power generation and propulsion applications. The performance and efficiency of gas turbine engines are to a large extent dependent on turbine rotor inlet temperatures: typically, the hotter the better. In gas turbines, the combustion temperature and the fuel efficiency are limited by the heat transfer properties of the turbine blades. However, in pushing the limits of hot gas temperatures while preventing the melting of blade components in high-pressure turbines, the use of effective cooling technologies is critical. Increasing the turbine inlet temperature also increases heat transferred to the turbine blade, and it is possible that the operating temperature could reach far above permissible metal temperature. In such cases, insufficient cooling of turbine blades results in excessive thermal stress on the blades causing premature blade failure.
Book

The Use of Electric Batteries for Civil Aircraft Applications

2018-12-10
The Use of Electric Batteries for Civil Aircraft Applications is a comprehensive and focused collection of SAE International technical papers, covering both the past and the present of the efforts to develop batteries that can be specifically installed in commercial aircraft. Recently, major commercial aircraft manufacturers started investigating the possibility of using Li-Ion batteries at roughly the same time that the military launched their first applications. As industry events unfolded, the FAA and committees from RTCA and SAE continued efforts to create meaningful standards for the design, testing, and certification of Li-Ion battery systems for commercial aviation. The first document issued was RTCA DO-311 on Mar. 13, 2008. As the industry continues to develop concepts and designs for the safe utilization of the new Li-Ion battery systems, many are already working on designs for all-electric aircraft, and small two-seat training aircraft are currently flying.
Book

Diagnostics and Prognostics of Aerospace Engines

2018-11-28
The propulsion system is arguably the most critical part of the aircraft; it certainly is the single most expensive component of the vehicle. Ensuring that engines operate reliably without major maintenance issues is an important goal for all operators, military or commercial. Engine health management (EHM) is a critical piece of this puzzle and has been a part of the engine maintenance for more than five decades. In fact, systematic condition monitoring was introduced for engines before it was applied to other systems on the aircraft. Diagnostics and Prognostics of Aerospace Engines is a collection of technical papers from the archives of SAE International, which introduces the reader to a brief history of EHM, presents some examples of EHM functions, and outlines important future trends.
Book

Counterfeit Parts and Their Impact on the Supply Chain, Second Edition

2018-11-15
Why should the supply chain be concerned if their buyers or subcontractors are purchasing counterfeit electronic parts or if their products contain counterfeit electronic parts? If these parts end up in items that are safety critical and security-risk sensitive such as aviation, space, and defense products, whole secure systems can be comprised. As organizations have become aware of counterfeit parts, one of their responses may be to test upon acceptance or prior to receipt. But testing alone may not detect all counterfeits. Possible sources of counterfeits include products that did not meet quality control requirements and were not destroyed, overruns sold into the market place, unauthorized production shifts, theft, and e-waste. The counterfeited electronic part ends up in the supply chain when ordered by an unsuspecting buyer, who does not confirm the originating source of the part.
Book

Liquid Rocket Engine: Thrust Chamber Parametric Modeling

2018-11-15
The great engineering achievement required to overcome most of the challenges and obstacles that prevented turning rocket design from art into science took place in Europe and the United States between the 1930s and the 1950s. With the vast majority of the engines currently in operation developed in the “pre-computer” age, there are new opportunities to update the design methodologies using technology that can now handle highly complex calculations fast. The space sector with an intense focus on efficiency is driving the need for updating, adapting or replacing the old modeling practices with new tools capable of reducing the volume of resources and the time required to complete simulations and analysis. This book presents an innovative parametric model applicable to the project of some elements of the liquid rocket thrust chamber with the level of detail and accuracy appropriate to the preliminary design phase.
Book

The Aerospace Supply Chain and Cyber Security - Challenges Ahead

2018-07-20
The Aerospace Supply Chain and Cyber Security - Challenges Ahead looks at the current state of commercial aviation and cyber security, how information technology and its attractiveness to cyber attacks is affecting it, and the way supply chains have become a vital part of the industry's cyber-security strategy. More than ever before, commercial aviation relies on information and communications technology. Some examples of this include the use of e-tickets by passengers, electronic flight bags by pilots, wireless web access in flight, not to mention the thousands of sensors throughout the aircraft constantly gathering and sharing data with the crew on the ground. The same way technology opens the doors for speed, efficiency and convenience, it also offers the unintended opportunity for malicious cyber attacks, with threat agents becoming bolder and choosing any possible apertures to breach security.
Book

So You Want to Design Aircraft: Manufacturing with Composites

2018-05-30
The market for aerospace composites is projected to reach $42.97 billion by 2022, up from $26.87 billion in 2017, at a CAGR of 9.85% from 2017 to 2022. Clearly, the use of aerospace composites in commercial aircraft has gained momentum during the past few decades, but there is still much room for growth and much more to learn. Lightweighting is generally considered to be the main driver for the increased and pervasive use of composites. However, beyond the contribution toward fuel efficiencies, composites also offer increased resistance against corrosion and part count reduction. Those corrosion characteristics, as well as fatigue properties, lead to lower maintenance costs over aircraft and components manufactured using traditional materials. Commercial aircraft are complex, sophisticated engineering marvels. And while introducing composites into new programs has added many benefits, it has also added complexity. This book aims to help manage and mitigate that complexity.
Book

So You Want to Design Engines: UAV Propulsion Systems

2018-05-30
As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) fill a wider and wider variety of civic, scientific, and military roles—analysts predict that the UAV market will be the most dynamic growth sector of the decade in terms of the world aerospace industry. As a result, UAV research and development will contribute to a major portion of spending in the next decades—with a significant emphasis on propulsion technologies. This book will cover several UAV propulsion technologies, ranging from modification of conservative designs to assessing the potential of unconventional arrangements. Each chapter provides a glimpse of how researchers are leveraging different fuel types, powerplants, and system architectures in the pursuit of powerful, efficient, and robust UAV propulsion.
Book

Electric Flight Technology: The Unfolding of a New Future

2018-05-28
The environmental impact of hydrocarbon-burning aircraft is one of the main motivations for the move to electric propulsion in aerospace. Also, cars, buses, and trucks are incorporating electric or hybrid-electric propulsion systems, reducing the pressure on hydrocarbons and lowering the costs of electrical components. The economies of scale necessitated by the automotive industry will help contain costs in the aviation sector as well. The use of electric propulsion in airplanes is not a new phenomenon. However, it is only recently that it has taken off in a concrete manner with a viable commercial future. The Electric Flight Technology: Unfolding of a New Future reviews the history of this field, discusses the key underlying technologies, and describes how the future for these technologies will likely unfold, distinguishing between all-electric (AE) and hybrid-electric (HE) architectures. Written by Dr.
Book

Metallography of Steels: Interpretation of Structure and the Effects of Processing

2018-01-01
Updated and translated by André Luiz V. da Costa e Silva This book is a combination of a metallographic atlas for steels and cast irons and an introductory textbook covering the fundamentals of phase transformations and heat treatment of these materials. Every important stage of processing, from casting to cold working is clearly discussed and copiously illustrated with metallographs that show the obtained structures, both desired and those achieved when deviations occur. First published in 1951 by Professor Hubertus Colpaert from the Institute for Technological Research (IPT) of São Paulo, Brazil, this book became one of the most important Brazilian references for professionals interested in the processing, treatment, and application of steels and cast irons.
Book

Automatic Target Recognition, Third Edition

2018-01-01
This third edition of Automatic Target Recognition provides a roadmap for breakthrough ATR designs―with increased intelligence, performance, and autonomy. Clear distinctions are made between military problems and comparable commercial deep-learning problems. These considerations need to be understood by ATR engineers working in the defense industry as well as by their government customers. A reference design is provided for a next-generation ATR that can continuously learn from and adapt to its environment. The convergence of diverse forms of data on a single platform supports new capabilities and improved performance. This third edition broadens the notion of ATR to multisensor fusion. Radical continuous-learning ATR architectures, better integration of data sources, well-packaged sensors, and low-power teraflop chips will enable transformative military designs.
Book

The Electrification of Civil Aircraft and the Evolution of Energy Storage

2017-08-28
Larger airframes drove the development of electrical systems, capable of quickly and reliably starting the new higher power engines. These soon gave rise to the need for engine-mounted electrical generators as the primary source of in-flight power for the electrical loads and onboard recharging of the aircraft battery system. Of all the backup power sources, batteries represent the most common means of storing energy for auxiliary or emergency power requirements. It is not unusual for a typical commercial airliner, such as a B-737 or A-320, to have dozens of batteries on board. Over time, multiple battery chemistries were put to the test and the industry is still working on the optimal option. The lithium-ion technology has been gaining acceptance, with some important aspects to be considered: the application type, basic safety requirements and the presence or absence of humans on the vehicle.
Book

So You Want to Design Aircraft: Robots on the Floor

2017-07-27
It is ironic that as aircraft have gotten more sophisticated, much of their manufacture has remained manual. However, as orders for commercial aircraft have dramatically increased over the past years and are expected to remain on that trajectory, the competition has become not just about how fast new technologies can be put on the aircraft, but about how fast the aircraft can be manufactured and delivered. Enter ever increasing automation and robotics. Just as it has taken multiple years to reach the sophisticated content levels on current generation aircraft, so too has it been necessary to continually learn new ways and means to increase automation on the manufacturing floor. For both aircraft on the flight line and on the production line, safety is paramount.
Book

Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Composite Structures: Fabrication and Reliability

2017-05-20
Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Composite Structures: Fabrication and Reliability introduces the reader to the current state of technologies involved in processing and design of polymer-reinforced fiber composites using additive manufacturing's automated fiber placement methods, through ten seminal SAE International papers. Currently, the material layup strategy in terms of process selection and manufacturability is usually not prioritized in the design phase. Engineers do not have a good way to see how their design choices can affect the manufacturing process beyond their initial structural-level considerations. The result is typically a large amount of experimental testing necessary to qualify the materials and structures typified in the classical building-block approach. Such an environment makes mistakes difficult to solve and, should redesign be required, obtaining reliable information is hard to piece together.
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