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Journal Article

Modeling and Simulation of Refueling Emissions from Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Abstract Vehicular evaporative emissions are an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Moreover, the engines of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may not start for a long time, causing the activated carbon canister to not purge well in-use and to become saturated with fuel vapor. Therefore, the problems of evaporative emissions and refueling emissions of PHEVs are still severe. The objectives of this article are to model and simulate the refueling emissions from PHEVs to shorten the design and development cycle. To achieve the goals, the release of refueling emissions is divided into two stages: the depressurization stage and the refueling stage. The mathematical model has been established by means of the ideal gas law and the gas mass transfer and diffusion law. Then, the numerical model is built and the volume of fluid (VOF) model was applied in the simulation.
Journal Article

Cyberattacks and Countermeasures for Intelligent and Connected Vehicles

Abstract ICVs are expected to make the transportation safer, cleaner, and more comfortable in the near future. However, the trend of connectivity has greatly increased the attack surfaces of vehicles, which makes in-vehicle networks more vulnerable to cyberattacks which then causes serious security and safety issues. In this article, we therefore systematically analyzed cyberattacks and corresponding countermeasures for in-vehicle networks of intelligent and connected vehicles (ICVs). Firstly, we analyzed the security risk of ICVs and proposed an in-vehicle network model from a hierarchical point of view. Then, we discussed possible cyberattacks at each layer of proposed network model.
Journal Article

Active Safety System for Connected Vehicles

Abstract The development of connected-vehicle technology, which includes vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications, opens the door for unprecedented active safety and driver-enhanced systems. In addition to exchanging basic traffic messages among vehicles for safety applications, a significantly higher level of safety can be achieved when vehicles and designated infrastructure locations share their sensor data. In this article, we propose a new system where cameras installed on multiple vehicles and infrastructure locations share and fuse their visual data and detected objects in real time. The transmission of camera data and/or detected objects (e.g., pedestrians, vehicles, cyclists, etc.) can be accomplished by many communication methods. In particular, such communications can be accomplished using the emerging Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) technology.
Journal Article

Electrifying Long-Haul Freight - Part I: Review of Drag, Rolling Resistance, and Weight Reduction Potential

Abstract Electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTT) offer an important option to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) for the transportation sector. However, to increase the range of the EHDTT, this effort investigates critical vehicle design features that demonstrate a gain in overall freight efficiency of the vehicle. Specifically, factors affecting aerodynamics, rolling resistance, and gross vehicle weight are essential to arrive at practical input parameters for a comprehensive numerical model of the EHDTT, developed by the authors in a subsequent paper. For example, drag reduction devices like skirts, deturbulators, vortex generators, covers, and other commercially available apparatuses result in an aggregated coefficient of drag of 0.367. Furthermore, a mixed utilization of single-wide tires and dual tires allows for an optimized trade-off between low rolling resistance tires, traction, and durability.
Journal Article

Localization Requirements for Autonomous Vehicles

Abstract Autonomous vehicles require precise knowledge of their position and orientation in all weather and traffic conditions for path planning, perception, control, and general safe operation. Here we derive these requirements for autonomous vehicles based on first principles. We begin with the safety integrity level, defining the allowable probability of failure per hour of operation based on desired improvements on road safety today. This draws comparisons with the localization integrity levels required in aviation and rail where similar numbers are derived at 10−8 probability of failure per hour of operation. We then define the geometry of the problem where the aim is to maintain knowledge that the vehicle is within its lane and to determine what road level it is on.
Journal Article

A Novel Metaheuristic for Adaptive Signal Timing Optimization Considering Emergency Vehicle Preemption and Tram Priority

Abstract In this article, a novel hybrid metaheuristic based on passing vehicle search (PVS) cultural algorithm (CA) is proposed. This contribution has a twofold aim: First is to present the new hybrid PVS-CA. Second is to prove the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for adaptive signal timing optimization. For this, a system that can adapt efficiently to the real-time traffic situation based on priority signal control is developed. Hence, Transit Signal Priority (TSP) techniques have been used to adjust signal phasing in order to serve emergency vehicles (EVs) and manage the tram priority in a coordinated tram intersection. The system used in this study provides cyclic signal operation based on a real-time control approach, including an optimization process and a database to manage the sensor data from detectors for real-time predictions of EV and tram arrival time.
Journal Article

Innovative Dedicated Hybrid Transmission Concepts in the Next Generation of Hybrid Powertrains

Abstract Due to the advantages of hybrid vehicles in comparison with pure electric vehicles, Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)/Plug-in HEV (PHEV) no undoubtedly becomes the reasonable and practical solution in the development of vehicle electrification at the moment. Meanwhile, Dedicated Hybrid Transmission (DHT), as the especially designed hybrid transmission for HEV/PHEV, represents the development direction of hybrid vehicles. But in the market, the well-known DHT concepts are all protected by patents by large Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). How to break the patents and more importantly develop the innovative DHT concepts in the next generation is of vital importance in the development of HEV/PHEV. In this article, firstly, the features and comparisons of different well-known DHT concepts are discussed and analyzed. The mechanical and electrical complexity are introduced to essentially analyze the advantage and disadvantage of different kinds of DHT concepts.
Journal Article

An Energy Management Strategy for Through-the-Road Type Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Abstract This article proposes an energy management strategy for a through-the-road (TTR) plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) to achieve efficient fuel consumption performance. The target hybrid powertrain includes an electric traction motor, an integrated starter/generator (ISG), and a gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) in the front axle and another electric motor in the rear axle. The energy management strategy is organized into six functional modules. The power mode is determined by the driver’s pedal demand, vehicle states, and the characteristics of the related power units to increase the overall system efficiency. The energy management strategy and the vehicle models are established in the Matlab/Simulink by using dSPACE Automotive Simulation Models (ASM) software. The proposed strategy is examined in terms of three test scenarios in the Model-in-the-Loop (MiL) simulations.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Dynamic Wheel Alignment Audit System Performance

Abstract Wheel alignment audit systems are used in vehicle service environments to identify vehicles which may benefit from a comprehensive evaluation on a precision static alignment measurement system. Non-contact dynamic wheel alignment audit systems acquire measurement data from vehicles in motion passing between sensors in an inspection lane. The dynamic nature of the moving vehicles introduces variables which are not present when auditing wheel alignment on a static vehicle. Measurement results are affected by changes in vehicle velocity, steering movement, suspension movement, floor surface conditions, tire sidewall profiles, and driver presence, as well as other variables.
Journal Article

Empirical Investigation on the Effects of Rolling Resistance and Weight on Fuel Economy of Medium-Duty Trucks

Abstract Vehicle rolling resistance and weight are two of the factors that affect fuel economy. The vehicle tire rolling resistance has a more significant influence than aerodynamics drags on fuel economy at lower vehicle speeds, particularly true for medium- and heavy-duty trucks. Less vehicle weight reduces inertia loads, uphill grade resistance, and rolling resistance. The influence of weight on the fuel economy can be considerable particularly in light- to medium-duty truck classes because the weight makes up a larger portion of gross vehicle weight. This article presents an empirical investigation and a numerical analysis of the influences of rolling resistance and weight on the fuel economy of medium-duty trucks. The experimental tests include various tires and payloads applied on a total of 21vehicle configurations over three road profiles. These tests are used to assess the sensitivity of rolling resistance and weight to the vehicle fuel economy.
Journal Article

Application of Optimal Control Method to Path Tracking Problem of Vehicle

Abstract Path tracking is an essential stage for vehicle safety control. It is more newsworthy than ever in the automotive context and especially for autonomous vehicle. The study proposes an optimal control method for path tracking problem in inverse vehicle handling dynamics. The proposed method generates an expected trajectory which guarantees minimum clearance to the prescribed path by identifying the optimal steering torque input. Based on this purpose, the path tracking problem, which is treated as an optimal control problem, is then solved by local collocation method and mesh refinement. Finally, a real vehicle test is executed to verify the rationality of the proposed model and methodology. The results show that using control variables as a mesh refinement function can capture the dramatic changes in state variables, and the efficiency improvement is more significant as the number of the grid points increases.
Journal Article

Developing a Standardized Performance Evaluation of Vehicles with Automated Driving Features

Abstract Objectives: The project goal was to create an initial set of standardized tests to explore whether they enable the ongoing evaluation of automated driving features as they evolve over time. These tests focused on situations that were representative of several daily driving scenarios as encountered by lower-level automated features, often called Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), while looking forward to higher levels of automation as new systems are deployed. Methods: The research project initially gathered information through a review of existing literature about ADAS and current test procedures. Thereafter, a focus group of industry experts was convened for additional insights and feedback. With this background, the research team developed a series of tests designed to evaluate a variety of automated driving features in currently available implementations and anticipated future variants.
Journal Article

Eleven Instrumented Motorcycle Crash Tests and Development of Updated Motorcycle Impact-Speed Equations

Abstract Eleven instrumented crash tests were performed as part of the 2016 World Reconstruction Exposition (WREX2016), using seven Harley-Davidson motorcycles and three automobiles. For all tests, the automobile was stationary while the motorcycle was delivered into the vehicle, while upright with tires rolling, at varying speeds. Seven tests were performed at speeds between 30 and 46 mph while four low-speed tests were performed to establish the onset of permanent motorcycle deformation. Data from these tests, and other published testing, was analyzed using previously published equations to determine their accuracy when predicting the impact speed of Harley-Davidson motorcycles. The most accurate model was the Modified Eubanks set of equations introduced in 2009, producing errors with an average of 0.4 mph and a standard deviation (SD) of 4.8 mph.
Journal Article

A New Approach for Development of a High-Performance Intake Manifold for a Single-Cylinder Engine Used in Formula SAE Application

Abstract The Formula SAE (FSAE) is an international engineering competition where a Formula style race car is designed and built by students from worldwide universities. According to FSAE regulation, an air restrictor with circular cross section of 20 mm for gasoline-fuelled and 19 mm for E-85-fuelled vehicles is to be incorporated between the throttle valve and engine inlet. The sole purpose of this regulation is to limit the airflow to the engine used. The only sequence allowed is throttle valve, restrictor and engine inlet. A new approach of combining ram theory and acoustic theory methods are investigated to increase the performance of the engine by designing an optimized intake runner for a particular engine speed range and an optimized plenum volume in this range. Engine performance characteristics such as brake power, brake torque and volumetric efficiency are taken into considerations.
Journal Article

Motion Cueing Algorithm for a 9-DoF Driving Simulator: MPC with Linearized Actuator Constraints

Abstract In times when automated driving is becoming increasingly relevant, dynamic simulators present an appropriate simulation environment to faithfully reproduce driving scenarios. A realistic replication of driving dynamics is an important criterion to immerse persons in the virtual environments provided by the simulator. Motion Cueing Algorithms (MCAs) compute the simulator’s control input, based on the motions of the simulated vehicle. The technical restrictions of the simulator’s actuators form the main limitation in the execution of these input commands. Typical dynamic simulators consist of a hexapod with six degrees of freedom (DoF) to reproduce the vehicle motion in all dimensions. Since its workspace dimensions are limited, significant improvements in motion capabilities can be achieved by expanding the simulator with redundant DoF by means of additional actuators.
Journal Article

Flow Analysis between Two Bluff Bodies in a Close Distance Platooning Configuration

Abstract This article analyses the flow field between two 1/8-scale Generalized European Transport System (GETS) models which are placed in a two-vehicle platoon at close distances. Numerical simulations using the lattice Boltzmann method together with a wind tunnel experiment (open jet facility, OJF) were executed. Next, to balance measurements, coaxial volumetric velocimetry (CVV) measurements were performed to obtain information about the flow field. Three intervehicle distances, 0.10, 0.45 and 0.91 times the vehicle length, were tested for various platoon configurations where the vehicles in the platoon varied in terms of front-edge radius and the addition of tails. At the smallest intervehicle distance, the greatest reductions in drag were found for both the leading and trailing vehicles. The flow in the gap between the two vehicles follows an S-shaped path with small variations between the configurations.
Journal Article

Impact of Dynamic Characteristics of Wheel-Rail Coupling on Rail Corrugation

Abstract To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of corrugation, including the development and propagation of corrugation, and impact of vehicle and track dynamics, a computational model was established, taking into account the nonlinearity of vehicle-track coupling. The model assumes a fixed train speed of 300 km/h and accounts for vertical interaction force components and rail wear effect. Site measurements were used to validate the numerical model. Computational results show that (1) Wheel polygonalisation corresponding to excitation frequency of 545-572 Hz was mainly attributed to track irregularity and uneven stiffness of under-rail supports, which in turn leads to vibration modes of the bogie and axle system in the frequency range of 500-600 Hz, aggregating wheel wear. (2) The peak response frequency of rail of the non-ballasted track coincides with the excitation frequency of wheel-rail coupling; the resonance results in larger wear amplitude of the rail.
Journal Article

Speed Planning and Prompting System for Commercial Vehicle Based on Real-Time Calculation of Resistance

Abstract When commercial vehicles drive in a mountainous area, the complex road condition and long slopes cause frequent acceleration and braking, which will use 25% more fuel. And the brake temperature rises rapidly due to continuous braking on the long-distance downslopes, which will make the brake drum fail with the brake temperature exceeding 308°C [1]. Meanwhile, the kinetic energy is wasted during the driving progress on the slopes when the vehicle rolls up and down. Our laboratory built a model that could calculate the distance from the top of the slope, where the driver could release the accelerator pedal. Thus, on the slope, the vehicle uses less fuel when it rolls up and less brakes when down. What we do in this article is use this model in a real vehicle and measure how well it works.
Journal Article

CFD and Wind Tunnel Analysis of the Drag on a Human-Powered Vehicle Designed for a Speed Record Attempt

Abstract A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel investigation of a human powered vehicle (HPV), designed by the Velo Racing Team at Ostfalia University, is undertaken to analyse the Eco-body’s drag efficiency. Aimed at competing in a high profile HPV speed record competition, the vehicle’s aerodynamic efficiency is shown to compare well with successful recent eco-body designs. Despite several limitations, newly obtained wind tunnel data shows that the corresponding CFD simulations offer an effective tool for analysing and refining the HPV design. It is shown that, in particular, the design of the rear wheel fairings, as well as the ride height of the vehicle, may be optimised further. In addition, refinements to the CFD and wind tunnel methodologies are recommended to help correlation.