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Technical Paper

Improving the Michigan Tech Formula SAE Design Process

2019-04-02
2019-01-0807
Michigan Tech Formula SAE is a student-led team that designs and builds an open-wheel race car to compete with similar teams from other universities in early May each year. The team has adopted a vehicle development process where the design, build, and test/compete phases happen in consecutive years. This process is motivated by the need to perform validation testing in the fall prior to competition due to Houghton winters lingering well into April. In order to compete every year, all three phases are always in-process to ensure the consecutive completion vehicles. As a student organization, Formula SAE membership has a two to three year turnover rate. This limited organizational memory results in redesign rather than re-use of parts. Simple parts are easier to re-model than manually search a directory structure for an existing design. This redundant work is wasted effort and is often results in repeating poor design features that had been improved by previous team members.
Technical Paper

Computationally Efficient Reduced-Order Powertrain Model of a Multi-Mode Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-1210
This paper presents the development of a reduced-order powertrain model for energy and SOC estimation of a multi-mode plug-in hybrid electric vehicle using only vehicle speed profile and route elevation as inputs. Such a model is intended to overcome the computational inefficiencies of higher fidelity powertrain and vehicle models in short and long horizon energy optimization efforts such as Coordinated Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC), Eco Approach and Departure (EcoAND), Eco Routing, and PHEV mode blending. The reduced-order powertrain model enables Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) to utilize the onboard sensor and connected data to quickly react and plan their maneuvers to highly dynamic road conditions with minimal computational resources.
Technical Paper

Route-Optimized Energy Management of Connected and Automated Multi-Mode Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Dynamic Programming

2019-04-02
2019-01-1209
This paper presents a methodology to optimize the blending of charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes in a multi-mode plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that reduces overall energy consumption when the selected route cannot be completely driven in all-electric mode. The PHEV used in this investigation is the second-generation Chevrolet Volt and as many as four instrumented vehicles were utilized simultaneously on road to acquire validation data. The optimization method used is dynamic programming (DP) paired with a reduced-order powertrain model to enable onboard embedded controller compatibility and computational efficiency in optimally blending CD, CS modes over the entire drive route.
Technical Paper

PHEV Real World Driving Cycle Energy and Fuel and Consumption Reduction Potential for Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0307
This paper presents real-world driving energy and fuel consumption results for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). A drive cycle, local to Michigan Technological University, was designed to mimic urban and highway driving test cycles in terms of distance, transients and average velocity, but with significant elevation changes to establish an energy intensive real-world driving cycle for assessing potential energy savings for connected and automated vehicle (CAV) control. The investigation began by establishing baseline and repeatability of energy consumption at various battery states of charge. It was determined that drive cycle energy consumption under a randomized set of boundary conditions varied within 3.6% of mean energy consumption regardless of initial battery state of charge.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Vehicle Sensor Suite Data with Ground Truth Trajectories for Algorithm Development and Evaluation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0042
This paper describes a multi-sensor data set, suitable for testing algorithms to detect and track pedestrians and cyclists, with an autonomous vehicle’s sensor suite. The data set can be used to evaluate the benefit of fused sensing algorithms, and provides ground truth trajectories of pedestrians, cyclists, and other vehicles for objective evaluation of track accuracy. One of the principal bottlenecks for sensing and perception algorithm development is the ability to evaluate tracking algorithms against ground truth data. By ground truth we mean independent knowledge of the position, size, speed, heading, and class of objects of interest in complex operational environments. Our goal was to execute a data collection campaign at an urban test track in which trajectories of moving objects of interest are measured with auxiliary instrumentation, in conjunction with several autonomous vehicles (AV) with a full sensor suite of radar, lidar, and cameras.
Technical Paper

Effect of State of Charge Constraints on Fuel Economy and Battery Aging when Using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy

2018-04-03
2018-01-1002
Battery State of Charge (SOC) constraints are used to prevent the battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) from over-charging or over-discharging. These constraints strongly influence the power-split of the HEV. This paper presents results on how Battery State of Charge (SOC) constraints effects Lithium ion battery aging and fuel economy when using the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS). The vehicle studied is the Honda Civic Hybrid. The battery used is A123 Systems’ ANR26650 battery cell. Vehicle simulation uses multiple combinations of highway and city drive cycles. For each combination of drive cycles, nine SOC constraints ranges are used. Battery aging is evaluated using a semi-empirical model combined with the accumulated Ah-throughput method which uses, as an input, the battery SOC trajectory from the vehicle simulations. The simulation results provide insight into how SOC constraints effect fuel economy as well as battery aging.
Technical Paper

Torsional Vibration Analysis of Six Speed MT Transmission and Driveline from Road to Lab

2017-06-05
2017-01-1845
When a manual transmission (MT) powertrain is subjected to high speeds and high torques, the vehicle driveshaft, and other components experience an increase in stored potential energy. When the engine and driveshaft are decoupled during an up or down shift, the potential energy is released causing clunk during the shift event. The customer desires a smooth shift thus reduction of clunk will improve experience and satisfaction. In this study, a six-speed MT, rear-wheel-drive (RWD) passenger vehicle was used to experimentally capture acoustic and vibration data during the clunk event. To replicate the in-situ results, additional data was collected and analyzed for powertrain component roll and pitch. A lumped parameter model of key powertrain components was created to replicate the clunk event and correlate with test data. The lumped parameter model was used to modify clutch tip-out parameters, which resulted in reduced prop shaft oscillations.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Interaction between Flow and Spark Plug Orientation on Ignition Energy and Duration for Different Electrode Designs

2017-03-28
2017-01-0672
The effect of flow direction towards the spark plug electrodes on ignition parameters is analyzed using an innovative spark aerodynamics fixture that enables adjustment of the spark plug gap orientation and plug axis tilt angle with respect to the incoming flow. The ignition was supplied by a long discharge high energy 110 mJ coil. The flow was supplied by compressed air and the spark was discharged into the flow at varying positions relative to the flow. The secondary ignition voltage and current were measured using a high speed (10MHz) data acquisition system, and the ignition-related metrics were calculated accordingly. Six different electrode designs were tested. These designs feature different positions of the electrode gap with respect to the flow and different shapes of the ground electrodes. The resulting ignition metrics were compared with respect to the spark plug ground strap orientation and plug axis tilt angle about the flow direction.
Technical Paper

Integration of OpenADR with Node-RED for Demand Response Load Control Using Internet of Things Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-1702
The increased market share of electric vehicles and renewable energy resources have raised concerns about their impact on the current electrical distribution grid. To achieve sustainable and stable power distribution, a lot of effort has been made to implement smart grids. This paper addresses Demand Response (DR) load control in a smart grid using Internet of Things (IoT) technology. A smart grid is a networked electrical grid which includes a variety of components and sub-systems, including renewable energy resources, controllable loads, smart meters, and automation devices. An IoT approach is a good fit for the control and energy management of smart grids. Although there are various commercial systems available for smart grid control, the systems based on open sources are limited. In this study, we adopt an open source development platform named Node-RED to integrate DR capabilities in a smart grid for DR load control. The DR system employs the OpenADR standard.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Analysis of V2G Impact on Battery Degradation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1699
Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) service has a potential to improve the reliability and stability of the electrical grid due to the ability of providing bi-directional power flow from/to the grid. However, frequent charging/discharging may impact the battery lifetime. This paper presents the analysis of battery degradation in three scenarios. In the first scenario, different battery capacities are considered. In the second scenario, the battery degradation with various depth of discharge (DOD) are studied. In the third scenario, the capacity loss due to different charging regime are compared. The charging/discharging of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are simulated in a single-phase microgrid system integrated with a photovoltaics (PV) farm, an energy storage system (ESS), and ten electric vehicle service equipment (EVSE). The battery degradation model is an energy throughput model, which is developed based on the Arrhenius equation and a power law relationship between time and capacity fading.
Journal Article

The Model Integration and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) Simulation Design for the Analysis of a Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Electrochemical Battery Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0001
This paper studies the hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) design of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) for the research of HEV lithiumion battery aging. In this paper, an electrochemical model of a lithium-ion battery pack with the characteristics of battery aging is built and integrated into the vehicle model of Autonomie® software from Argonne National Laboratory. The vehicle model, together with the electrochemical battery model, is designed to run in a dSPACE real-time simulator while the powertrain power distribution is managed by a dSPACE MicroAutoBoxII hardware controller. The control interface is designed using dSPACE ControlDesk to monitor the real-time simulation results. The HiL simulation results with the performance of vehicle dynamics and the thermal aging of the battery are presented and analyzed.
Journal Article

Optimal Power Management of Vehicle Sourced Military Outposts

2017-03-28
2017-01-0271
This paper considers optimal power management during the establishment of an expeditionary outpost using battery and vehicle assets for electrical generation. The first step in creating a new outpost is implementing the physical protection and barrier system. Afterwards, facilities that provide communications, fires, meals, and moral boosts are implemented that steadily increase the electrical load while dynamic events, such as patrols, can cause abrupt changes in the electrical load profile. Being able to create a fully functioning outpost within 72 hours is a typical objective where the electrical power generation starts with batteries, transitions to gasoline generators and is eventually replaced by diesel generators as the outpost matures. Vehicles with power export capability are an attractive supplement to this electrical power evolution since they are usually on site, would reduce the amount of material for outpost creation, and provide a modular approach to outpost build-up.
Technical Paper

Modeling Ignition and Premixed Combustion Including Flame Stretch Effects

2017-03-28
2017-01-0553
Objective of this work is the incorporation of the flame stretch effects in an Eulerian-Lagrangian model for premixed SI combustion in order to describe ignition and flame propagation under highly inhomogeneous flow conditions. To this end, effects of energy transfer from electrical circuit and turbulent flame propagation were fully decoupled. The first ones are taken into account by Lagrangian particles whose main purpose is to generate an initial burned field in the computational domain. Turbulent flame development is instead considered only in the Eulerian gas phase for a better description of the local flow effects. To improve the model predictive capabilities, flame stretch effects were introduced in the turbulent combustion model by using formulations coming from the asymptotic theory and recently verified by means of DNS studies. Experiments carried out at Michigan Tech University in a pressurized, constant-volume vessel were used to validate the proposed approach.
Technical Paper

Real Time Application of Battery State of Charge and State of Health Estimation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1199
A high voltage battery is an essential part of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). It is imperative to precisely estimate the state of charge (SOC) and state of health (SOH) of battery in real time to maintain reliable vehicle operating conditions. This paper presents a method of estimating SOC and SOH through the incorporation of current integration, voltage translation, and Ah-throughput. SOC estimation utilizing current integration is inadequate due to the accumulation of errors over the period of usage. Thus voltage translation of SOC is applied to rectify current integration method which improves the accuracy of estimation. Voltage translation data is obtained by subjecting the battery to hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) test. The Battery State of Health was determined by semi-empirical model combined with accumulated Ah-throughput method. Battery state of charge was employed as an input to estimate damages accumulated to battery aging through a real-time model.
Journal Article

Analysis and Control of a Torque Blended Hybrid Electric Powertrain with a Multi-Mode LTC-SI Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-1153
Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engines are promising to improve powertrain fuel economy and reduce NOx and soot emissions by improving the in-cylinder combustion process. However, the narrow operating range of LTC engines limits the use of these engines in conventional powertrains. The engine’s limited operating range can be improved by taking advantage of electrification in the powertrain. In this study, a multi-mode LTC-SI engine is integrated with a parallel hybrid electric configuration, where the engine operation modes include Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI), and conventional Spark Ignition (SI). The powertrain controller is designed to enable switching among different modes, with minimum fuel penalty for transient engine operations.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of a Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Electrochemical Battery Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-1252
This paper studies the nonlinear model predictive control for a power-split Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) power management system to improve the fuel economy. In this paper, a physics-based battery model is built and integrated with a base HEV model from Autonomie®, a powertrain and vehicle model architecture and development software from Argonne National Laboratory. The original equivalent circuit battery model from the software has been replaced by a single particle electrochemical lithium ion battery model. A predictive model that predicts the driver’s power request, the battery state of charge (SOC) and the engine fuel consumption is studied and used for the nonlinear model predictive controller (NMPC). A dedicated NMPC algorithm and its solver are developed and validated with the integrated HEV model. The performance of the NMPC algorithm is compared with that of a rule-based controller.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis for Optimal Control of Power Split in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1189
Power split in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEVs) has been controlled using different strategies ranging from rule-based to optimal control. Dynamic Programming (DP) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) are two common optimal control strategies used in optimization of the power split in FCHEVs with a trade-off between global optimality of the solution and online implementation of the controller. In this paper, both control strategies are developed and tested on a FC/battery vehicle model, and the results are compared in terms of total energy consumption. In addition, the effects of the MPC prediction horizon length on the controller performance are studied. Results show that by using the DP strategy, up to 12% less total energy consumption is achieved compared to MPC for a charge sustaining mode in the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Model Integration and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) Simulation Design for the Testing of Electric Power Steering Controllers

2016-04-05
2016-01-0029
The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) of an Electric Power Steering (EPS) system is a core device to decide how much assistance an electric motor applies on a steering wheel. The EPS ECU plays an important role in EPS systems. The effectiveness of an ECU needs to be thoroughly tested before mass production. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation provides an efficient way for the development and testing of embedded controllers. This paper focuses on the development of a HiL system for testing EPS controllers. The hardware of the HiL system employs a dSPACE HiL simulator. The EPS plant model is an integrated model consisting of a Vehicle Dynamics model of the dSPACE Automotive Simulation Model (ASM) and the Nexteer Steering model. The paper presents the design of an EPS HiL system, the simulation of sensors and actuators, the functions of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model, and the integration method of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model with a Steering model.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Lithium Ion HEV Battery Aging Using Electrochemical Battery Model under Different Ambient Temperature Conditions

2015-04-14
2015-01-1198
This paper investigates the aging performance of the lithium ion cobalt oxide battery pack of a single shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) under different ambient temperatures. Varying ambient temperature of HEVs results in different battery temperature and then leads to different aging performance of the battery pack. Battery aging is reflected in the increasing of battery internal resistance and the decreasing of battery capacity. In this paper, a single shaft parallel hybrid electric vehicle model is built by integrating Automotive Simulation Model (ASM) from dSPACE and AutoLion-ST battery model from ECPower to realize the co-simulation of HEV powertrain in the common MATLAB/Simulink platform. The battery model is a physics-based and thermally-coupled battery (TCB) model, which enables the investigation of battery capacity degradation and aging. Standard driving cycle with differing ambient temperatures is tested using developed HEV model.
Technical Paper

Schlieren and Mie Scattering Visualization for Single-Hole Diesel Injector under Vaporizing Conditions with Numerical Validation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1406
This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel spray under engine-like conditions. The high pressure diesel spray was investigated in an optically-accessible constant volume combustion vessel for studying the influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio). Measurements were carried out by a high-speed imaging system capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and schlieren in a nearly simultaneous fashion mode using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies were performed at three injection pressures (70, 120, and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density, and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
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