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Technical Paper

Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation of Glaze Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing

2019-06-10
2019-01-1987
Aerodynamic assessment of icing effects on swept wings is an important component of a larger effort to improve three-dimensional icing simulation capabilities. An understanding of ice-shape geometric fidelity and Reynolds and Mach number effects on iced-wing aerodynamics is needed to guide the development and validation of ice-accretion simulation tools. To this end, wind-tunnel testing was carried out for 8.9% and 13.3% scale semispan wing models based upon the Common Research Model airplane configuration. Various levels of geometric fidelity of an artificial ice shape representing a realistic glaze-ice accretion on a swept wing were investigated. The highest fidelity artificial ice shape reproduced all of the three-dimensional features associated with the glaze ice accretion. The lowest fidelity artificial ice shapes were simple, spanwise-varying horn ice geometries intended to represent the maximum ice thickness on the wing upper surface.
Technical Paper

Radar Detection of High Concentrations of Ice Particles - Methodology and Preliminary Flight Test Results

2019-06-10
2019-01-2028
High Ice Water Content (HIWC) has been identified as a primary causal factor in numerous engine events over the past two decades. Previous attempts to develop a remote detection process utilizing modern commercial radars have failed to produce reliable results. This paper discusses the reasons for previous failures and describes a new technique that has shown very encouraging accuracy and range performance without the need for any modifications to industry’s current radar design(s). The performance of this new process was evaluated during the joint NASA/FAA HIWC RADAR II Flight Campaign in August of 2018. Results from that evaluation are discussed, along with the potential for commercial application, and development of minimum operational performance standards for future radar products.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Automated Detection of Ice Crystal Icing Conditions Using Geostationary Satellite Datasets and In Situ Ice Water Content Measurements

2019-06-10
2019-01-1953
Recent studies have found that high mass concentrations of ice particles in regions of deep convective storms can adversely impact aircraft engine and air probe (e.g. pitot tube and air temperature) performance. Radar reflectivity in these regions suggests that they are safe for aircraft penetration, yet high ice water content (HIWC) is still encountered. The aviation weather community seeks additional remote sensing methods for delineating where ice particle (or crystal) icing conditions are likely to occur, including products derived from geostationary (GEO) satellite imagery that is now available in near-real time at increasingly high spatio-temporal detail from the global GEO satellite constellation.
Technical Paper

Ice-Crystal Icing Accretion Studies at the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

2019-06-10
2019-01-1921
This paper describes an ice-crystal icing experiment conducted at the NASA Propulsion System Laboratory during June 2018. This test produced ice shape data on an airfoil for different test conditions similar to those inside the compressor region of a turbo-fan jet engine. Mixed-phase icing conditions were generated by partially freezing out a water spray using the relative humidity of flow as the primary parameter to control freeze-out. The paper presents the ice shape data and associated conditions which include pressure, velocity, temperature, humidity, total water content, melt ratio, and particle size distribution. The test featured a new instrument traversing system which allowed surveys of the flow and cloud. The purpose of this work was to provide experimental ice shape data and associated conditions to help develop and validate ice-crystal icing accretion models.
Journal Article

Development of a Coupled Air and Particle Thermal Model for Engine Icing Test Facilities

2015-06-15
2015-01-2155
This paper describes a numerical model that simulates the thermal interaction between ice particles, water droplets, and the flowing air applicable during icing wind tunnel tests where there is significant phase-change of the cloud. It has been previously observed that test conditions, most notably temperature and humidity, change when the icing cloud is activated. It is hypothesized that the ice particles and water droplets thermally interact with the flowing air causing the air temperature and humidity to change by the time it reaches the test section. Unlike previous models where the air and particles are uncoupled, this model attempts to explain the observed changes in test conditions by coupling the conservation of mass and energy equations. The model is compared to measurements taken during wind tunnel tests simulating ice-crystal and mixed-phase icing that relate to ice accretions within turbofan engines.
Technical Paper

Initial Results from Radiometer and Polarimetric Radar-based Icing Algorithms Compared to In-situ Data

2015-06-15
2015-01-2153
In early 2015, a field campaign was conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. The purpose of the campaign is to test several prototype algorithms meant to detect the location and severity of in-flight icing (or icing aloft, as opposed to ground icing) within the terminal airspace. Terminal airspace for this project is currently defined as within 25 kilometers horizontal distance of the terminal, which in this instance is Hopkins International Airport in Cleveland. Two new and improved algorithms that utilize ground-based remote sensing instrumentation have been developed and were operated during the field campaign. The first is the ‘NASA Icing Remote Sensing System’, or NIRSS. The second algorithm is the ‘Radar Icing Algorithm’, or RadIA.
Technical Paper

Three Dimensional Simulation of Flow in an Axial Low Pressure Compressor at Engine Icing Operating Points

2015-06-15
2015-01-2132
Three-dimensional simulations of the Honeywell ALF502 low pressure compressor (sometimes called a booster) using the NASA Glenn code GlennHT have been carried out. A total of eight operating points were investigated. These operating points are at, or near, points where engine icing has been determined to be likely. The results of this study were used, in a companion paper, for further analysis such as predicting collection efficiency of ice particles and ice growth rates at various locations in the compressor. In an effort to minimize computational effort, inviscid solutions with slip walls are produced. A mixing plane boundary condition is used between each blade row, resulting in convergence to steady state within each blade row. Comparisons of the results are made to other simplified analysis. An additional modification to the simulation process is also presented.
Technical Paper

A CFD Approach for Predicting 3D Ice Accretion on Aircraft

2011-06-13
2011-38-0044
In this work, a newly developed iced-aircraft modeling tool is applied to wings, engine inlets, and helicopter rotors. The tool is based on a multiscale-physics, unstructured finite-volume CFD approach and is applicable to general purpose aircraft icing applications. The present approach combines an Eulerian-based droplet-trajectory solver that is loosely coupled, in a time-accurate manner, to a surface-film and ice-evolution model. The goal of the model is to improve the fidelity of ice accretion modeling on dynamic geometries and for three-dimensional ice shapes typical of helicopter rotors. The numerical formulation is discussed and presented alongside 2D and 3D static validation cases, and dynamic helicopter rotors. The present results display good validation for predicting ice shape on a variety of geometries, and a strong initial capability of modeling ice forming on helicopters in forward flight.
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