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Technical Paper

Characteristics of Exhaust Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Retrofitted to Operate in Methane/Diesel Dual-Fuel Mode

2013-09-08
2013-24-0181
The need for a cleaner and less expensive alternative energy source to conventional petroleum fuels for powering the transportation sector has gained increasing attention during the past decade. Special attention has been directed towards natural gas (NG) which has proven to be a viable option due to its clean-burning properties, reduced cost and abundant availability, and therefore, lead to a steady increase in the worldwide vehicle population operated with NG. The heavy-duty vehicle sector has seen the introduction of natural gas first in larger, locally operated fleets, such as transit buses or refuse-haulers. However, with increasing expansion of the NG distribution network more drayage and long-haul fleets are beginning to adopt natural gas as a fuel.
Technical Paper

Natural Gas and Diesel Transit Bus Emissions: Review and Recent Data

1997-11-17
973203
Natural Gas engines are viewed as an alternative to diesel power in the quest to reduce heavy duty vehicle emissions in polluted urban areas. In particular, it is acknowledged that natural gas has the potential to reduce the inventory of particulate matter, and this has encouraged the use of natural gas engines in transit bus applications. Extensive data on natural gas and diesel bus emissions have been gathered using two Transportable Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratories, that employ chassis dynamometers to simulate bus inertia and road load. Most of the natural gas buses tested prior to 1997 were powered by Cummins L-10 engines, which were lean-burn and employed a mechanical mixer for fuel introduction. The Central Business District (CBD) cycle was used as the test schedule.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Composition on the Operation of a Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

1995-10-01
952560
With the implementation of a closed loop fuel control system, operation of lean-burn natural gas engines can be optimized in terms of reducing emissions while maximizing efficiency. Such a system would compensate for variations in fuel composition, but also would correct for variations in volumetric efficiency due to immediate engine history and long-term engine component wear. Present day engine controllers perform well when they are operated with the same gas composition for which they were calibrated, but because fuel composition varies geographically as well as seasonally, some method of compensation is required. A closed loop control system on a medium-duty lean-burn engine will enhance performance by maintaining the desired air-fuel ratio to eliminate any unwanted rich or lean excursions (relative to the desired air-fuel ratio) that produce excess engine-out emissions. Such a system can also guard against internal engine damage due to overheating and/or engine knock.
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