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Journal Article

Fuel Film Behavior Analysis Using Simulated Intake Port

2009-11-03
2009-32-0129
Transient behavior of the engine is one of the most crucial factors for motorcycle features. Characterization of the fuel film with port fuel injection (PFI) is necessary to enhance this feature with keeping others, such as high output, low emissions and good fuel consumption. In order to resolve the complicated phenomena in real engine condition into simple physical issues, a simulated intake port was used in our research with Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique to allow accurate measurement of the fuel film thickness, complemented by visualization of the film development and spray behavior using high-speed video imaging. Useful results have been conducted from the parametric studies with various sets of conditions, such as injection quantity, air velocity and port backpressure.
Technical Paper

Internal Flow and Cavitation in a Multi-Hole Injector for Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-1405
A transparent enlarged model of a six-hole injector used in the development of emerging gasoline direct-injection engines was manufactured with full optical access. The working fluid was water circulating through the injector nozzle under steady-state flow conditions at different flow rates, pressures and needle positions. Simultaneous matching of the Reynolds and cavitation numbers has allowed direct comparison between the cavitation regimes present in real-size and enlarged nozzles. The experimental results from the model injector, as part of a research programme into second-generation direct-injection spark-ignition engines, are presented and discussed. The main objective of this investigation was to characterise the cavitation process in the sac volume and nozzle holes under different operating conditions. This has been achieved by visualizing the nozzle cavitation structures in two planes simultaneously using two synchronised high-speed cameras.
Technical Paper

Internal Flow and Spray Characteristics of Pintle-Type Outwards Opening Piezo Injectors for Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-1406
The near nozzle exit flow and spray structure generated by an enlarged model of a second generation pintle type outwards opening injector have been investigated under steady flow conditions as a function of flow-rate and needle lift. A high resolution CCD camera and high-speed video camera have been employed in this study to obtain high-magnification images of the internal nozzle exit flow in order to identify the origin of string ligaments/droplets formation at the nozzle exit. The images of the flow around the nozzle seat area showed clearly that air was entrained from outside into the nozzle seat area under certain flow operating conditions (low cavitation number, CN); the formed air pockets inside the annular nozzle proved to be the main cause of the breaking of the fuel liquid film into strings as it emerged from the nozzle with a structure consisting of alternating thin and thick liquid filaments.
Technical Paper

Effect of Multi-Injection Strategy on Cavitation Development in Diesel Injector Nozzle Holes

2005-04-11
2005-01-1237
The effect of multiple-injection strategy on nozzle hole cavitation has been investigated both experimentally and numerically. A common-rail Diesel injection system, used by Toyota in passenger car engines, has been employed together with a double-shutter CCD camera in order to visualise cavitation inside a submerged and optically accessible (in one out of the six holes) real-size VCO nozzle. Initially the cavitation development was investigated in single injection events followed by flow images obtained during multiple injections consisting of a pilot and a main injection pulse. In order to identify the effect of pilot injection on cavitation development during the main injection, the dwell time between the injection events was varied between 1.5-5ms for different pilot injection quantities. The extensive test matrix included injection pressures of 400 and 800bar and back pressures ranging from 2.4 up to 41bar.
Technical Paper

Cavitation Initiation, Its Development and Link with Flow Turbulence in Diesel Injector Nozzles

2002-03-04
2002-01-0214
The initiation and development of cavitation in enlarged transparent acrylic models of six-hole nozzles for direct injection Diesel engines has been visualised by a high-speed digital video camera in a purpose-built refractive index matching test rig. The obtained high temporal resolution images have allowed improved understanding of the origin of the cavitation structures in Diesel injector nozzles and clarification of the effect of sac geometry (conical mini-sac vs. VCO) on cavitation initiation and development in the nozzle holes. The link between cavitation and flow turbulence in the sac volume and, more importantly, in the injection holes has been quantified through measurements of the flow by laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) at a number of planes as a function of the Reynolds and cavitation numbers.
Technical Paper

Flow and Spray Investigation in Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0832
An investigation into the spray structure generated by two swirl pressure atomisers under various operating conditions in a constant-volume chamber and the in-cylinder flow pattern in an optical research direct-injection gasoline engine has been performed using CCD camera and laser Doppler velocimetry, respectively. The results provided detailed information about the effect of back pressure on the spray structure generated by the two injectors and the in-cylinder flow field which the sprays encounter following fuel injection into the cylinder during the induction and compression strokes.
Technical Paper

Nozzle Hole Film Formation and its Link to Spray Characteristics in Swirl-Pressure Atomizers for Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-1136
The numerical methodology used to predict the flow inside pressure-swirl atomizers used with gasoline direct injection engines and the subsequent spray development is presented. Validation of the two-phase CFD models used takes place against film thickness measurements obtained from high resolution CCD-based images taken inside the discharge hole of a pressure swirl atomizer modified to incorporate a transparent hole extension. The transient evolution of the film thickness and its mean axial and swirl velocity components as it emerges from the nozzle hole is then used as input to a spray CFD model predicting the development of both non-evaporating and evaporating sprays under a variety of back pressure and temperature conditions. Model predictions are compared with phase Doppler anemometry measurements of the temporal and spatial variation of the droplet size and velocity as well as CCD spray images.
Technical Paper

Flow, Combustion and Emissions in a Five-Valve Research Gasoline Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3556
The in-cylinder flow, mixture distribution, combustion and exhaust emissions in a research, five-valve purpose-built gasoline engine are discussed on the basis of measurements obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), fast spark-plug hydrocarbon sampling, flame imaging and NOx/HC emissions using fast chemiluminescent and flame ionisation detectors/analysers. These measurements have been complemented by steady flow testing of various cylinder head configurations, involving single- and three-valve operation, in terms of flow capacity and in-cylinder tumble strength.
Technical Paper

Structure of high-pressure diesel sprays

2001-09-23
2001-24-0009
A comprehensive set of computational and experimental results for high- pressure diesel sprays are presented and discussed. The test cases investigated include injection of diesel into air under both atmospheric and high pressure/temperature chamber conditions, injection against pressurized and cross-flowing CF6 simulating respectively the density and flow conditions of a diesel engine at the time of injection, as well as injection into the piston bowl of both research and production turbocharged high-speed DI diesel engines. A variety of high-pressure injection systems and injector nozzles have been used including mechanical and electronic high-pressure pumps as well as common-rail systems connected to nozzles incorporating a varying number of holes with diameters ranging from conventional to micro-size.
Technical Paper

Cavitation in Real-Size Multi-Hole Diesel Injector Nozzles

2000-03-06
2000-01-1249
A production six-hole conical sac-type nozzle incorporating a quartz window in one of the injection holes has been used in order to visualize the flow under cavitating flow conditions. Simultaneous variation of both the injection and the back chamber pressures allowed images to be obtained at various cavitation and Reynolds numbers for two different fixed needle lifts corresponding to the first- and the second-stage lift of two-stage injectors. The flow visualization system was based on a fast and high resolution CCD camera equipped with high magnification lenses which allowed details of the various flow regimes formed inside the injection hole to be identified. From the obtained images both hole cavitation initiated at the top inlet corner of the hole as well as string cavitation formed inside the sac volume and entering into the hole from the bottom corner, were identified to occur at different cavitation and Reynolds numbers.
Technical Paper

Spray and Combustion Development in a Four-Valve Optical DI Diesel Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-1183
An optical single-cylinder four-valve high speed DI Diesel engine equipped with a high-pressure electronic fuel injection system has been used to obtain information about the spray development, combustion and exhaust emissions (NOx and smoke levels) for a range of operating conditions corresponding to engine speeds between 600 and 1800 rpm, injection pressures up to 1200 bars and fuel injection quantities from idle to full load. Two six-hole vertical mini-sac type injection nozzles with different hole sizes have been employed in order to investigate the effect of nozzle hole diameter on spray formation, combustion and exhaust emissions. Parallel to the experimental programme, a computational investigation of the fuel flow distribution inside the injection system and of the subsequent spray characteristics has been performed in order to assist in the interpretation of the results.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Pressure-Swirl Atomizers for GDI Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0500
A new simulation approach to the modeling of the whole fuel injection process within a common-rail fuel injection system for direct-injection gasoline engines, including the pressure-swirl atomizer and the conical hollow-cone spray formed at the nozzle exit, is presented. The flow development in the common-rail fuel injection system is simulated using an 1-D model which accounts for the wave dynamics within the system and predicts the actual injection pressure and injection rate throughout the nozzle. The details of the flow inside its various flow passages and the discharge hole of the pressure-swirl atomizer are investigated using a two-phase CFD model which calculates the location of the liquid-gas interface using the VOF method and estimates the transient formation of the liquid film developing on the walls of the discharge hole due to the centrifugal forces acting on the swirling fluid.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Cavitation in a Vertical Multi-Hole Injector

1999-03-01
1999-01-0524
An enlarged transparent model of a six-hole vertical diesel injector has been used to allow visualization of the flow at Reynolds and cavitation numbers matching those of real size injectors operating under normal Diesel engine conditions. The visualization system comprised a CCD camera, high-magnification lenses and a spark light source which allowed high-resolution images to be obtained. The flow conditions examined in terms of flow rates and pressures covered the range from low to full load of the real size injector while the needle lift position corresponded to that of full lift of the first- and second- stage in two-stage injectors. In addition, different values of needle eccentricity were tested in order to examine its effect on the cavitation structures within the injection holes.
Technical Paper

Measurements of the Lubricant Film Thickness in the Cylinder of a Firing Diesel Engine Using LIF

1998-10-19
982435
A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been developed to obtain measurements of the instantaneous lubricant film thickness in the piston-cylinder assembly of a firing single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine. Measurements were made at top-dead-centre (TDC), mid-stroke and bottom-dead-centre (BDC) position by means of three fibre optic probes inserted into the cylinder liner and mounted flush with its surface. Following extensive repeatability tests, the cycle-averaged lubricant film thickness was estimated for different multi-grade oils as a function of engine speed, load and temperature. The results quantified the dependence of the film thickness ahead, under and behind the piston rings on oil chemistry and viscometric properties, thus confirming the important role of the LIF technique in the development and formulation of new engine oils.
Technical Paper

Cold-start Measurements of the Lubricant Film Thickness in the Cylinder of a Firing Diesel Engine

1998-10-19
982436
Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) was used in the cylinder liner of a firing single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine to characterise the development of the lubricant film during the first 200 engine cycles under cold-start conditions. The results have provided information on the rate of oil film development which has proved to be a highly unsteady process due to the complicated oil transport processes through the ring-pack.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Flow in the Nozzle of a Vertical Multi-Hole Diesel Engine Injector

1998-02-23
980811
An enlarged transparent model of a six-hole vertical diesel injector has been manufactured in order to allow flow measurements inside the sac volume and the injection holes to be obtained using a combination of laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and the refractive index matching technique under steady state conditions. The measurement points were concentrated in the sac volume close to the entrance of the injection holes as well as inside them on a vertical plane passing through the axis of two injection holes for two different needle lifts. The velocity flow field was characterized in terms of the mean velocity and the turbulent intensity. The results revealed that, under certain conditions, cavitation may occur in the recirculation zone formed at the entrance to the hole since the pressure in this region can reach the value of the vapor pressure of the flowing liquid; this was found to strongly depend on the needle lift and eccentricity.
Technical Paper

Effect of Tumble Strength on Combustion and Exhaust Emissions in a Single-Cylinder, Four-Valve, Spark-Ignition Engine

1998-02-23
981044
Direct flame imaging and pressure analysis were applied to the combustion of gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG) in a single-cylinder, four-valve spark-ignition engine equipped with optical access via quartz windows in the cylinder liner and piston crown. Tests were performed at three engine speed/load conditions and at equivalence ratios of 1.0, 0.9 and 0.8. The four-valve head incorporated two different port geometries, with and without metal sleeves to deflect the intake air flow, in order to investigate the effect of tumble strength on combustion and engine-out emissions of unburned hydrocarbons and NOx. The results showed that sleeving of the intake ports produced a significant increase in IMEP and a reduction in CoV IMEP for both CNG and gasoline, due to the greatly reduced bum duration.
Technical Paper

Droplet Velocity/Size and Mixture Distribution in a Single-Cylinder Four-Valve Spark-Ignition Engine

1998-02-01
981186
Laser Doppler velocimetry, phase Doppler anemometry and Mie scattering were applied to a single-cylinder, four-valve, spark-ignition gasoline research engine equipped with a fully transparent liner and piston, to obtain information about the tumble flow and the droplet size and velocity distributions during induction and compression, for lean air/fuel mixture ratios of 17.5 and 24 and with closed-valve and open-valve fuel injection. The mixture distribution obtained with the two injection strategies was correlated with flame images, pressure analysis and exhaust emissions which confirmed the advantages of combining open-valve injection with tumble to allow stable and efficient engine operation at an air/fuel ratio of 24 through charge stratification and faster flame growth.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation and Combustion in the Dl Diesel Engine

1997-08-06
972681
The diesel engine is the most efficient user of fossil fuels for vehicle propulsion and seems to best fulfill the requirements of the future. It is for this reason that Volkswagen has initiated a very broad research programme for diesels. The purpose of this paper is to build a bridge between fundamental research and technical developments which could allow evaluation of the prospects of direct- injection diesels as powerplants of choice for passenger cars in the turn of the century. The current knowledge on mixture formation, combustion and pollutant formation in diesel engines is presented and discussed with special emphasis given to the concept of the direct-injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Injection Processes on the Structure of Diesel Sprays

1997-02-24
970799
A diesel spray model has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained for different injection and surrounding gas conditions to allow investigation of the relative importance of the different physical processes occurring during the spray development. The model is based on the Eulerian-Lagrangian approximation and the Navier-Stokes equations, simulating the gas motion, are numerically solved on a collocated non-uniform curvilinear non-orthogonal grid, while the spray equation is solved numerically using a Lagrangian particle tracking method. The injection conditions are determined by another recently developed model calculating the flow in the fuel injection system, the sac volume and injection holes area which accounts for the details of the injection velocity, the fuel injection rate per injection hole and occurrence of hole cavitation. Thus, differences between the sprays from inclined multihole injectors can be simulated and analysed.
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