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Technical Paper

Improvement of Fuel Consumption for SI Engines by Combing with Glow Plug Heated Sub-chamber and Lean Burn

2020-10-30
2020-32-2310
Lean burn gasoline engines can achieve noteworthy fuel consumption and power output. However, when the mixture becomes lean, the ignition delay increases, and the flame propagation speed becomes slow, which lead to increase the combustion fluctuation. The glow plug is usually used to solve the cold start problem in diesel engines, where the compression temperature might not be high enough to ensure the proper ignition of the injected fuel, resulting in instability combustion and increased exhaust emissions. Based on this point, the present study intends to install a glow plug to the sub-chamber. Experiments were conducted on a modified single cylinder four-stroke CI engine (YANMAR TF120V) to operate as SI engine with a higher compression ratio compared to the conventional SI engines, 15.1:1. The engine is operated at a constant speed of 1000 rpm for different equivalence ratios with different voltage of glow plug which creates the temperature variation inside the sub-chamber.
Technical Paper

A Full-System Approach to Maximise Energy Efficiency of a Wheel Bearing

2020-10-05
2020-01-1631
Environmental sustainability is morphing Automotive technical development strategies and driving the evolution of vehicles with a speed and a strength hardly foreseeable a decade ago. The entire vehicle architecture is impacted, and energy efficiency becomes one of the most important parameters to reach goals, which are now not only market demands, but also based on regulatory standards with penalty consequences. Therefore, rolling drag from all bearings in multiple rotating parts of the vehicle needs to be reduced; wheel bearings are among the biggest in size regardless of the powertrain architecture (ICE, Hybrid, BEV) and have a significant impact. The design of wheel bearings is a complex balance between features influencing durability, robustness, vehicle dynamics, and, of course, energy efficiency.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Narrow-Band Noise Generation by Automotive Cooling Fans

2020-09-30
2020-01-1513
Axial cooling fans are commonly used in electric vehicles to cool batteries with high heating load. One drawback of the cooling fans is the high aeroacoustic noise level resulting from the fan blades and the obstacles facing the airflow. To create a comfortable cabin environment in the vehicle, and to reduce exterior noise emission, a low-noise installation design of the axial fan is required. The purpose of the project is to develop an efficient computational aeroacoustics (CAA) simulation process to assist the cooling-fan installation design. This paper reports the current progress of the development, where the narrow-band components of the fan noise is focused on. Two methods are used to compute the noise source. In the first method the source is computed from the flow field obtained using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (unsteady RANS, or URANS) model.
Technical Paper

Simulation Process for the Acoustical Excitation of DC-Link Film Capacitors in Highly Integrated Electrical Drivetrains

2020-09-30
2020-01-1500
The advancing electrification of the powertrain is leading towards new challenges in the field of acoustics. Film capacitors used in power electronics are a potential source of high-frequency interfering noise since they are exposed to voltage harmonics. These voltage harmonics are caused by semiconductor switching operations that are necessary to convert the DC voltage of the battery into three-phase alternating current for the electrical machine. In order to predict the acoustic characteristics of the DC-link capacitor at an early stage of development, a multiphysical chain of effects has to be addressed to consider electrical and mechanical influences. In this paper, a new method to evaluate the excitation amplitude of film capacitor windings is presented. The corresponding amplitudes are calculated via an analytical force based on electromechanical couplings of the dielectric within film capacitors.
Technical Paper

The In-Depth PHEV Driveline Torsional Vibration Induced Vehicle NVH Response Study by Integrated CAE/Testing Methodology

2020-09-30
2020-01-1507
In this paper,an amesim 1-d refined driveline model, including detailed engine, damper, dual clutch, transmission, differential, motor, halfshaft, wheel, body, suspension, powertrain mounting and powertrain rigid body, was built up, off a p2.5 topology phev,to predict torsional vibration induced vehicle NVH response addressing differing driving scenarios,like WOT rampup,parking engine start/stop,ev driving to tipnin(engine start) then to tipout(engine stop).firstly,the torsional vibration modes were predicted,addressing differing transmission gear steps of hev/ev driving mode,and the critical modes could be detected,as such, caveats/measures could be applied to setup the modal alignment chart/warn other engineering section from the very start of vehicle development; secondly,secondly,the holistic operational testing,which defined plenty measurement points including rpm fluctuation at differing location of engine/transmission,spark angle,crank position,injection angle,valve timing,MAP/MAF,etc, partly for later model calibration,partly for extract mandatory excitation input,like cylinder pressure trace/mount and suspension force,and partly for the reference of next optimization stage, was implemented on vehicle chassis dyno in a hemi-anechoic chamber.as it was merely centered on torsional vibration induced scenarios,the intake system/exhaust system /engine radiation noise contribution was excluded by specific measures,like BAM,etc, during the testing;thirdly,the NTF/VTF from the mount/suspension force exertion points to vehicle response points were measured off trimmed body impact testing, to create structural TPA model,that way,each transfer path contribution to the response point could be predicted and overall response can be synthesized from all paths;fourthly,the above-mentioned driveline model,combined the excitation on each cylinder considering the gas torque/inertia torque and motor average torque,was well calibrated to predict the mount/suspension force/critical rpm fluctuation/vibration;finally,it was validated that CAE results correlate very well to measurement outcome for defined loadcase, and that can be adopted to phev driveline/vehicle NVH development from the very start of vehicle development phase so as to expedite vehicle NVH developing process.
Technical Paper

Fault Diagnosis of an Engine through Analyzing Vibration Signals on the Block

2020-09-30
2020-01-1568
Unpredictable faults oriented from ambiguous reasons could occur in an engine of a vehicle. However, there are some symptoms from which an engine is working abnormally before the engine is stalled by faults. In this paper, methods for diagnosis of engine faults by using vibrations are proposed. Through bench tests, to extract features for fault diagnosis, various samples with normal and abnormal conditions are prepared and vibration signals from the block of an engine are measured and analyzed. To consider cost and performance of a sensor, vibrations from a knock sensor signal as well as accelerometers are analyzed. Measured vibration signals are synchronized with signal of the crank position sensor and analyzed to detect which event is involved. Modulation analysis and Hilbert transform are applied to extract features representing the symptoms of engine faults and to indicate when the abnormal event happens, respectively.
Technical Paper

Concept Study on Windshield Actuation for Active Control of Wind Noise in a Passenger Car

2020-09-30
2020-01-1535
The windshield is an integral part of almost every modern passenger car. Combined with current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and the integration of lightweight material systems, the reduction of interior noise caused by stochastic and transient wind excitation is deemed to be an increasing challenge for future NVH measures. Active control systems have proven to be a viable alternative compared to traditional passive NVH measures in different areas. However, for windshield actuation there are neither comparative studies nor actually established actuation concepts available to the automotive industry. Based upon a numerical simulation of an installed windshield of a medium-sized car, this paper illustrates a conceptual study of both the evaluation of optimal positioning as well as a consideration of different electromechanical activation measures.
Technical Paper

Development, System Integration and Experimental Investigation of an Active HVAC Noise Control System for a Passenger Car

2020-09-30
2020-01-1538
Current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and consistent lightweight construction increasingly enable the application of active control systems for the further reduction of noise in vehicles. As different stochastic noise sources such as rolling and wind noise as well as noise radiated by the ventilation system are becoming more noticeable and as passive measures for NVH optimization tend to be heavy and construction space intensive, current research activities focus on the active reduction of noise caused by the latter mentioned sources. This paper illustrates the development, implementation and experimental investigation of an active noise control system integrated into the ventilation duct system of a passenger car.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Occupant Ride Comfort by GA Optimized PID Control Active Suspension System

2020-09-30
2020-01-1532
The main objective of this work is to enhance the occupant ride comfort. Ride comfort is quantified in terms of measuring distinct accelerations like sprung mass, seat and occupant head. For this theoretical evaluation, a 7- degrees of freedom (DOF) human-vehicle-road model was established and the system investigation was limited to vertical motion. Besides, this work also focused to guarantee other vehicle performance indices like suspension working space and tire deflection. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was introduced in the vehicle model and optimized with the aid of the genetic algorithm (GA). Actuator dynamics is incorporated into the system. The objective function for PID optimization was carried out using root mean square error (RMSE) concept.
Technical Paper

Engine knock evaluation using a machine learning approach

2020-09-27
2020-24-0005
Artificial Intelligence is becoming very important and useful in several scientific fields. Machine learning methods, such as neural networks and decision trees, are often proposed in applications for internal combustion engines as virtual sensors, faults diagnosis systems and engine performance optimization. The high pressure of the intake air coupled with the demand of lean conditions, in order to reduce emissions, have often close relationship with the knock events. Fuels autoignition characteristics and flame front speed have a significant impact on knock phenomenon and producing high internal cylinder pressures and engine faults. The limitations in using pressure sensors in the racing field and the challenge to reduce the costs of commercial cars, push the replacement of a sensor redundancy with a software redundancy.
Technical Paper

Intake O2 Concentration Estimation in a Turbocharged Diesel Engine through NOE

2020-09-27
2020-24-0002
Diesel engines with their embedded control systems are becoming more and more complex as the emission regulations tighten, especially concerning NOx pollutants. The combustion and emission formation processes in diesel engines are closely correlated to the intake manifold O2 concentration. Consequently, the performance of the main engine controllers can be improved significantly, if a model-based or sensor-based estimation of the intake O2 concentration is available in the ECU. The paper addresses the modeling of the intake manifold O2 concentration in a turbocharged diesel engine. Dynamic models, compared to generally employed steady state maps, capture the dynamic effects occurring over transients. It is right in the transient that the major deviations from the stationary maps are found. The dynamic model will positively affect the control system making it more effective.
Technical Paper

Thermal Imaging of a Li-Ion Battery for the Estimation of the Thermal Parameters and Instantaneous Heat Dissipated

2020-09-27
2020-24-0014
The electrochemical performance of a lithium-ion battery is strongly affected by the temperature. During charge and discharge cycles, batteries are subjected to an increment of temperature that can accelerate aging and loss of efficiency if critical values are reached. Knowing the thermal parameters that affect the heat exchange between the battery surface and the surrounding environment (air, cooling fins, plates, etc…) is fundamental to their thermal management. In this work, thermal imaging is applied to a laminated lithium-ion battery as a non-invasive temperature-indication method. Measurements are taken during the discharge phase and the following cooling down until the battery reaches the ambient temperature. The 2d images are used to analyze the homogeneity of the temperature distribution on the battery surface. Then, experimental results are coupled with mathematical correlations.
Technical Paper

Three-dimensional Tolerance stack utilizing Cetol:Its Importance & usage

2020-09-25
2020-28-0495
Tolerance stack ups are vital to achieve mechanical fit, assembly and performance requirements in any product. Mechanical fit ensures the parts building up the assembly always fit with each other and achieve mechanical performance requirements (can include either performance of a mechanism like actuators, switches etc. or performance of equipment or machines). Tolerance stack up is a technique which calculates the collective effect of part tolerances considering assembly requirement. The logic behind this method is adding tolerances to find total part tolerance and then comparing it with the performance limits (available gap). This allows us to check whether our assembly would work according to the design needs. This comparison, also known as worst case analysis is normally useful for problems involving less numbers of parts and mostly in 1-D.
Technical Paper

Optimal Selection of Steering Mechanism for Electric Vehicles

2020-09-25
2020-28-0446
This paper focuses on an optimal selection of steering mechanisms for electric vehicles (specifically BEV). In the first phase, we try to develop an atlas of steering mechanisms and in the second phase do an optimal steering mechanism selection to be used in the electric vehicle. The steering system is critical for the optimal performance of the e-vehicle. Because of the absence of an engine, the propulsive electric motor is dominant. But whenever BEV moves in city limits, it imposes peculiar constraints leads to the selection of best possible choice of propulsive motor control unit (MCU), battery control unit (BCU) and other relevant controllers of an electric vehicle. Most of the researchers pay attention to the MCU and BCU but ignores the steering system. For the proper functioning of BEVs, we also have to pay attention to the steering system. The steering system incorporates types of mechanisms, linkages, joints, connections to the control motors.
Technical Paper

Influence of Titanium Oxide nanoparticle on Solar Desalination with Phase change Material

2020-09-25
2020-28-0464
The present study is focused on the significance of solar desalination heat storage method. The Solar energy is a prime source of energy existing directly or indirectly from the nature. The primary drawback of solar energy, which is existing in hours of only. Thermal storage devices can overcome this problem as they can store the energy in daylight that can be utilized in off sunshine hours. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the increase in productivity of the solar desalination by using phase change material and combination of PCM with TiO2 (Nano Materials). The present work is focused on performance of solar water desalination using Phase Change Materials along with TiO2 Nano-materials. The Titanium Oxide Nano particle were synthesized by Sol-Gel method. The Titanium oxide Nano materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, FTIR etc. In this experiment paraffin 34-carbons is used as phase change materials and Titanium Oxide Nano material used for energy storage materials.
Technical Paper

Deformation and Failure Behavior of Cylindrical Lithium-ion Batteries Subjected to Mechanical Loading

2020-09-25
2020-28-0484
It is of critical importance to understand the failure behavior of Lithium Ion batteries subjected to mechanical loading order to improve crash safety of electric vehicles. The deformation of battery pack during collision or crash events results in catastrophic events and thus it becomes necessary to study the failure of the battery during crash. The goal of this research is to understand the mechanical and electrical failure characteristics of cylindrical Lithium Ion cells subjected to deformation. This paper talks about the experimental investigations of material failure in the electrode assemblies i.e. the jellyroll of lithium ion batteries after mechanical loading which eventually leads to electrical failure, short circuit and at times violent thermal runaway scenarios.
Technical Paper

Predicting Life-cycle Estimation of Electric Vehicle Battery Pack through degradation by Self Discharge and Fast Charging

2020-09-25
2020-28-0435
Electrical mobility is an emerging mode of transportation, causing rapid growth of battery pack usage in electric vehicles. These battery packs were having limited working life to be used in electric Vehicles. In addition, the disposal is becoming as a major threat to an environment. So there is a need to increase the working life of battery pack used in electric vehicles, to reduce the burden on environment. In this regard, this paper is focused on studying the life cycle estimation of battery pack. Battery pack degradation was observed through its self-discharge pattern and also due to the urge in increasing the rate of charging. Research study was focused on understanding the degradation rate due to self-discharge and also due to fast charging patterns in battery packs. This degradation rate was used as the key factor in estimating the working life of battery pack for electric vehicle application.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of A Fighter Aircraft Cabin Temperature Control System Using Amesim

2020-09-25
2020-28-0497
Environmental Control System (ECS) of an aircraft is a complex system which operates classically in an air standard refrigeration cycle. ECS controls the temperature, pressure and flow of supply air to the cockpit, cabin or occupied compartments. The air cycle system of ECS takes engine bleed air as input. Parameters like bleed air pressure and temperature, mass flow, the external factors like ambient temperature, pressure, and aircraft attitude affect the performance of ECS to a large extent especially during transient. So, it is very important to consider the transient characteristics of these parameters in the design stage itself in order to ascertain the dynamic response of the system. This paper explains in detail the importance of transient input characteristics during the detailed design of ECS. A typical temperature control scheme for combat aircraft ECS has been studied and modeled in LMS AMESim.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on various layouts of Phase Change Materials based Battery Module used in Electric Vehicles

2020-09-25
2020-28-0499
The future of automobile industry is moving towards the electrification of vehicles due to the increase in pollution and Global-Warming. In this contest a suitable Battery Thermal Management system(BTMS) needs to be incorporated for efficient operation of batteries. The battery performance is greatly affected by operating temperature, and the successful control of its temperature improves performance which ensures the safe operation and extends lifespan. In the recent years many researches are going on to adopt phase change materials for BTMS. Since the Phase Change material is of the passive cooling system, it does not require any additional power source for its operation. The Current study is an attempt towards the optimization of the battery using PCM by varying the shape and cell spacing for paraffin based PCM Material. In the present work Computational analysis is carried out to analyse the thermal performance of various shapes of battery module.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Belt driven starter generator electric motor shaft and claw poles press fit simulation and correlation with physical measurements.

2020-09-25
2020-28-0488
Belt-driven starter generator claw pole electric motors are used in hybrid automobiles to start the engine, charge the battery and to power the electrical system when its engine is running. Shaft and claw pole are important components in the claw pole electric motor. The shaft is fitted into the claw pole through press-fit force. Press-fit is a widely used fastening process to join two different components by pushing a component inside or over another component with high press force which will create a strong bond between the components. Determining press-fit force required to assemble parts is very complex since it depends on a lot of factors such as mechanical material properties of components, interference fit condition whether it is in Min, mean and max condition, amount of contact pressure induced by contact surface, co-efficient of friction created in between components. The press-fit will help to prevent loosening components from its bond at high torque and speed.
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