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Technical Paper

Human Health Risk Assessment of Space Radiation

2020-03-10
2020-01-0020
Mars has been the topic of colonization and discovery for the last few decades but there have been hindrances in implementing the mission. This focus on Mars colonization has only deepened after the discovery of water on its surface. The discovery of water on Mars has led researchers to believe that its sustainability of life is higher than any other uncolonized planet. Although, life can survive on Mars, it is highly unethical to send communities to Mars without acknowledging the risks, especially those concerning the well being of humans. The risks of living on Mars are slowly unraveling through extensive research, but it is evident that certain health care measures must be taken in order to prevent potentially fatal conditions. One of the biggest problems is health concerns that astronauts face after returning from Mars. Health problems in space have been increasingly difficult to deal with because of the lasting circumstances that astronauts suffer upon returning back to Earth.
Technical Paper

Daytime visibility aspects under alternative use of headlamps

2020-01-13
2019-36-0072
Daytime visibility represents one of the most important themes in automotive safety. Some accidents, especially frontal collisions, used to occur as a result of a bad recognition of vehicle presence. In order to keep vehicles more visible during the day, there is a luminous device called Daytime Running Lamp (DRL). Nowadays DRL is not mandatory in Brazil, but it will be in 2021 for new vehicles. As with any situation that involves technological transitions, some questions appear, among them: how to equalize the market, in terms of daytime visibility, considering newer and older vehicles together? How to improve visibility in older vehicles that were not designed with DRL? The answer maybe lies in the alternative usage of automotive headlamps. Among other facts, one luminous device for two functions can result in safety improvements without unexpected investments. Therefore, how can this technically be achieved?
Technical Paper

Three-dimensional dynamics of a three-axle vehicle considering the suspension geometry according to the kinematic transformers method

2020-01-13
2019-36-0237
The purpose of this work is to model the dynamics of a three-dimensional three-axle vehicle subjected to certain excitations from the ground and considering the geometry and inertia of the suspension elements according to the “kinematic transformers” method. The chassis is considered a rigid body with six degrees of freedom (three positions and rotations). The tire is a compliant element, which receives vibration from the ground and transmits to the wheel. Unlike simpler computational models, which make a direct connection between the wheel and the chassis by means of a spring and damper, the influence of the suspension geometry and inertia of its elements are considered. In this case of study, the suspension studied is the independent MacPherson in each wheel, although the methodology would be applied to other kind of suspensions, once its geometry is known. The kinematic transformers method is applied to study the cinematics of the suspension.
Technical Paper

Footrest Design to Reduce Lower Leg Injury in Frontal Crashes

2020-01-13
2019-36-0090
The frontal impact is the most common vehicle crash type in accidents involving cars. During a vehicle frontal impact, the injuries are caused by occupant body moving forward and impacting the vehicle interior parts. The performance of the vehicle body and the interior parts design may influence on the occupant injury levels. Injuries in the occupant lower body are usually affected by the vehicle lower body deformation and the design of the interior lower parts (lower instrument panel, pedals, floor and footrest). When the purpose is to reduce the injury of a specific body region, the modification of the interior part design can be more effective in terms of impacts in mass, costs and development time than a modification in the vehicle body. The objective of the study was to develop a new footrest design to reduce the injury level of the left driver leg in a frontal crash condition. It was also evaluated the influence of the vehicle body deformation on the driver leg injury.
Technical Paper

Robustness Design to Avoid Noise on Exterior Handle System

2020-01-13
2019-36-0137
Squeak and rattle are two undesirable occurrences during component operation and during vehicle driving condition, resulting in one of the top complains from costumers. One common grievance could happen during the user exterior handle operation and during side door closing. The exterior handle system during the operation could generate a squeak between interface parts, if materials and geometric tolerances was not been carefully designed. Also, vibration generated during door closing effort, might generate squeak between parts since the reinforcement for exterior handle touches the outer sheet metal internally. For this reason several guidelines might be included to avoid potential noise condition for this system during vehicle lifetime as correct material reduce friction between parts, taking into consideration the geometric condition between parts. Plus, coupling system on handles two pieces should also be evaluated to avoid squeak during use.
Technical Paper

Resolution 751/18 - Implementation of WorldSID in Side Impact Protocols in Brazil

2020-01-13
2019-36-0201
On the 20th December 2018 DENATRAN (Departamento Nacional de Trânsito) published a new resolution that establishes future vehicle performance requirements in pole side Impacts in Brazil (Resolution 751/18). This new resolution gives the option to comply with Annex II (equivalent to UN R.135) or Annex III (equivalent to FMVSS 214). Although this will be applicable to new vehicle registrations from the 1st January 2030, it is possible to anticipate its total or partial adoption. This paper will focus on the effect of implementing UN R.135 and, specifically, on the differences found by using the WorldSID (World Side Impact Dummy) 50th Percentile Dummy instead of its predecessor (EuroSID-II) for this test. The above-mentioned side impact test will consist of a side impact test at 32 km/h against a rigid pole. The tested vehicle will be rotated 75° from the direction of impact and the only vehicle occupant will be a WorldSID dummy in the driver position.
Technical Paper

Implementation, Improvement and Statistical Validation of Scoring by Milling Process on an Instrument Panel with In-Mold Grain Lamination

2020-01-13
2019-36-0155
This paper starts describing the in-mold grain lamination and bilaminated film cover when applied to instrument panels with seamless passenger air bag doors. It then offers a comparison between two different PAB door weakening processes, the laser scoring and the scoring by milling. It further discuss the scoring by milling process and analyses its implementation on a real case instrument panel. In the implementation case, the scoring pattern is checked against a pre-defined engineering specification and correlated to the results of a drop tower test, which shows the force necessary to break the PAB door. Three iterations are performed until the results for scoring pattern and breaking force are achieved. The breaking force results are then statistically validated against the specification and capability analysis.
Technical Paper

Mass Optimization of a Front Floor Reinforcement

2020-01-13
2019-36-0149
Optimization of heavy materials like steel, in order to create a lighter vehicle, it is a major goal among most automakers, since heavy vehicles simply cannot compete with a lightweight model's fuel economy. Thinking this way, this paper shows a case study where the Size Optimization technique is applied to a front floor reinforcement. The reinforcement is used by two different vehicles, a subcompact and a crossover Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV), increasing the problem complexity. The Size Optimization technique is supported by Finite Element Method (FEM) tools. FEM in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) is a numerical method for solving engineering problems, and its use can help to optimize prototype utilization and physical testing.
Technical Paper

Impact of Wheel-Housing on Aerodynamic Drag and Effect on Energy Consumption on an Electric Bus Body

2019-11-21
2019-28-2394
Role of wheel and underbody aerodynamics of vehicle in the formation of drag forces is detrimental to the fuel (energy) consumption during the course of operation at high velocities. This paper deals with the CFD simulation of the flow around the wheels of a bus with different wheel housing arrangements. Based on benchmarking, a model of a bus is selected and analysis is performed. The aerodynamic drag coefficient is obtained and turbulence around wheels is observed using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation for different combinations of wheel-housing- at the front wheels, at the rear wheels and both in the front and rear wheels. The drag force is recorded and corresponding influence on energy consumption of a bus is evaluated mathematically. A comparison is drawn between energy consumption of bus body without wheel housing and bus body with wheel housing. The result shows a significant reduction in drag coefficient and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Performance Gains of Load Sensing Brake Force Distribution in Motorcycles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2426
Commercial motorcycles and scooters incorporate independent circuits for front and rear brake actuation, thus precluding load-dependent brake force distribution. In all cases of manual brake force modulation between the front and rear wheels, there is poor compensation for the changes in wheel loads on the account of longitudinal weight transfer, thus making it challenging to provide an adequate braking force to each wheel. The ratio in which the braking force should be distributed between the front and the rear wheels is dependent on the motorcycle’s geometry, weight distribution, mechanical sizing of braking system components, and is a variable based on the instantaneous deceleration. This connotes that a fixed bias of front and rear braking forces can be optimized only for a narrow range of motorcycle’s deceleration. Maximum braking performance occurs just prior to wheel lock-up, as a sliding tire provides less grip than a rolling tire.
Technical Paper

Proposed Model to Implement a Blockchain for Secure Vehicle to Vehicle Communication

2019-11-21
2019-28-2433
This paper proposes a model to implement a blockchain network that can host a system of autonomous vehicles which communicate through generic V2V protocols like DSRC and CV2X. The blockchain will be designed to function like a global database for V2V communication. The purpose behind the proposal of this model was to ensure a transparent and secure network between all autonomous vehicles which indirectly leads to reduced traffic congestion and takes us a step closer to zero crashes. This is made possible by the blockchain ledger’s enhanced encryption systems.
Technical Paper

Location and Call Frequency Based Emergency Dial Enabler

2019-11-21
2019-28-2457
Emergency calls made by in-vehicle systems in the event of a crash , serious incident or manually by a vehicle occupant assist in significantly reducing road deaths and injuries. But still there are more road accidents happen due to abnormality of driver and fatality rate tend to increase because of this. Drivers have a poor health issues, especially when they travel for long, they may get drowsiness and this leads to lack of concentration while driving and because of this concentration issue any serious issue can happen to the driver. This serious conditions can be totally unavoided. This invention provides the solution for contacting the people, who is known to victim very well. during emergency conditions. This may assist victim to get a immediate medical help.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Cost Lifesaving System for Automotive Vehicles during Road Accidents

2019-11-21
2019-28-2460
Vehicular accidents are life-threatening and result in fatal casualties in developing country such as India. According to estimates, traffic accidents kill more people in India than diseases like Cancer and AIDS. More than 150,000 people are killed every year in traffic accidents in India, which works out to 400 fatalities a day, far higher than developed auto markets like the U.S., which had logged about 40,000 deaths in 2016. The World Health Organization estimates road accidents cost most countries about 3 per cent of their gross domestic product. India being the fastest growing economy will be the world’s third-largest car market after China and the U.S. by 2020, according to automobile researchers. According to research study most of death cause due to not getting help on time to the injured person. Research has proven that if injured person is not found any option of help then they also lose the power to fight such critical situation due to psychological effect.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Pressure Variation in Wheel Using Statistical Methods

2019-11-21
2019-28-2450
Tire is one of the significant components of the vehicle, and so its characteristics for proper functioning of vehicle. Tire characteristics relies on number of factors including pressure in tire, construction of the tire and thread pattern. Of these, the factor of our interest is tire pressure. Maintaining proper tire pressure becomes necessity, as it causes several undesired effects which in turn affect the motorcycle performance. Hence, pressure variations should be detected as one of the safety measures. Wheel speed based detection of tire pressure is not observed before in motorcycles. In this approach only, software algorithm is needed to complete the system to measure pressure, no extra hardware is required. The paper presents a method to analyze variation in tire pressure by using the wheel speed sensor. The idea is to detect pressure variations in the wheel with respect to nominal pressure using data obtained from wheel speed sensor.
Technical Paper

Vision Based Solution for Auto-Maneuvering of Vehicle for Emerging Market

2019-11-21
2019-28-2517
Advance Active Safety Systems play a preventive role in mitigating crashes and accidents by providing warning, additional assistance to the driver and maneuverability of vehicle by itself. Some of the features include forward collision warning system and lane departure warning system activate a warning alert when potentially dangerous situations are detected. These active safety features present in developed markets work with Fusion based algorithm combining Radar, Lidar, Camera, Ultrasonic sensor’s input. Application of these algorithms are Intelligent Cruise Control, Collision avoidance, parking assistance, identify pedestrian etc. The complexity of the algorithm, cost of the control unit and road infrastructure are hindrance to emerging market. The solution presented in this paper is towards camera-based solution, describing the method to determine the predictive path, that is obstacle free space and use the predictive space to navigate or steer.
Technical Paper

Injury Reduction in Vehicle to Pedestrian Collision Using Deployable Pedestrian Protection System in Vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2551
Head injuries are the main source of road fatalities when a pedestrian or other vulnerable road user (VRU) such as cyclist or motorcyclist is involved in an accident with the approaching high speed vehicle. The frontal part of a car such as engine hood (bonnet), lower-windshield area and A-pillars are the possible location of head impact in these accidents. The head impact with hard points located in these areas may result in the fatal head injuries. The effect of impact can be reduced by using the deployable pedestrian protection systems (DPPS) such as pop-up hoods and windshield airbag in the vehicle. The study indicates how these systems are effective in reducing the fatalities in pedestrian accidents and how to evaluate the performance of these deployable systems. The pedestrian & VRU road fatalities contribute to more than 33percent of total road fatalities in India.
Technical Paper

Mass Optimized Hood Design for Conflicting Performances

2019-11-21
2019-28-2546
Passenger vehicles have stringent safety regulations for pedestrian protection to meet child and adult head impact requirements to minimize injuries. These pedestrian safety requirements often conflict with stiffness and durability performance criteria, which pose a challenge for most automotive OEMs. There is a growing need for performance balancing to meet both these loadcases. This paper uses Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) approach involving shape variables to achieve optimized performance for stiffness, durability and pedestrian safety. The current study describes an approach that helps reduce time and efforts needed to resolve performance issues between both stiffness/durability and Pedestrian safety requirements. This approach not only helps find a feasible cross-functional solution but also provides an opportunity to reduce the overall development cycle time and mass whenever possible.
Technical Paper

A New Appraisal of the Thermomechanical Behaviour of a Hybrid Composite Brake Disc in a Formula Vehicle

2019-11-21
2019-28-2572
The present work promotes a hybrid composite brake disc for thermal and structural analysis of a formula vehicle. In order to reduce the un-sprung weight without compromising the strength, hybrid composite materials were incorporated in the disc plates of the braking system. In the disk brake system, the disc is a major part of a device used for slowing or stopping the rotation of a wheel. Repetitive braking of the vehicle leads to heat generation during each braking condition. Based on the practical understanding the brake disc was remodeled with unique slotting patterns and grooves, using the selected aluminium alloy of (AA8081) with reinforcement particle of 15wt% Silicon carbide (SiC) and 3wt% Graphite (Gr) as a hybrid composite material for this proposed work. By varying slotting pattern and groove angles the transient thermal and structural analysis using ANSYS workbench on the hybrid composite disc plate of disk brake is done.
Technical Paper

Effect of Tyre Inflation Pressure on Rolling Resistance: Comparing the Values of Coefficient of Rolling Resistance and Rolling Resistance at Variable Tyre Inflation Pressure

2019-11-21
2019-28-2415
1.  Rolling resistance, is nothing but the rolling drag, is the force resisting the motion when a body rolls on a surface. It is mainly caused by non-elastic effects; that is, not all the energy needed for deformation of the wheel, roadbed, etc. It is recovered when the pressure is removed, in the form of hysteresis losses and permanent deformation of the tyre surface. So, the rolling resistance contributes to the deformation of roadbed as well as tyre surface of the vehicle. Factors contributing in rolling resistance are tyre inflation pressure, wheel diameter, speed, load on wheel, surface adhesion, sliding and relative micro-sliding between the surfaces of contact. In this concerned paper we are significantly working on effect of tyre inflation pressure on rolling resistance and taking all other factors constraint.
Technical Paper

Load Distribution Optimization of Seatbelt Using Validated Finite Element Approach

2019-11-21
2019-28-2575
The seat belt system is one of most important component of the safety instrument family in a vehicle. The main purpose of seat belt is to minimize the injuries by preventing the occupant from impacting hard on interior parts of the vehicle and also the passenger from being thrown-out from the vehicle in case of rollover accidents. The standard three-point belt is mounted in the vehicle at three locations namely Anchor, D-ring and Buckle. The position of anchorages is very important to distribute the impact load evenly to the occupants. Very high load in any of these locations could cause breakage of the mountings and also concentrated loading on the occupant chest of pelvis. Current study mainly focuses on the seatbelt assembly performance improvement against UNECE-R16 sled test. The sled test was carried out first using 28g peak acceleration pulse and measurement of forces at shoulder and anchor position was measured using the load cell.
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