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Standard

A Current Assessment of Combining Distortion Types

2019-07-22
WIP
AIR9975
This document will address techniques or methods that have been used within the industry to address the problem of engine stability margin accounting when combinations of distortion types exist in an aircraft installation. Its focus is combining temperature, planar wave, and swirl distortion with time-variant spatial total pressure distortion. Example methodologies will be presented along with example cases where co-existing distortions have been evaluated. It will also address the areas where the industries' knowledge base is lacking (experimental data or computational methods) and the future work that is needed for methodology development in these areas. This document is viewed to be updated every five years as more information (data either experimentally or analytically) becomes available.
Standard

Assessment of the Inlet/Engine Total Temperature Distortion Problem

2017-11-21
CURRENT
AIR5867
This report revises ARD50015 document to the AIR format. This report, as was the original, is intended to complement ARP1420C and AIR1419C documents issued by the SAE S-16 Committee on spatial total-pressure distortion. These previous documents addressed only total-pressure distortion and excluded total temperature distortion. The subject of inlet total temperature distortion is addressed in this report with some background and identification of the problem area. The status of past efforts is reviewed, and an attempt is made to define where we are today. Deficiencies, voids, and limitations in knowledge and test techniques for total temperature distortion are identified.
Standard

Inlet Total-Pressure-Distortion Considerations for Gas-Turbine Engines

2017-11-20
CURRENT
AIR1419C
This document addresses many of the significant issues associated with effects of inlet total-pressure distortion on turbine-engine performance and stability. It provides a review of the development of techniques used to assess engine stability margins in the presence of inlet total-pressure distortion. Specific performance and stability issues that are covered by this document include total-pressure recovery and turbulence effects and steady and dynamic inlet total-pressure distortion.
Standard

Statistical Stability Assessment

2016-03-16
CURRENT
AIR5656A
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a methodology for performing a statistical assessment of gas-turbine-engine stability-margin usage. Consideration is given to vehicle usage, fleet size, and environment to provide insight into the probability of encountering an in-service engine stall event. Current industry practices, such as ARP1420, supplemented by AIR1419, and engine thermodynamic models, are used to determine and quantify the contribution of individual stability threats. The statistical technique adopted by the S-16 committee for performing a statistical stability assessment is the Monte Carlo method (see Applicable References 1 and 2). While other techniques may be suitable, their application is beyond the scope of this document. The intent of the document is to present a methodology and process to construct a statistical-stability-assessment model for use on a specific system and its mission or application.
Standard

Simulating Inlet Dynamic Total-Pressure Distortion

2015-09-03
WIP
AIR6345
The guidelines addressed in this Aerospace Information Report (AIR) applies only to the simulation and subsequent data-reduction of inlet total-pressure distortion data from Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). The guidelines can be used as part of a turbine-engine inlet-flow-distortion methodology.
Standard

Inlet Total-Pressure-Distortion Considerations for Gas-Turbine Engines

2013-05-28
HISTORICAL
AIR1419B
This document addresses many of the significant issues associated with effects of inlet total-pressure distortion on turbine-engine performance and stability. It provides a review of the development of techniques used to assess engine stability margins in the presence of inlet total-pressure distortion. Specific performance and stability issues that are covered by this document include total-pressure recovery and turbulence effects and steady and dynamic inlet total-pressure distortion.
Standard

Flow Descriptors for Characterization of Turbine Engine Inlet Distortion

2011-08-04
WIP
ARP6420
The turbine-engine inlet flow distortion descriptors summarized in this document apply to the effects of inlet total-pressure, planar wave, total-temperature, and swirl distortion. Guidelines on stability margin, destabilizing phenomena, types and purposes of inlet data, AIP definition, and data acquisition and handling are summarized.
Standard

Quality Pressure Measurements for Determining Inlet Distortion

2011-08-01
WIP
AIR6465
This document addresses many of the issues and challenges related to obtaining high quality measurements at the designated Aerodynamic Interface Plane (AIP) necessary to characterize the flow field. The intent is to consolidate information needed to understand the requirements, and techniques for obtaining quality measurements, and provide lessons learned from previous test programs. This document applies to Ground (wind tunnel and engine test) and Flight testing for inlet recovery and distortion for air vehicles.
Standard

A Methodology for Assessing Inlet Swirl Distortion

2010-10-25
CURRENT
AIR5686
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) addresses the subject of aircraft inlet-swirl distortion. A structured methodology for characterizing steady-state swirl distortion in terms of swirl descriptors and for correlating the swirl descriptors with loss in stability pressure ratio is presented. The methodology is to be considered in conjunction with other SAE inlet distortion methodologies. In particular, the combined effects of swirl and total-pressure distortion on stability margin are considered. However, dynamic swirl, i.e., time-variant swirl, is not considered. The implementation of the swirl assessment methodology is shown through both computational and experimental examples. Different types of swirl distortion encountered in various engine installations and operations are described, and case studies which highlight the impact of swirl on engine stability are provided. Supplemental material is included in the appendices.
Standard

Statistical Stability Assessment

2008-03-04
HISTORICAL
AIR5656
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a methodology for performing a statistical assessment of gas-turbine-engine stability-margin usage. Consideration is given to vehicle usage, fleet size, and environment to provide insight into the probability of encountering an in-service engine stall event. Current industry practices, such as ARP1420, supplemented by AIR1419, and engine thermodynamic models, are used to determine and quantify the contribution of individual stability threats. The statistical technique adopted by the S-16 committee for performing a statistical stability assessment is the Monte Carlo method (see Applicable References 1 and 2). While other techniques may be suitable, their application is beyond the scope of this document. The intent of the document is to present a methodology and process to construct a statistical-stability-assessment model for use on a specific system and its mission or application.
Standard

Inlet Total-Pressure-Distortion Considerations for Gas-Turbine Engines

1999-03-01
HISTORICAL
AIR1419A
AIR1419 “Inlet Total Pressure Distortion Considerations for Gas Turbine Engines” documents engineering information for use as reference material and for guidance. Inlet total-pressure distortion and other forms of flow distortion that can influence inlet/engine compatibility require examination to establish their effect on engine stability and performance. This report centers on inlet-generated total-pressure distortion measured at the Aerodynamic Interface Plane (AIP), not because this is necessarily the sole concern, but because it has been given sufficient attention in the aircraft and engine communities to produce generally accepted engineering practices for dealing with it. The report does not address procedures for dealing with performance destabilizing influences other than those due to total-pressure distortion, or with the effects of any distortion on aeroelastic stability.
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