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Technical Paper

Analysis and Automated Detection of Ice Crystal Icing Conditions Using Geostationary Satellite Datasets and In Situ Ice Water Content Measurements

2019-06-10
2019-01-1953
Recent studies have found that high mass concentrations of ice particles in regions of deep convective storms can adversely impact aircraft engine and air probe (e.g. pitot tube and air temperature) performance. Radar reflectivity in these regions suggests that they are safe for aircraft penetration, yet high ice water content (HIWC) is still encountered. The aviation weather community seeks additional remote sensing methods for delineating where ice particle (or crystal) icing conditions are likely to occur, including products derived from geostationary (GEO) satellite imagery that is now available in near-real time at increasingly high spatio-temporal detail from the global GEO satellite constellation.
Technical Paper

Radar Detection of High Concentrations of Ice Particles - Methodology and Preliminary Flight Test Results

2019-06-10
2019-01-2028
High Ice Water Content (HIWC) has been identified as a primary causal factor in numerous engine events over the past two decades. Previous attempts to develop a remote detection process utilizing modern commercial radars have failed to produce reliable results. This paper discusses the reasons for previous failures and describes a new technique that has shown very encouraging accuracy and range performance without the need for any modifications to industry’s current radar design(s). The performance of this new process was evaluated during the joint NASA/FAA HIWC RADAR II Flight Campaign in August of 2018. Results from that evaluation are discussed, along with the potential for commercial application, and development of minimum operational performance standards for future radar products.
Technical Paper

Summary of the High Ice Water Content (HIWC) RADAR Flight Campaigns

2019-06-10
2019-01-2027
NASA and the FAA conducted two flight campaigns to quantify onboard weather radar measurements with in-situ measurements of high concentrations of ice crystals found in deep convective storms. The ultimate goal of this research was to improve the understanding of high ice water content (HIWC) and develop onboard weather radar processing techniques to detect regions of HIWC ahead of an aircraft to enable tactical avoidance of the potentially hazardous conditions. Both HIWC RADAR campaigns utilized the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory equipped with a Honeywell RDR-4000 weather radar and in-situ microphysical instruments to characterize the ice crystal clouds. The purpose of this paper is to summarize how these campaigns were conducted and highlight key results. The first campaign was conducted in August 2015 with a base of operations in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Effects of Simulated Ice Accretion on a Generic Transport Model

2011-06-13
2011-38-0065
An experimental research effort was begun to develop a database of airplane aerodynamic characteristics with simulated ice accretion over a large range of incidence and sideslip angles. Wind-tunnel testing was performed at the NASA Langley 12-ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel using a 3.5% scale model of the NASA Langley Generic Transport Model. Aerodynamic data were acquired from a six-component force and moment balance in static-model sweeps from α = -5 to 85 deg. and β = -45 to 45 deg. at a Reynolds number of 0.24x10⁶ and Mach number of 0.06. The 3.5% scale GTM was tested in both the clean configuration and with full-span artificial ice shapes attached to the leading edges of the wing, horizontal and vertical tail. Aerodynamic results for the clean airplane configuration compared favorably with similar experiments carried out on a 5.5% scale GTM.
Technical Paper

Nowcasting Aircraft Icing Conditions in the Presence of Multilayered Clouds Using Meteorological Satellite Data

2011-06-13
2011-38-0041
Cloud properties retrieved from satellite data are used to diagnose aircraft icing threat in single layer and multilayered ice-over-liquid clouds. The algorithms are being applied in real time to the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data over the CONUS with multilayer data available over the eastern CONUS. METEOSAT data are also used to retrieve icing conditions over western Europe. The icing algorithm's methodology and validation are discussed along with future enhancements and plans. The icing risk product is available in image and digital formats on NASA Langley ‘s Cloud and Radiation Products web site, http://www-angler.larc.nasa.gov.
Technical Paper

Thermal Model Correlation for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

2007-07-09
2007-01-3243
The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005 and began aerobraking at Mars in March 2006. In order to save propellant, MRO used aerobraking to modify the initial orbit at Mars. The spacecraft passed through the atmosphere briefly on each orbit; during each pass the spacecraft was slowed by atmospheric drag, thus lowering the orbit apoapsis. The largest area on the spacecraft, most affected by aeroheating, was the solar arrays. A thermal analysis of the solar arrays was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center to simulate their performance throughout the entire roughly 6-month period of aerobraking. A companion paper describes the development of this thermal model. This model has been correlated against many sets of flight data. Several maneuvers were performed during the cruise to Mars, such as thruster calibrations, which involve large abrupt changes in the spacecraft orientation relative to the sun.
Technical Paper

NASA Personal Air Transportation Technologies

2006-08-30
2006-01-2413
The ability to personalize air travel through the use of an on-demand, highly distributed air transportation system will provide the degree of freedom and control that Americans enjoy in other aspects of their life. This new capability, of traveling when, where, and how we want with greatly enhanced mobility, accessibility, and speed requires vehicle and airspace technologies to provide the equivalent of an internet PC ubiquity, to an air transportation system that now exists as a centralized hub and spoke mainframe NASA airspace related research in this new category of aviation has been conducted through the Small Aircraft Transportation (SATS) project, while the vehicle technology efforts have been conducted in the Personal Air Vehicle sector of the Vehicle Systems Program.
Technical Paper

Risk Assessment and Shielding Design for Long-Term Exposure to Ionizing Space Radiation

2006-07-17
2006-01-2108
NASA is now focused on the agency's vision for space exploration encompassing a broad range of human and robotic missions including missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. As a result, there is a focus on long duration space missions. NASA is committed to the safety of the missions and the crew, and there is an overwhelming emphasis on the reliability issues for space missions and the habitat. The cost effective design of the spacecraft demands a very stringent requirement on the optimization process. Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space and/or long duration missions is ‘the show stopper.’ Thus, protection from the hazards of severe space radiation is of paramount importance to the new vision. It is envisioned to have long duration human presence on the Moon for deep space exploration. As NASA is looking forward to exploration in deep space, there is a need to go beyond current technology to the technology of the future.
Technical Paper

Development of the Temperature Control Scheme for the CALIPSO Integrated Lidar Transmitter Subsystem

2006-07-17
2006-01-2277
Following the satellite-level thermal vacuum test for the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation spacecraft, project thermal engineers determined that the radiator used to cool the Integrated Lidar Transmitter subsystem during its operation was oversized. In addition, the thermal team also determined that the operational heaters were undersized, thus creating two related problems. Without the benefit of an additional thermal vacuum test, it was necessary to develop and prove by analysis a laser temperature control scheme using the available resources within the spacecraft along with proper resizing of the radiator. A resizing methodology and new laser temperature control scheme were devised that allowed, with a minimum of 20% heater power margin, the operating laser to maintain temperature at the preferable set point. This control scheme provided a solution to a critical project problem.
Technical Paper

Radiation Environment Modeling for the Planet Mars

2005-07-11
2005-01-2832
In view of manned missions targeted to Mars, for which radiation exposure is one of the greatest challenges to be tackled, it is of fundamental importance to have available a tool, which allows the determination of the particle flux and spectra at any time at any point of the Martian surface. With this goal in mind, a new model for the radiation environment to be found on the planet Mars due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) has been developed. Primary particle environments computed for Martian conditions are transported within the Mars atmosphere, with temporal properties modeled with variable timescales, down to the surface, with topography and backscattering patterns taken into account. The atmospheric chemical and isotopic composition has been modeled over results from the in-situ Viking Lander measurements for both major and minor components.
Technical Paper

Nuclear Radiation Fields on the Mars Surface: Risk Analysis for Long-term Living Environment

2005-07-11
2005-01-2833
Mars, our nearest planet outward from the sun, has been targeted for several decades as a prospective site for expanded human habitation. Background space radiation exposures on Mars are expected to be orders of magnitude higher than on Earth. Recent risk analysis procedures based on detailed dosimetric techniques applicable to sensitive human organs have been developed along with experimental data regarding cell mutation rates resulting from exposures to a broad range of particle types and energy spectra. In this context, simulated exposure and subsequent risk for humans in residence on Mars are examined. A conceptual habitat structure, CAD-modeled with duly considered inherent shielding properties, has been implemented. Body self-shielding is evaluated using NASA standard computerized male and female models.
Technical Paper

Performance Characterization of a Lithium-Ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

2004-11-02
2004-01-3166
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Super-cooled Liquid Water Cloud Properties Derived from Satellite and Aircraft Measurements

2003-06-16
2003-01-2156
A theoretically based algorithm to derive super-cooled liquid water (SLW) cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties is applied to operational satellite data and compared to pilot reports (PIREPS – from commercial and private aircraft) of icing and to in-situ measurements collected from a NASA icing research aircraft. The method has been shown to correctly identify the existence of SLW provided there are no higher-level ice crystal clouds (i.e. cirrus) above the SLW deck. The satellite-derived SLW cloud properties, particularly the cloud temperature, optical thickness or water path and water droplet size, show good qualitative correspondence with aircraft observations and icing intensity reports. Preliminary efforts to quantify the relationship between the satellite retrievals, PIREPS and aircraft measurements are reported here. The goal is to determine the extent to which the satellite-derived cloud parameters can be used to improve icing diagnoses and forecasts.
Technical Paper

Near-Real-Time Satellite Cloud Products for Icing Detection and Aviation Weather over the USA

2003-06-16
2003-01-2097
A set of physically based retrieval algorithms has been developed to derive from multispectral satellite imagery a variety of cloud properties that can be used to diagnose icing conditions when upper-level clouds are absent. The algorithms are being applied in near-real time to the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data over Florida, the Southern Great Plains, and the midwestern USA. The products are available in image and digital formats on the world-wide web. The analysis system is being upgraded to analyze GOES data over the CONUS. Validation, 24-hour processing, and operational issues are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Impact of a Weather Information System Display on General Aviation Pilot Workload and Performance

2002-04-16
2002-01-1522
The effect on general aviation (GA) pilots' abilities to fly a small airplane while using a prototype data-linked weather information system (WIS) display, located in various cockpit positions, was investigated in comparison to the effect on their flying of acquiring weather information through conventional means. Ten GA pilots performed en route flying tasks of varying difficulty while concurrently performing weather information acquisition tasks. Pilots' subjective workload ratings, weather information acquisition times and accuracy levels, and preliminary flight path parameter deviation data indicate that using a WIS display results in smaller flight path parameter deviations, lower workload, and faster and slightly more accurate information retrieval than when weather information is obtained via the radio.
Technical Paper

International Space Station Radiation Shielding Model Development

2001-07-09
2001-01-2370
The projected radiation levels within the International Space Station (ISS) have been criticized by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in their report to the NASA Administrator. Methods for optimal reconfiguration and augmentation of the ISS shielding are now being developed. The initial steps are to develop reconfigurable and realistic radiation shield models of the ISS modules, develop computational procedures for the highly anisotropic radiation environment, and implement parametric and organizational optimization procedures. The targets of the redesign process are the crew quarters where the astronauts sleep and determining the effects of ISS shadow shielding of an astronaut in a spacesuit. The ISS model as developed will be reconfigurable to follow the ISS. Swapping internal equipment rack assemblies via location mapping tables will be one option for shield optimization.
Technical Paper

Neutron Environment Calculations for Low Earth Orbit

2001-07-09
2001-01-2327
The long term exposure of astronauts on the developing International Space Station (ISS) requires an accurate knowledge of the internal exposure environment for human risk assessment and other onboard processes. The natural environment is moderated by the solar wind, which varies over the solar cycle. The HZETRN high charge and energy transport code developed at NASA Langley Research Center can be used to evaluate the neutron environment on ISS. A time dependent model for the ambient environment in low earth orbit is used. This model includes GCR radiation moderated by the Earth’s magnetic field, trapped protons, and a recently completed model of the albedo neutron environment formed through the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the Earth’s atmosphere. Using this code, the neutron environments for space shuttle missions were calculated and comparisons were made to measurements by the Johnson Space Center with onboard detectors.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Sensor and Actuator Arrays for ASAC Noise Control

2000-05-09
2000-01-1707
This paper summarizes the development of an approach to optimizing the locations for arrays of sensors and actuators in active noise control systems. A type of directed combinatorial search, called Tabu Search, is used to select an optimal configuration from a much larger set of candidate locations. The benefit of using an optimized set is demonstrated. The importance of limiting actuator forces to realistic levels when evaluating the cost function is discussed. Results of flight testing an optimized system are presented. Although the technique has been applied primarily to Active Structural Acoustic Control systems, it can be adapted for use in other active noise control implementations.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Measurement Errors in Doppler Global Velocimetry

1999-10-19
1999-01-5599
While the initial development phase of Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV) has been successfully completed, there remains a critical next phase to be conducted, namely the determination of an error budget to provide quantitative bounds for measurements obtained by this technology. This paper describes a laboratory investigation that consisted of a detailed interrogation of potential error sources to determine their contribution to the overall DGV error budget. A few sources of error were obvious; e.g., Iodine vapor absorption lines, optical systems, and camera characteristics. However, additional non-obvious sources were also discovered; e.g., laser frequency and single-frequency stability, media scattering characteristics, and interference fringes. This paper describes each identified error source, its effect on the overall error budget, and where possible, corrective procedures to reduce or eliminate its effect.
Technical Paper

Smart Material Actuator Driven by Networked Rectenna Array

1999-08-02
1999-01-2646
The new concept, a microwave-driven smart material actuator, was introduced to wirelessly drive actuators of space antennas and reflectors. For the proof-of-concept, a multilayer piezoelectric actuator integrated with a 3×3 rectenna was set up and tested within microwave field. The test results showed that the rectenna generates up to 73 V DC for a piezoelectric actuator and demonstrates a wide controllability by allowing several control parameters. For high power requirement and effective use of incident microwave, a power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuit and a voltage up-converter (VUC) were studied in corporation with the rectenna circuitry.
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