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Technical Paper

Numerical Modelling of Primary and Secondary Effects of SLD Impingement

2019-06-10
2019-01-2002
A CFD simulation methodology for the inclusion of the post-impact trajectories of splashing/bouncing Supercooled Large Droplets (SLDs) and film detachment is introduced and validated. Several scenarios are tested to demonstrate how different parameters affect the simulations. Including re-injecting droplet flows due to splashing/bouncing and film detachment has a significant effect on the accuracy of the validations shown in the article. Validation results demonstrate very good agreement with the experimental data. This approach is then applied to a full-scale twin-engine turboprop to compute water impingement on the wings and the empennage.
Technical Paper

An Ice Shedding Model for Rotating Components

2019-06-10
2019-01-2003
A CFD simulation methodology is presented to evaluate the ice that sheds from rotating components. The shedding detection is handled by coupling the ice accretion and stress analysis solvers to periodically check for the propagation of crack fronts and possible detachment. A novel approach for crack propagation is highlighted where no change in mesh topology is required. The entire computation from flow to impingement, ice accretion and crack analysis only requires a single mesh. The accretion and stress module are validated individually with published data. The analysis is extended to demonstrate potential shedding scenarios on three complex industrially-relevant 3D cases: a helicopter blade, an engine fan blade and a turboprop propeller. The largest shed fragment will be analyzed in the context of FOD damage to neighboring aircraft/component surfaces.
Technical Paper

Numerical Demonstration of the Humidity Effect in Engine Icing

2019-06-10
2019-01-2015
The importance of the variation of relative humidity across turbomachinery engine components for in-flight icing is shown by numerical analysis. A species transport equation for vapor has been added to the existing CFD methodology for the simulation of ice growth and water flow on engine components that are subject to ice crystal icing. This entire system couples several partial differential equations that consider heat and mass transfer between droplets, crystals and air, adding the cooling of the air due to particle evaporation to the icing simulation, increasing the accuracy of the evaporative heat fluxes on wetted walls. Three validation cases are presented for the new methodology: the first one compares with the numerical results of droplets traveling inside an icing tunnel with an existing evaporation model proposed by the National Research Council of Canada (NRC).
Technical Paper

Multi-Shot Icing Simulations with Automatic Re-Meshing

2019-06-10
2019-01-1956
A full-automated CFD mesh generation technique has been developed and implemented for 3-D aircraft icing simulations to permit robust 45-minute ice accretion simulations in support of icing certification campaigns. The changes in the shape of the aircraft surfaces due to accreting ice and their effects on the air and droplet flow are accounted for in a quasi-steady manner by subdividing the total icing time into sequential steps of shorter duration, updating the computational grid at each step. This “multi-shot” ice accretion approach requires robust and accurate grid re-meshing for it to be embedded in engineering design and analysis workflows. ANSYS FENSAP-ICE has been coupled to Fluent Meshing to take advantage of generic and highly automated surface displacement and mesh wrapping tools. A wide spectrum of geometries is supported, ranging from full-size aircraft to air data probes, turbomachinery components, rotors and propellers.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Aircraft and Variable-Pitch Propeller Icing with Explicit Coupling

2019-06-10
2019-01-1954
A 3D CFD methodology is presented to simulate ice build-up on propeller blades exposed to known icing conditions in flight, with automatic blade pitch variation at constant RPM to maintain the desired thrust. One blade of a six-blade propeller and a 70-passenger twin-engine turboprop are analyzed as stand-alone components in a multi-shot quasi-steady icing simulation. The thrust that must be generated by the propellers is obtained from the drag computed on the aircraft. The flight conditions are typical for a 70-passenger twin-engine turboprop in a holding pattern in Appendix C icing conditions: 190 kts at an altitude of 6,000 ft. The rotation rate remains constant at 850 rpm, a typical operating condition for this flight envelope.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Ice Crystal Accretion Inside an Engine Core Stator

2019-06-10
2019-01-2017
A CFD simulation methodology is presented to calculate blockage due to ice crystal icing of the IGV passages of a gas turbine engine. The computational domain consists of six components and includes the nacelle, the full bypass and the air induction section up to the second stage of the low-pressure compressor. The model is of a geared turbofan with a fan that rotates at 4,100 rpm and a low-pressure stage that rotates at 8,000 rpm. The flight conditions are based on a cruising speed of Mach 0.67 in Appendix-D icing conditions with an ice crystal content is 4.24 g/m3. Crystal bouncing, and re-entrainment is considered in the calculations, along with variable relative humidity and crystal melting due to warmer temperatures within the engine core. Total time of icing is set to 20 seconds. The CFD airflow and ice crystal simulations are performed on the full 6-stage domain. The initial icing calculation determines which stage will be chosen for a more comprehensive analysis.
Technical Paper

FENSAP-ICE: A CFD Monte Carlo Approach to Shed-Ice Trajectory and Impact

2011-06-13
2011-38-0089
A fully CFD-based methodology for ice particle tracking based on a Monte Carlo statistical approach and a six-degrees-of-freedom particle-tracking module has been developed within the FENSAP-ICE in-flight icing system. A one-way aerodynamic coupling between the airflow and the ice particle has been adopted, such that the flowfield determines the forces and moments on the particle at each location on its track, but the particle, being much smaller, has no aerodynamic effect on the aircraft's flowfield. A complete envelope of force and moment coefficients has been computed for a representative ice shape, in order to generate a permanent database. At each time step during the integration of the particle track, the angles of the local flow velocity vector with the principal axes of the particle are determined and used to interpolate the corresponding force and moment coefficients from the particle's database. These 6-DOFs are then used to compute the next particle location.
Technical Paper

FENSAP-ICE: Numerical Prediction of Ice Roughness Evolution, and its Effects on Ice Shapes

2011-06-13
2011-38-0024
Numerically predicted roughness distributions obtained in in-flight icing simulations with a beading model are used in a quasi-steady manner to compute ice shapes. This approach, called "Multishot," uses a number of steady flow and droplet solutions for computing short intervals (shots) of the total ice accretion time. The iced geometry, the grid, and the surface roughness distribution are updated after each shot, producing a better match with the unsteady ice accretion phenomena. Comparisons to multishot results with uniform roughness show that the evolution of the surface roughness distribution has a strong influence on the final ice shape. The ice horns that form are longer and thinner compared to constant roughness results. The constant roughness approach usually fails to capture the formation of the pressure side horns and under-predicts the thickness of the ice in this region.
Technical Paper

FENSAP-ICE: 3D Simulation, and Validation, of De-icing with Inter-cycle Ice Accretion

2011-06-13
2011-38-0102
The assessment of an unsteady approach for the simulation of in-flight electro-thermal de-icing using a Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT) technique is presented for a NACA0012 wing and a swept wing. This approach is implemented in the FENSAP-ICE in-flight icing system, and provides simulation capabilities for the heat transfer and ice accretion phenomena occurring during in-flight de-icing with power cycling through several heater pads. At each time step, a thermodynamic balance is established between the water film, the ice layer and the solid domains. The ice shape is then modified according to ice accretion and melting rates. Numerical results show the complex interactions between the water film, the ice layer and the heating system. The NACA0012 validation test case compares well against one of the very few experimental de-icing test cases available in the open literature.
Technical Paper

Development of a Shed-Ice Trajectory Simulation in FENSAP-ICE

2007-09-24
2007-01-3360
A numerical approach to the trajectory simulation of break-up ice in the in-flight icing code FENSAP-ICE is investigated. At each time step, the displacement and rotation of the moving domains is computed from a 6-DOFs analysis of the forces and moments. The moving domains are amalgamated into the fixed background mesh by a hole-cutting and stitching algorithm, producing a continuous unstructured hybrid mesh, eliminating interpolation between domains and ensuring that the fluxes are fully conserved across the entire mesh. To maintain good load balancing on parallel computers, the finite element CFD flow solver uses an efficient parallel iterative matrix solver and domain decomposition to partition the computational domain into equal-sized subdomains. Test cases used to validate and demonstrate the features of the computational algorithm are shown.
Technical Paper

A Third-generation In-flight Icing Code: FENSAP-ICE-Unsteady

2007-09-24
2007-01-3339
Ice accretion is a purely unsteady phenomenon that is presently approximated by most icing codes using quasi-steady modeling. The accuracy of ice prediction is thus directly related to the prescribed time step, or the time span during which the impact of ice growth on both flow and droplets can be neglected. Such approximation is removed by FENSAP-ICE-Unsteady which fully couples in time a diphasic flow (interacting air and droplet particles) with ice accretion. The two-phase flow is solved using the Navier-Stokes and Eulerian droplet equations, while the water film characteristics and ice shape are obtained from the conservation of mass and energy within a thin film layer. The iced surface being constantly displaced in time, Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian terms are added to the governing equations to account for mesh movement. For rime ice, numerical results show that full unsteady modeling improves the accuracy of ice prediction when compared to one-shot ice accretion.
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