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Technical Paper

A Full-System Approach to Maximise Energy Efficiency of a Wheel Bearing

Environmental sustainability is morphing Automotive technical development strategies and driving the evolution of vehicles with a speed and a strength hardly foreseeable a decade ago. The entire vehicle architecture is impacted, and energy efficiency becomes one of the most important parameters to reach goals, which are now not only market demands, but also based on regulatory standards with penalty consequences. Therefore, rolling drag from all bearings in multiple rotating parts of the vehicle needs to be reduced; wheel bearings are among the biggest in size regardless of the powertrain architecture (ICE, Hybrid, BEV) and have a significant impact. The design of wheel bearings is a complex balance between features influencing durability, robustness, vehicle dynamics, and, of course, energy efficiency.

Wire, Electrical, Stranded, Uninsulated Copper, Copper Alloy, or Aluminum, or Thermocouple Extension, General Specification for


This specification covers concentric lay stranded and rope-lay stranded round electrical conductor fabricated from copper, copper alloy or aluminum. This specification also covers thermocouple extension conductor fabricated from nickel/chromium or nickel/aluminum/manganese. The conductors in this specification are suitable for use in insulated wires used in aerospace and other applications.

Technical Paper

Tadpole Configuration for Three Wheeled Vehicles

With the increasing adoption of electric vehicles in India, autos are also getting in the electrification race with lighter lithium-ion batteries and motor replacing the bulkier engine and transmission. This trend has led to a lighter vehicle which in-turn gives better mileage figures but at the loss of dynamic stability of the vehicle making them very unsafe. The current auto-rickshaws are using delta configuration that is more prone to the rollover while cornering. The three-wheeled configuration vehicle is less dynamically stable than the normal four-wheeled configurations. While working on prototype vehicle for Shell Eco-Marathon Asia [7] pro and cons for both configurations for a three-wheeled vehicle were considered and tadpole configuration was found to be more stable and better than current delta configuration.