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Technical Paper

Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2397
Title Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation Authors Mr. Shubham Kedia, Dr. Divyanshu Joshi, Dr. Muthiah Saravanan Mahindra Research Valley, Mahindra & Mahindra, Chennai Objective Objective metrics for evaluation of major vehicle dynamics performance attributes i.e. ride, handling and steering are required to compare, validate and optimize dynamic behavior of vehicles. Some of these objective metrics are recommended and defined by ISO and SAE, which involve data processing, statistical analysis and complex mathematical operations on acquired data, through simulations or experimental testing. Due to the complexity of operations and volume of data, evaluation is often time consuming and tedious. Process automation using existing tools such as MS Excel, nCode, Siemens LMS, etc. includes several limitations and challenges, which make it cumbersome to implement.
Technical Paper

A Machine Learning based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for Lightweighting the Automotive Structures

2019-11-21
2019-28-2424
The present work involves Machine Learning (ML) based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for lightweighting the automotive structures. The challenge in deployment of MMDO algorithms in solving real-world automotive structural design problems is the enormous time involved in solving full vehicle finite element models that involve large number of design variables and multiple performance constraints pertaining to vehicle dynamics, durability, crash and NVH domains. With the availability of powerful workstations and using the advanced Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools, it has become possible to generate huge sets of simulation data pertaining to multiple domains.
Technical Paper

Model Based Design of Chassis-Frame with MATLAB

2019-11-21
2019-28-2429
In the current commercial vehicles market, ride-comfort and handling are crucial parameters for the customer and end user. There are various aspects which determine the vehicle behaviour. One of aspects is the structural rigidity of the vehicle, which has its own effect on vehicle dynamics. To meet the required stiffness of the main structural component of the vehicle i.e. chassis frame, FEA analysis has to be done in current methodology. The number of iterations have to be done to build an appropriate model with low weight, which can meet the design requirements. At first, conceptual design mock-up unit is to be developed then FEA (CAE) analysis to be done on it. If any design criteria are not met, then this cycle repeats again until it fulfils the required stiffness. Today, the direct stiffness procedure is the basic principle of almost every FEA software package.
Technical Paper

TORQUE VECTORING DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE

2019-11-21
2019-28-2485
Abstract The electrification of conventional internal combustion engine vehicle is a need of today’s advanced world to reduce the dependency of the transportation sector on the oil and gases. It can be achieved by replacing the engine by an electric motor which is powerful enough to provide required torque. The important requirement for a vehicle to drive in the hilly region with steep corners is proper torque distribution on each wheel which is taken care by the differential system. When the friction between road and wheels are different from left to right, then the wheel with low friction contact will lose its traction on the road. These situations are unfavorable for driving a vehicle on off-road and extrema conditions like driving in muddy roads or on the ice. These problems can be overcome by providing individual power supply system to separate wheels.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Analysis of a Passenger Car to Reduce Drag using Active Grill Shutter and Active Air Dam

2019-11-21
2019-28-2408
Active aerodynamics can be defined as the concept of reducing drag by making real-time changes to certain devices such that it modifies the airflow around a vehicle. Using such devices also have the added advantages of improving ergonomics and performance along with aesthetics. A significant reduction in fuel consumption can also be seen when using such devices. The objective of this work is to reduce drag acting on a passenger car using the concept of active aerodynamics with grill shutters and air dams. First, analysis has been carried out on a baseline passenger car and further simulated using active grill shutters and air dams for vehicle speed ranging from 60 kmph to 120 kmph, with each active device open from 0° to 90°. The optimized model is then validated for a scaled down prototype in a wind tunnel at 80kmph. Vehicle has been modelled using SolidWorks and the simulation has been carried out using ANSYS Fluent.
Technical Paper

Analysis of pressure variation in wheel using statistical methods

2019-11-21
2019-28-2450
Objective: The Objective of the research is to detect drop in level of pressure in the wheel with respect to nominal pressure using data obtained from speed sensors. The research discusses the standard procedure of experimentation to obtain data which eventually used to produce results. This procedure is taken from principles Design of Experiments. Statistical tools are used to analyze and give determining factors for pressure variation. Methodology: To study idea, we made use of two-wheeler platform and collected data of wheel speed sensors on both wheels. The idea is when there is any change in tire pressure the radius of the wheel also changes and usually this relation is direct. Hence, change in tire pressure changes the angular velocity of the wheel. In this approach wheel speed sensors are used to measure the angular speed for standard and reduced pressure conditions.
Technical Paper

Design and Fabrication of CFRP wheel centre for FSAE Race-car

2019-10-11
2019-28-0117
The work focuses on the design of a Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Wheel Centre targeting key parameters such as reduced un-sprung mass and lower rotational inertia in the (PRV 2017) Formula-style single seater race car developed for Formula Student Germany. The main issue that was reported by the vehicle dynamics team was to get a customised wheel-offset for our FSAE race-car. To address the issue with an added advantage of reduced un-sprung mass and lower rotational inertia, CFRP wheel centres were introduced. Previously the team used the Keizer Wheel Centre made of Aluminium (1.8 kilograms) which didn’t provide the required wheel-offset as per the geometry designed by the Vehicle Dynamics (VD) team.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on the Importance of Implementing an Obsolescence Material Management in an Aerospace Manufacturing Supplier Industry Environment

2019-10-11
2019-28-0145
Obsolescence Material management plays an important and vital role in today’s modern Aerospace manufacturing, Aerospace Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul industry as well as Aerospace Distributors. Aerospace vehicles have a considerable longer product life-cycle when compared to any other consumer goods like automobile and electronics industry. With the advent of new, disruptive technologies, many sources and supplies of materials including COTS and Standard catalogue parts, components and goods, which are widely used in an Aerospace manufacturing environment, are diminishing at a considerable rate and thus result in their obsolescence before the end disposal of the product life cycle. It is one of the leading causes to the sale of counterfeit and fraudulent parts and components, which can result in considerable deterioration of Quality and Cost to Customer.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of a Intercity Bus through surface modifications- A Numerical Simulation

2019-10-11
2019-28-0045
The maximum power produced by the Engine is utilized in overcoming the Aerodynamic resistance while the remaining has been used to overcome rolling and climbing resistance. Increasing emission and performance demands paves way for advanced technologies to improve fuel efficiency. One such way of increasing the fuel efficiency is to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Buses emerged as the common choice of transport for people in India. By improving the aerodynamic drag of the Buses the diesel consumption of a vehicle can be reduced by nearly about 10% without any upgradation of the existing engine. Though 60 to 70 % of pressure loads act on the frontal surface area of the buses, the most common techniques of reducing the drag in buses includes streamlining of the surfaces, minimizing underbody losses, reduced frontal area, pressure difference between the front & rear area and minimizing of flow separation & wake regions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of a Cycloidal Rotor Under Diverse Operating Conditions and Altitudes

2019-09-16
2019-01-1872
The current paper deals with the numerical study of the downwash flowfield characteristics in a cycloidal rotor. In an aircraft equipped with this kind of thruster, the downwash flow plays significant role in different flight modes. The interaction of this downwash jet with ground in effective height levels is studied using CFD simulations. Several operating conditions like pitching oscillation angles, rotation speeds and height levels are all considered in this work. The results declare that close-ground operating states augments the efficiency of cyclorotor. The vertical and horizontal forces of a single blade is also analyzed in a complete cycloid in different operating conditions. A lead and lag in maximum and minimum extremes of force curves of a single blade cycloid is obtained while being subjected to different functional conditions.
Technical Paper

Low Cost, Fireproof, and Light Aircraft Interior

2019-09-16
2019-01-1857
Low cost, fireproof, and light aircraft interior Fire is a dramatic issue in aircraft nowadays, especially with composite air crafts. An additional issue is the dangerous use of flammable Li-Ion batteries in a lot of appliances. we propose in order to avoid dramas to produce aircraft interiors, fire doors, cargo bay walls, as well than cargo container able to contain a fire inside them, with our ceramic composite called TOUGHCERAM ®. We have developed a low-cost, ceramic, damage tolerant, this ceramic is flexible between minus 100°C and plus 350°C. TOUGHCERAM ® poly-crystalize between 60°C and 110°C and can be reinforced with fibbers like carbon or basalt one. TOUGHCERAM ® survive 90 minutes to a propane 1900°C torches. TOUGHCERAM ® does not burn, nor smoke. In this paper we will explain how it is possible to develop a fully mineral ceramic offering such unique mechanical and fire properties.
Standard

Performance Standard for Child Restraint Systems in Transport Category Airplanes

2019-08-07
WIP
AS5276/1A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) defines minimum performance standards and related qualification criteria for add-on child restraint systems (CRS) which provide protection for small children in passenger seats of transport category airplanes. The AS is not intended to provide design criteria that could be met only by an aircraft-specific CRS. The goal of this standard is to achieve child-occupant protection by specifying a dynamic test method and evaluation criteria for the performance of CRS under emergency landing conditions.
Standard

Gaining Approval for Seats with Integrated Electronics in Accordance with AC21-49 Option 7b

2019-08-07
CURRENT
AIR6448A
The primary purpose of this document is to provide roles, responsibilities and accountabilities to meet AC 21-49 Section 7.b ‘Type Certification using TSO-approved seat with electronic components defined in TSO design’. This document may be applied to all applicable seat TSOs (C39(), C127()…etc). The approval for the integration of the electronics will fall, in part or in full, under the type design authority of the Seat Installer rather than the Seat Supplier shipping the integrated seat. The defined responsibilities, areas of authority and accountability of each party, as well as necessary communication protocols, must ensure configuration management, design control and quality control. These definitions, controls and protocols are agreed (thru normal commerical agreements and binding contracts) and adhered to by all parties ensuring all parts in the supply chain remain approved (e.g. certified and conformed).
Standard

Aircraft Ground Support Equipment - Wind Stability Determination

2019-08-02
WIP
ARP1328D
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) is intended to recommend: a. uniform criteria for determination of wind loads that aircraft ground support equipment can encounter and yet allow personnel to work safely, b. uniform systems for maintaining stability (i.e., stabilizers, outriggers, spring lockout devices), c. standardization of specific types of interlock systems and actuation systems, d. a standard formula with its associated design criteria for calculating the steady-state wind stability (i.e., tip point) for aircraft ground support equipment, e. a standard method for testing these systems.
Standard

Laboratory Viscosity Measurement of Thickened Aircraft Deicing/Anti-icing Fluids with the Brookfield LV Viscometer

2019-08-01
WIP
AS9968A
This AS describes a standard method for viscosity measurements of thickened (AMS1428) anti-icing fluids. Fluid manufacturers may publish alternate methods for their fluids. In case of conflicting results between the two methods, the manufacturer method takes precedence. To compare viscosities, exactly the same measurement elements (including spindle and container size) must have been used to obtain those viscosities.
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