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Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Analysis of a Passenger Car to Reduce Drag Using Active Grill Shutter and Active Air Dam

2019-11-21
2019-28-2408
Active aerodynamics can be defined as the concept of reducing drag by making real-time changes to certain devices such that it modifies the airflow around a vehicle. Using such devices also have the added advantages of improving ergonomics and performance along with aesthetics. A significant reduction in fuel consumption can also be seen when using such devices. The objective of this work is to reduce drag acting on a passenger car using the concept of active aerodynamics with grill shutters and air dams. First, analysis has been carried out on a baseline passenger car and further simulated using active grill shutters and air dams for vehicle speed ranging from 60 kmph to 120 kmph, with each active device open from 0° to 90°. The optimized model is then validated for a scaled-down prototype in a wind tunnel at 80kmph. Vehicle has been modelled using SolidWorks and the simulation has been carried out using ANSYS Fluent.
Technical Paper

Model Based Design of Chassis-Frame with MATLAB

2019-11-21
2019-28-2429
In the current commercial vehicles market, ride-comfort and handling are crucial parameters for the customer and end user. There are various aspects which determine the vehicle behaviour. One of aspects is the structural rigidity of the vehicle, which has its own effect on vehicle dynamics. To meet the required stiffness of the main structural component of the vehicle i.e. chassis frame, FEA analysis has to be done in current methodology. The number of iterations have to be done to build an appropriate model with low weight, which can meet the design requirements. At first, conceptual design mock-up unit is to be developed then FEA (CAE) analysis to be done on it. If any design criteria are not met, then this cycle repeats again until it fulfils the required stiffness. Today, the direct stiffness procedure is the basic principle of almost every FEA software package.
Technical Paper

Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2397
Title Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation Authors Mr. Shubham Kedia, Dr. Divyanshu Joshi, Dr. Muthiah Saravanan Mahindra Research Valley, Mahindra & Mahindra, Chennai Objective Objective metrics for evaluation of major vehicle dynamics performance attributes i.e. ride, handling and steering are required to compare, validate and optimize dynamic behavior of vehicles. Some of these objective metrics are recommended and defined by ISO and SAE, which involve data processing, statistical analysis and complex mathematical operations on acquired data, through simulations or experimental testing. Due to the complexity of operations and volume of data, evaluation is often time consuming and tedious. Process automation using existing tools such as MS Excel, nCode, Siemens LMS, etc. includes several limitations and challenges, which make it cumbersome to implement.
Technical Paper

A Machine Learning based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for Lightweighting the Automotive Structures

2019-11-21
2019-28-2424
The present work involves Machine Learning (ML) based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for lightweighting the automotive structures. The challenge in deployment of MMDO algorithms in solving real-world automotive structural design problems is the enormous time involved in solving full vehicle finite element models that involve large number of design variables and multiple performance constraints pertaining to vehicle dynamics, durability, crash and NVH domains. With the availability of powerful workstations and using the advanced Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools, it has become possible to generate huge sets of simulation data pertaining to multiple domains.
Technical Paper

Analysis of pressure variation in wheel with the aid of wheel speed sensor

2019-11-21
2019-28-2450
Objective: The Objective of the research is to detect drop in level of pressure in the wheel with respect to nominal pressure using data obtained from speed sensors. The research discusses the standard procedure of experimentation to obtain data which eventually used to produce results. This procedure is taken from principles Design of Experiments. Statistical tools are used to analyze and give determining factors for pressure variation. Methodology: To study idea, we made use of two-wheeler platform and collected data of wheel speed sensors on both wheels. The idea is when there is any change in tire pressure the radius of the wheel also changes and usually this relation is direct. Hence, change in tire pressure changes the angular velocity of the wheel. In this approach wheel speed sensors are used to measure the angular speed for standard and reduced pressure conditions.
Standard

Retainers, (Back-Up Rings), Hydraulic and Pneumatic, Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin, Single Turn, Static Gland

2019-10-13
WIP
AS5860C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers scarf-cut polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) retainers (back-up rings) for use in static glands in accordance with AS5857. They are for use in hydraulic and pneumatic system components as anti-extrusion devices in conjunction with O-rings, packings and other elastomeric seals. Because of the construction of groove dimensions, back-ups specific to rod applications are designated “R” - Rod (Female), back-ups specific to piston applications are designated “P” - Piston (Male). Retainers specified herein have been designed for a temperature range of -65 to 275 °F (-54 to 135 °C) and a nominal operating pressure of 3000 psi (20.7 MPa) for code 09 material and 5000 psi (34.5 MPa) for code 10 material. Material codes are based on AMS3678 material types.
Standard

Retainers (Backup Rings), Hydraulic and Pneumatic, Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin, Solid, Un-Cut, For Use in AS4716 Glands

2019-10-13
WIP
AS5782B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers solid, uncut polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) retainers (backup rings) for use in glands in accordance with AS4716. They are for use in hydraulic and pneumatic system components as anti-extrusion devices in conjunction with O-rings, packings and other elastomeric seals for static and dynamic applications. Because of the construction of groove dimensions, backup rings specific to rod applications are designated “R” - Rod (Female), backup rings specific to piston applications are designated “P” - Piston (Male). Piston and rod types of virgin pigmented PTFE are also identified by color code which also distinguishes parts to this standard from those made from virgin PTFE to other standards.
Standard

Retainers, (Back-Up Rings), Hydraulic and Pneumatic, Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin, Solid, Static Gland

2019-10-13
WIP
AS5861B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers solid polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) retainers (back-up rings) for use in static glands in accordance with AS5857. They are for use in hydraulic and pneumatic system components as anti-extrusion devices in conjunction with O-rings, packings and other elastomeric seals. Because of the construction of groove dimensions, back-ups specific to rod applications are designated “R” - Rod (Female), back-ups specific to piston applications are designated “P” - Piston (Male). Retainers specified herein have been designed for a temperature range of -65 to 275 °F (-54 to 135 °C) and a nominal operating pressure of 3000 psi (20 684 kPa) for code 09 material and 5000 psi (34 474 kPa) for code 10 material. Material codes are based on AMS3678 material types.
Standard

Retainers (Backup Rings), Hydraulic and Pneumatic, Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin, Single Turn, Scarf-Cut, For Use in AS4716 Glands

2019-10-13
WIP
AS5781B
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers scarf-cut polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) retainers (backup rings) for use in glands in accordance with AS4716. They are for use in hydraulic and pneumatic system components as anti-extrusion devices in conjunction with O-rings, packings and other elastomeric seals for static and dynamic applications. Because of the construction of groove dimensions, backup rings specific to rod applications are designated “R” - Rod (Female), backup rings specific to piston applications are designated “P” - Piston (Male). Piston and rod types of virgin pigmented PTFE are also identified by color code which also distinguishes parts to this standard from those made from virgin PTFE to other standards.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of an Intercity Bus through Surface Modifications - A Numerical Simulation

2019-10-11
2019-28-0045
The maximum power produced by the Engine is utilized in overcoming the Aerodynamic resistance while the remaining has been used to overcome rolling and climbing resistance. Increasing emission and performance demands paves way for advanced technologies to improve fuel efficiency. One such way of increasing the fuel efficiency is to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Buses emerged as the common choice of transport for people in India. By improving the aerodynamic drag of the Buses, the diesel consumption of a vehicle can be reduced by nearly about 10% without any upgradation of the existing engine. Though 60 to 70 % of pressure loads act on the frontal surface area of the buses, the most common techniques of reducing the drag in buses includes streamlining of the surfaces, minimizing underbody losses, reduced frontal area, pressure difference between the front & rear area and minimizing of flow separation & wake regions.
Technical Paper

Design and Fabrication of CFRP Wheel Centre for FSAE Race-Car

2019-10-11
2019-28-0117
In this work, a Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Wheel Centre (WC) is designed targeting key parameters such as reduced un-sprung mass and lower rotational inertia in vehicle dynamics. A Keizer Aluminium Wheel Centre was used by the team previously and it weighed around 1.8 Kg. Designing of CFRP Wheel Centre was based on previously used Keizer Aluminium wheel centre considering the design constraints such as distance between hub and wheel assembly. This was done to ensure the same trackwidth within the Formula Student rules. Initially, the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was carried out for the Keizer Aluminium wheel centre and the results were analysed. For the same design CFRP material was used and the result was found out to be promising with a wheel centre weight of 1.3 Kg. Further to improve the performance and weight reduction, FEA was done to design a 38 layered CFRP wheel centre giving utmost priority to ease of manufacturability and safe design.
Standard

Determination of Costs and Benefits from Implementing an Engine Health Management System

2019-10-02
WIP
ARP4176A
This ARP provides an insight into how to approach a cost benefit analysis (CBA) to determine the return on investment (ROI) that would result from implementing a propulsion Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) system on an air vehicle. It describes the complexity of features that can be considered in the analysis, the different tools and approaches for conducting a CBA and differentiates between military and commercial applications. This document is intended to help those who might not necessarily have a deep technical understanding or familiarity with PHM systems but want to either quantify or understand the economic benefits (i.e., the value proposition) that a PHM system could provide.
Standard

Heater and Accessories, Aircraft Internal Combustion Heat Exchanger Type

2019-10-01
CURRENT
AS8040C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers combustion heaters and accessories used in, but not limited to, the following applications: a. Cabin heating (all occupied regions and windshield heating) b. Wing and empennage anti-icing c. Engine and accessory heating (when heater is installed as part of the aircraft) d. Aircraft deicing
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