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Technical Paper

Throttle Position Sensor Components Assembly Integrated into the Throttle Body Manufacturing Process

2002-11-19
2002-01-3391
In the engine management systems field, there is lack of sensors locally built and available for sale in Brazil. Therefore, many auto parts companies have to import them affecting directly the final products costs (technology know-how/development costs, import taxes and other material handling/custom related costs). This paper was motivated to study an alternative for a simple, cheaper and locally made throttle position sensor. The choose of this part was because the fact that it is one of the most expensive in the throttle body bill of. For developing this new alternative, it was used a tool called value analysis and value engineering. The outcome of this study was a throttle position sensor function integrated to the throttle body manufacturing line with the advantages that 100% components can be locally purchased, improved robustness against humidity and component quantity reduction by 40%. Therefore achieving more value added.
Technical Paper

Gear Whine Reduction for a New Automatic Transmission

2001-04-30
2001-01-1506
Gear whine in 1st and 2nd gears in a new rear wheel drive automatic transmission was identified as a potential customer dis-satisfier. Improvements to the vehicle system were implemented, but did not sufficiently reduce the noise. CAE modeling and hardware testing were used for gear tooth optimization, transmission system, driveline, and vehicle system studies. The planetary gears were re-designed with increased contact ratio, and significant interior noise reduction was achieved; but some vehicles still had excessive noise due to gear parameter variability from multiple sources. Using a DOE and statistical studies, a set of gear parameter targets were identified within the tolerances of the design, which achieved the program objectives for noise.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Factors Affecting Rainwater Ingestion into Vehicles HVAC Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0293
The penetration of rainwater through the heating ventilation and air conditioning system (HVAC) of a vehicle directly affects the provision of thermal comfort within the vehicle passenger compartment. Present vehicle designs restrict considerably the air-management processes due to reduced space and tighter packaging. The motivation for the study is to get an insight into factors affecting the water ingress phenomenon when a stationary vehicle is subjected to water loading such as heavy rain when parked or waiting in a traffic light or when in a car wash. The test programme made use of a compact closed circuit full-scale automotive climatic wind tunnel that is able to simulate wind, rain and road inclination. The tunnel was developed as part of the collaborative research between the Flow Diagnostics Laboratory (FDL) of the University of Nottingham and Visteon Climate Control Systems [1].
Technical Paper

Future Automotive Multimedia Subsystem Interconnect Technologies

2000-11-01
2000-01-C028
For the past decade or so, automotive entertainment subsystem architectures have consisted of a simple Human Machine Interface (HMI), AM-FM tuner, a tape deck, an amplifier and a set of speakers. Over time, as customer demand for more entertainment features increased, automotive entertainment integrators made room for new features by allowing for the vertical integration of analog audio and adding a digital control. The new digital control came to entertainment subsystems via a low-speed multiplexing scheme embedded into the entertainment subsystem components, allowing remote control of these new features. New features were typically incorporated into the entertainment subsystem by independently packaging functional modules. Examples of these modules are cellular telephone, Compact Disc Jockey (CDJ), rear-seat entertainment, Satellite Digital Audio Radio System (S-DARS) receiver, voice and navigation with its associated display and hardware.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Outlet Geometry on Automotive Demister Performance

2000-03-06
2000-01-1277
The established method of clearing a misted car windshield or of maintaining a clear view under misting conditions is through the application of an air supply via jet outlets in the instrument panel. The ability of such arrangements to perform adequately is a function of the prevailing environmental conditions, the vehicle speed, the condition of the demist air source and the geometry and arrangement of the jet outlets. This paper presents experimental data obtained in a purpose built environmental chamber designed to accommodate simple rectangular jets impinging on a misted glass surface. The facility consists of three conditioned air sources applied to a test chamber designed to represent the external, internal and demist air flows. Mist conditions on the glass surface are determined using a novel technique employing a CCD camera acquiring grey scale images which are digitally analysed to generate mist detection, grading and clearing contour data.
Technical Paper

Effect of Desiccant on the Stability of Automotive Air Conditioning Systems

2000-03-06
2000-01-0983
Desiccant materials are commonly used in the automotive industry to reduce the level of moisture in vehicle air conditioning systems. The primary purpose for removing moisture from these systems is to avoid corrosion of metals, compatibility problems with polymeric materials, and possible freeze-up associated with free water. In nonpolar R-12/mineral oil systems with low solubility for water, moisture levels are usually controlled to 25 ppm or less. However, R-134a and PAG are highly polar and have good solubility for moisture, thus presenting reduced risk of free water in the air-conditioning systems. This paper addresses the questions of whether desiccants are required in air conditioning systems using R- 134a/PAG, and if required, what is the optimum quantity of desiccant for system stability and long-term system reliability Tests were conducted in the laboratory (accelerated sealed tube aging according to ASHRAE standard 97- 1989) as well as in the field (vehicle fleet tests).
Technical Paper

Reduced Pressure Carbon Dioxide Cycle for Vehicle Climate Control: Progress Since 1999

2000-03-06
2000-01-0577
Environmental concerns have spawned renewed interest in naturally occurring refrigerants such as carbon dioxide. CO2 has attractive features such as high enthalpy of evaporation and low cost compared to halocarbons. However, the vapor pressure of CO2 is high at temperatures normally encountered in refrigeration and air conditioning systems when compared to traditional and alternative refrigerants such as CFC-12 and HFC-134a. Major research efforts are underway to investigate the transcritical CO2 cycle, in which a gas cooler instead of a condenser accomplishes heat rejection to ambient, since carbon dioxide in this cycle is above the critical point. The vapor pressure in the gas cooler may exceed 120 bar (1,740 lb/in2). In this paper a reduced pressure carbon dioxide system is revisited1, 2. The working fluid is a mixture of CO2 and a non-volatile liquid, referred to as a co-fluid, in which CO2 is highly soluble and readily absorbed and desorbed.
Technical Paper

Closed-Loop Recycling of Monomaterial Door-Panel Systems

1999-09-28
1999-01-3154
Pressures to increase the recyclable and recycled content of passenger vehicles are accelerating. In Europe, there is interest in eliminating halogenated polymers. Globally, more and more concern is focused on materials and methods that are ecologically friendly. Automakers and their suppliers are being encouraged to design and assemble components in new ways to facilitate separation, identification, and resource recovery at the end of the vehicle’s useful life - something that is not only good for the environment, but also the bottom line. One area of the vehicle that has proved challenging for applying such design for disassembly and recycling (DFD/R) principles has been the interior, owing to the sheer number of materials used there, and the great number of laminate structures that make disassembly nearly impossible. A good example is a door panel inner, which typically consists of a rigid plastic substrate, a foam pad, and a vinyl, leather, or cloth covering.
Technical Paper

Use of Binaural Measurement and Analysis Techniques in the Establishment of Steering Pump Design Tolerances for Noise, Vibration and Harshness Performance

1999-05-17
1999-01-1852
The objective of the present work was to establish a correlation between steering pump cam ring profile location and steering system performance for noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). Once this correlation was established, the secondary objective was to determine acceptable cam profile position tolerances from the standpoint of NVH performance. These objectives were accomplished through the use of binaural measurement and jury evaluation of vehicle interior noise. Cam rings were manufactured for this study with profiles shifted a predetermined distance away from the nominal position. These cams were built into steering pumps and these pumps were in turn installed in a vehicle. Vehicle interior noise and pump housing vibration measurements were made to quantify the steering system noise performance associated with each cam ring. The interior noise recordings were played back for a jury comprised of engineers familiar with steering system noise.
Technical Paper

Development of Dust Separator/Filter for Automotive Fuel Vapor Storage Systems (FVSS)

1999-03-01
1999-01-0008
Fuel Vapor Storage Systems (FVSS) on automobiles are susceptible to particle contamination. This is especially true for FVSS components mounted under the automobiles (undercarriage, chassis frame, etc.) and required to meet stringent EPA standards. Particle contamination significantly increases system restriction and reduces the effectiveness of FVSS. This paper describes a dust separator/filter developed to protect the FVSS. Accelerated field durability evaluations and measurement techniques were developed to identify clean locations, ingested contamination levels and ingested contaminant size distributions. Based on field evaluations, test methods were developed in the lab to evaluate effectiveness of several devices to control and reduce contamination. The dust separator design developed was a combination of baffle separators in series with an open cell foam filter. The dust separator was designed to meet and exceed several vehicle system design requirements.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Coating Composition on the Friction Induced Paint Damageability of Painted Thermoplastic Olefins (TPOs)

1999-03-01
1999-01-1205
Damage to painted automotive plastics induced by Hertzian contact stresses continues to plague the material engineer involved in the design and selection of fascias, bumpers, body-side moldings, and the like. Studies conducted to determine the root cause of such failures have focused on the effects of paint and the role of friction in the compressive, tensile and shear failure of painted thermoplastic olefins (TPOs). The study described herein probes the effects of paint type on the compressive, tensile and shear damage resistance of painted TPO substrates. Coating variations, e.g., adhesion promoter and topcoat type, and their effect on damage type and damage sensitivity will be described. The apparatus utilized to impart the damage, SLIDO, and the variables studied affecting the damage, e.g., acceleration, velocity, temperature, and loading pressure, are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Remote HID Headlamp Systems

1999-03-01
1999-01-0386
Significant interest in high intensity discharge headlamps (HID) has been developing in the past few years. It evolved as a safety device in the high-end luxury automobile segments, and is now showing demand for applications in other vehicle lines as well. However, affordability of these systems has been a continuous problem for all vehicle lines. A headlamp system that consists of: a remotely located light collector integrated to an HID source and ballast, a pair of light cables and distribution optics at the output of the light cables is being presented as a low cost alternative to HID headlamps. It also offers significant reductions in vehicle power consumption and radically new styling options. Five different concepts for light distribution optics will be discussed along with their performance compared to conventional HID and halogen headlamps.
Technical Paper

Electro Hydraulic Power Steering System

1999-03-01
1999-01-0404
Visteon Automotive Systems has developed an Electro-Hydraulic Power Assist Steering (EHPAS) System. This low-cost system uses conventional hydraulic power steering components with an electrically-driven and electronically-controlled power steering pump. This paper presents the Visteon EHPAS system and its development process. This process began with analytical modeling of the EHPAS system and integration of these models with a two degree of freedom (2DOF) vehicle model. These models were critical for system analysis and control strategy design. The EHPAS system sizing procedure and control strategy performance optimization were verified with the use of a real-time computer designed by Ford Motor Company, and by specially-designed Visteon test benches. Finally, EHPAS equipped test vehicles were tuned for high performance, providing better feel and fuel economy than conventionally equipped base line vehicles.
Technical Paper

Design and Implementation of a Dual Mode Speed Loop Controller for a Dynamometer-based Vehicle Simulation System

1999-03-01
1999-01-0940
The work described in this paper was carried out on a specialist engine dynamometer which allows accurate simulation of in-vehicle conditions. This is achieved by the use of a clutch between the engine and dynamometer which allows realistic simulation of gearchanges. The presence of a clutch means that the dynamometer has two distinct modes of operation, corresponding to a engaged or disengaged clutch. This paper describes the design of a speed control scheme, providing bumpless transfer between two controllers, which has been developed to satisfy the differing control requirements of disengaged and engaged operation. Brief discussion of the controllers and bumpless transfer scheme is followed by presentation of test results. Finally, the performance of this scheme is compared with that of an existing hardware controller.
Technical Paper

Reduced Pressure Carbon Dioxide Cycle for Vehicle Climate Control

1999-03-01
1999-01-0868
Environmental concerns have spawned renewed interest in naturally occurring refrigerants such as carbon dioxide. CO2 has attractive features such as high enthalpy of evaporation and low cost compared to halocarbons. However, the vapor pressure of CO2 is high at temperatures normally encountered in refrigeration and air conditioning systems when compared to traditional and alternative refrigerants such as CFC-12 and HFC-134a. Major research efforts are underway to investigate the transcritical CO2 cycle, in which a gas cooler instead of a condenser accomplishes heat rejection to ambient, since carbon dioxide under these conditions is above the critical point. The vapor pressure in the gas cooler may exceed 120 bar (1,740 lb/in2). In this paper a reduced pressure carbon dioxide system is reported (Ref 1). Two companion papers will address properties of working fluids (Ref 2) and thermodynamic and cycle models (Ref 3) for the low pressure carbon dioxide cycle.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid System Solution of the Interrupt Latency Compatibility Problem

1999-03-01
1999-01-1099
Microprocessors and microcontrollers are now widely used in automobiles. Microprocessor systems contain sources of interrupt and interrupt service routines, which are software components executed in response to the assertion of an interrupt in hardware. A major problem in designing the software of microprocessor systems is the analytical treatment of interrupt latency. Because multiple interrupt service routines are executed on the same CPU, they compete for the CPU and interfere with each other's latency requirements. Here, interrupt latency is defined as the delay between the assertion of the interrupt in hardware and the start of execution of the associated interrupt service routine. It is estimated that 80% of intermittent bugs in small microprocessor software loads are due to improper treatment of interrupts. Until this work, there is no analytic method for analyzing a particular system to determine if it may violate interrupt latency requirements.
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