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Technical Paper

MITIGATION FOR EDGE CORROSION PROTECTION FOR AUTOMOTIVE BODIES

2019-11-21
2019-28-2561
TITLE: MITIGATION FOR EDGE CORROSION PROTECTION FOR AUTOMOTIVE BODIES. Keyword: Edge corrosion, Edge protection, Rust on edges, Corrosion mitigation. Objective: A major challenge to automotive industry is to protect the vehicle from corrosion in varying environment with respect to different service conditions. One of the main types of corrosion that affects aesthetic look is edge corrosion on sheet metal. Mostly edge is acting as starting point of corrosion due to unprotected metal exposed to environment. A special attention to be given to exposed edges to protect from rust formation. Methodology: To mitigate corrosion in visible area, various solution proposed in manufacturing process, material usage, sealer application, BIW design. Samples were prepared as per design of experiments with respect to manufacturing process condition and subjected for testing. Results: Proposed solutions were validated in manufacturing process line and reports are discussed.
Technical Paper

Photo oxidation analysis method for automotive coating weathering performance evaluation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2555
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE Accelerated artificial weathering performance has been always observed as critical and most important factor for durability prediction of colour and resin for a coating system. Photo oxidation of resin is the phenomenon behind coating’s ageing. Though accelerated weathering tests protocols are widely used in industry, they are very costly and still very time consuming. One automotive grade accelerated testing can go as long as 8 months duration. METHODOLOGY (maximum 150 words) Photo oxidation value (POV) is proportionate to the degradation of the resin material used in coating. During the accelerated weathering POV is measured for the coating at stipulated interval during initial phase and trend is plotted for deterioration verses weathering test duration. POV can be analysed with the help of FTIR analysis to observe bond absorption energy and bond separation energy in the resin system. This trend can be extrapolated to predict the weathering performance of coating.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Interior cleanliness tracker

2019-11-21
2019-28-2466
The future of mobility is being driven towards fully autonomous driving. As a result, people spend majority of the time in vehicles for chores other than driving. The focus of automotive makers shifts towards providing best-in-class passenger comfort. One of the least focused area in passenger comfort is vehicle interior cleanliness which requires periodic human intervention. An intelligent vehicle can outsmart a human by self-caring to maintain the cleanliness elements on floor, seat and roof. This paper addresses subjects like wetness, dirt and stains in the vehicle interior utilizing the capability of Interior sensing platform. An internally mounted camera in the vehicle can capture images of the interior and apply image processing techniques to identify the subjects mentioned above. The wetness on the floor mats can lead to moldy odor, corrosion, failure of the electronic components in the car.
Training / Education

Fuel Systems Material Selection and Compatibility with Alternative Fuels

2019-11-19
This course will introduce the participants to the factors governing fuel-material compatibility and methods to predict and empirically determine compatibility for new alternative fuel chemistries.  By understanding the mechanisms and factors associated with chemically-induced degradation, participants will be able to assess the impact of fuel chemistry to infrastructure components, including those associated with vehicle fuel systems.  This course is unique in that it looks at compatibility from a fuel chemistry perspective, especially new fuel types such as alcohols and other biofuels. 
Technical Paper

Corrosion Characteristics on Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar AA2014/AA6061 Alloy for Automobile Application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0063
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a widely used solid state welding process in which its heats metal to the below recrystallization temperature due to frictional force. FSW mostly avoids welding defects like hot cracking and porosity which are mainly occur in conventional welding techniques. In this process the combination of frictional force and the mechanical work provide heating the base metal to get defect free weld joints. Aluminium Alloys 2014 and 6061 are generally used in a wide range of automobile applications like Engine valves and tie rod, shipbuilding, and aerospace due to their high corrosion resistance, lightweight, and good mechanical properties. In the present work, aluminium alloys of AA6061 and AA2014 were effectively welded by friction stir welding technique. The tool rotational speed, travel speed, and tool profile are the important parameters in FSW process. High Speed Steel (HSS) tool with Hexagonal profile is used for this joining.
Technical Paper

Turning of Inconel 825 with Coated Carbide Tool Applying Vegetable-Based Cutting Fluid Mixed with CuO, Al2O3 and CNT Nanoparticles by MQL

2019-10-11
2019-28-0060
Inconel 825 is nickel (Ni)-iron (Fe)-chromium (Cr) alloy with additions of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), and titanium (Ti). The alloy has excellent resistance to corrosion and is often the most cost-effective alloy in sulphuric acid piping vessels and chemical process equipment. No attempt of applying MQL with three nanofluids was reported conferring to the works accessed. The present study is focused on evaluating the effect of the addition of three nanoparticles (CuO, Al2O3, and CNT) in vegetable oil applied by MQL mode during turning of Inconel 825 with coated carbide tool. Cutting force, surface roughness, and tool wear are evaluated. The results showed that the addition of nCNT substantially improved the machining performance and smaller flank the tool edge, while the adhesion and abrasion are observed as wear mechanism and better results are obtained at 0.5% of nCNT+ vegetable oil to produce the lowest values.
Technical Paper

Machinability and Parametric Optimization of Inconel 600 Using Taguchi-Desirability Analysis under Dry Environment

2019-10-11
2019-28-0068
Inconel 600 is a face-centered cubic structure and nickel-chromium alloy. Alloy 600 has good resistance to oxidation, corrosion-resistant, excellent mechanical properties, and good creep rupture strength at a higher temperature. Alloy 600 is used in heat treating, phenol condensers, chemical and food processing, soap manufacture, vegetable, and fatty acid vessels. In this context, the present paper investigates the machinability characteristics of Alloy 600 under dry environment. Also, the parametric effect of cutting speed, feed rate, and cutting depth on the force, surface roughness, and tool wear is carried out using 3-Dimensional surface and 1-Dimensional plots. The optimal parameters are determined systematically based on Taguchi-desirability analysis with turned with TiAlN coated carbide insert. From the graphical analysis of collected data, the low rate of feed and moderate cutting for roughness and cutting force and average feed rate for tool wear with low cutting depth.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Machinability Characteristics and Chip Morphology on Inconel 718: Dry and MQL

2019-10-11
2019-28-0066
Inconel 718 has excellent material properties, corrosion, and oxidation property among the nickel based superalloy. This property makes it suitable for producing components operating under extreme environments subjected to pressure and heat. The present study aims to examine the machinability comparison under dry and MQL turning of Inconel 718. The secondary aim is to report the sustainable machining on Inconel 718. Dry and MQL (Minimum Quantity Lubrication) experiments are carried out on Inconel 718 alloy based on Taguchi’s designed L16 orthogonal array. The cutting tools are an advanced coated cutting tool and uncoated tool. The levels of turning parameters are varied at 70, 120, 170 and 220 m/min of turning speed, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25 mm/rev of feed rate and 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mm of cutting depth. The cutting forces, surface roughness, flank wear, and chip morphology are taken for the current investigation. The factor effect on output responses is studied using 2D plots.
Technical Paper

Damage Analysis of Composite Laminates

2019-10-11
2019-28-0092
The favorable mechanical properties of Composite materials are excellent stiffness/weight and strength/weight ratios, easy formability and corrosion resistance. The application of composites in structural components is still limited by the difficulty in predicting their service lives. The objective of this research paper is to develop and evaluate damage initiation or delamination onset and growth in a C-C composite 8 layered pre-preg material 3D laminate model (dimension 25x3.4x85mm and ply thickness 1mm) under loading conditions without crack using ANSYS Autodyne tool subjected to a uni-axial load of 40N at the free end. Mapped quadrilaterals mesh is generated with 2610 nodes and 1792 elements. Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) formulations are more powerful than Fracture Mechanics approaches because they allow the prediction of both initiation and crack propagation.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Corrosion Behaviour of Al 7075 Composite Reinforced with TiC and Al2O3 Particles

2019-10-11
2019-28-0094
Various research regarding new types of fabrication and modifications of Aluminium alloy to improve the existing properties are going on. The wide range application of aluminium alloy is in aerospace and Automobile Industries. The demand for this material improved by mechanical properties with little to zero increment in weight. The current work is based on the fabrication of hybrid aluminium metal matrix composites with the addition of TiC (Titanium Carbide) and Al2O3 (Aluminium Oxide) reinforcement particle using stir casting technique. Three types of hybrid composite samples were prepared based on the weight percentage 5% Al2O3+0% TiC (sample-1), 8% Al2O3 + 12% TiC (sample-2), 20% Al2O3+15% TiC (sample-3). The objective of the study is to analyze the mechanical and corrosion properties of the hybrid composite with the influence of the reinforcement and varying the weight fraction of the particles.
Technical Paper

Critical Wear Assessment of AA8011/Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites with Surface Amendment Using Friction Stir Process

2019-10-11
2019-28-0096
Friction Stir Process (FSP) was employed for surface modification of steel, titanium, aluminum and magnesium-based alloy has been significantly revised through the last decade. Friction Stir Process can improve surface properties such as hardness, abrasion resistance, ductility, strength, fatigue life, corrosion resistance and formability without upsetting the bulk properties of the material. The aluminum alloy having low ductility and softness characteristics are restricted because of their poor tribological properties. Preliminary studies reveal that, an ideal circumstance is to improve the aluminum alloy material life cycles by the way of strengthening the surface layer which can be modified through reinforcing nanoparticles through FSP. The main objective of the study is to improve the surface properties of AA8011 by adding nanoparticles such as SMA and silicon nitrate (Si3N4) through friction stir process.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Properties of Similar and Dissimilar Metals of Monel 400 and SS 321 by Using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Process

2019-10-11
2019-28-0141
In the present study the fabrication of joints between the nickel base alloys and steels of various grades have been under taken, joining of these metals has assumed new importance by virtue of their widespread in nuclear and aerospace applications. Such joints provide excellent strength, oxidation and corrosion resistance. This paper deals with the study of weldability, and mechanical properties of weld joints of two different alloys such as nickel based alloy- monel 400 and austenitic stainless steel AISI 321.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Mechanical and Corrosion Characteristics of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy 7075-T6

2019-10-11
2019-28-0175
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a quite new solid-state joining process. This joining technique is energy efficient, environment friendly, and adaptable. In particular, it can be used to join high- strength Aluminium alloys and other metallic alloys that are difficult to weld by conventional fusion welding. Friction Stir Welding heats metal to the temperature below re crystallization. FSW avoids welding defects like porosity and hot cracking which are frequently in conventional welding techniques due to alloy’s very low re- crystallization temperature and higher heat dissipating nature. This process combining deformation heating and mechanical work to obtain high defect free joints. Aluminum alloy 7075-T6 is generally used in various industrial applications such as automobile, ship building and aerospace due to their light weight, good mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Corrosion Resistance Alloy C-2000 Fabricated by Conventional Arc Welding Technique

2019-10-11
2019-28-0177
In the current work the metallurgical and tensile properties of the weld joints of alloy C-2000 were investigated. Welding technique employed in this study is Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG) and Pulsed Current Tungsten Inert Gas (PC-TIG) welding with autogenous mode and Ni-Cr-Mo rich ERNiCrMo-10 filler wire. The results show that PC-TIG weldment obtained the refined microstructure compared to the TIG weldment. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed the extent of Cr segregation was observed in all the weldments. PC-TIG welding shows reduced segregation compared to the corresponding TIG. X-ray diffraction (XRD) corroborated the existence of Ni3Cr2 phases in the weld fusion zone. Tensile test results show the PC-TIG weldment obtained marginally higher tensile properties comparing over the corresponding TIG weldment. The strength of the weldments is inferior in all cases in comparison to base metal.
Technical Paper

Corrosion and Corrosive Wear of Steel for Automotive Exhaust Application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0178
In the current scenario, durable exhaust system design, development and manufacturing are mandatory for the vehicle to be competitive and challenging in the automotive market. Material selection for the exhaust system plays a major role due to the increased warranty requirements and regulatory compliances. The materials used in the automotive exhaust application are cast iron, stainless steel, mild steel. The materials of the exhaust systems should be heat resistant, wear and corrosion resistant. Stainless steel is the most commonly used material in the automotive exhaust system. Due to increasing cost of nickel and some other alloying elements, there is a need to replace the stainless steel with EN 8 steel. Recent trends are towards light weight concepts, cost reduction and better performance. In order to reduce the cost and to achieve better wear and corrosion resistance, the surface of the EN 8 steel is modified with coatings.
Training / Education

Materials Degradation in Mechanical Design Wear, Corrosion, Fatigue and their Interactions

2019-10-08
Materials degradation from environmental conditions is a common factor that will often occur in mechanical equipment used in every type of environment. These processes can frequently materialize in unpredicted and harmful ways, especially when they interact and lead to early component damage or failure. This five-session course will summarize the mechanisms that cause materials and mechanical components to degrade in service through exposure to deleterious mechanical and environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

Brake Rotor Corrosion and Friction Cleaning Effect on Vehicle Judder Performance

2019-09-15
2019-01-2115
Brake disc corrosion has emerged as an important field of study within the automotive industry due to the wide range of lining materials that are currently used worldwide, and their inherent rust-cleaning properties. The presence of oxide layers irregularly deposited on the cast iron disc surfaces usually leads to a forced, braking-induced vibration that can reach the driver’s position as a pronounced annoyance. Hence, the friction material composition directly impacts on the judder performance during the early corrosion-removal stage. This study incorporates both dynamometer and vehicle tests into the definition of a predictive methodology that allows corrosion-induced vibrations to be investigated at both system and vehicle levels. The oxide film is artificially generated by means of a salt spray chamber under steady-state climate conditions in order to guarantee a repetitive and robust procedure.
Technical Paper

Study on Application Methods to Mitigate Galvanic Corrosion between Wheel Bearing and Aluminum Knuckle

2019-09-15
2019-01-2136
The substitution of aluminum for steel is an effective weight reduction solution where the application permits it; aluminum knuckles have been widely used for this reason. However, when an aluminum knuckle is assembled with the steel outer-ring of a wheel bearing without any means for galvanic corrosion prevention, the aluminum knuckle may severely corrode. Galvanic corrosion products can make it difficult to remove a wheel bearing from the aluminum knuckle during vehicle maintenance. Prevention of this problem is the focus of this paper. In this study, several concepts were examined to prevent or mitigate galvanic corrosion between a wheel bearing and its mating aluminum knuckle. One set of concepts involves using surface treated metal sleeves (using ferritic nitro-carburizing or a special coating). The sleeves were then inserted onto the outer-ring diameters of the wheel bearings prior to assembly into the steering knuckle.
Technical Paper

Effects of In-Cylinder Flow Structures on Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Swirl-Supported Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0009
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to describe the effect of in-cylinder flow structures on the formation and oxidation of soot in a swirl-supported light-duty diesel engine. The focus of the paper is on the effect of swirl motion and injection pressure on late cycle soot oxidation. The structure of the flow at different swirl numbers is studied to investigate the effect of varying swirl number on the coherent flow structures. These coherent flow structures are studied to understand the mechanism that leads to efficient soot oxidation in late cycle. Effect of varying injection pressure at different swirl numbers and the interaction between spray and swirl motions are discussed. The complexity of diesel combustion, especially when soot and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Analysis of Catalytic Converters during Cold Starts

2019-09-09
2019-24-0163
The transient heat transfer behavior of an automotive catalytic converter has been simulated with OpenFOAM in 1D. The model takes into consideration the gas-solid convective heat transfer, axial wall conduction and heat capacity effects in the solid phase, but also the chemical reactions of CO oxidation, based on simplified Arrhenius and Langmuir-Hinshelwood approaches. The associated parameters are the results of data in literature tuned by experiments. Simplified cases of constant flow rates and gas temperatures in the catalyst inflow have been chosen for a comprehensive analysis of the heat and mass transfer phenomena. The impact of inlet flow temperatures and inlet flow rates on the heat up characteristics as well as in the CO emissions have been quantified. A dimensional analysis is proposed and dimensionless temperature difference and space-time coordinates are introduced.
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