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Technical Paper

NEXT GENERATION POWER DISTRIBUTION UNIT IN WIRING HARNESS

2019-11-21
2019-28-2571
Keywords – Miniaturization, Low Profile (LP) Relays, Low Profile (LP) Fuses, Fuse box, Wiring Harness Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. Methodology Miniaturization involves replacing the mini fuses and J-case fuses with LP mini and LP J-case fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost.
Technical Paper

Thermal Challenges in Automotive Exhaust System through Heat Shield Insulation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2539
While advanced automotive system assemblies contribute greater value to automotive safety, reliability, emission/noise performance and comfort, they are also generating higher temperatures that can reduce the functionality and reliability of thesystem over time. Thermal management and insulation are extremely important and highly demanding in BSVI, RDE and Non-IC engine operating vehicles. Passenger vehicle and Commercial vehicle exhaust systems are facing multiple challenges such as packaging constraints, weight reduction andthermalmanagement requirements.Frugal engineering is mandatory to develop heat shield in the exhaust system with minimum heat loss. The focus of the paper is to design, develop and validate heat shield products with different variables such as design gap, insulation material, sheet metal thickness and manufacturing processes. 1D and 3D computational simulations are performed with different gaps from 3 mm to 14 mm are considered.
Technical Paper

Sensor Perception and Motion Planning for an Autonomous Material Handling Vehicle.

2019-10-28
2019-01-2611
The ground mobile robotics study is structured on the two pivotal members namely Sensor perception and Motion planning. Sensor perception or Exteroception comprises the ability of measurement of the layout of environment relative to vehicle’s frame of reference which is a necessity for the implementation of safe navigation towards the goal destination in an unstructured environment. Environment scanning has played a significant role in mobile robots application to investigate the unexplored environment in the sector of defence while transporting and handling material in warehouse and hospitals. Motion Planning is a conjunction of analysing the sensor’s information about the local frame and global map while being able to plan the route from starting point to the target destination. In this paper, a 3600 2-D LiDAR is used to capture the spatial information of the surrounding, the scanning results are presented in a local and global map.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Optimum Reduction of Required Brake Fluid Level for Improvement of The High Speed Continuous Brake Distance

2019-09-15
2019-01-2121
The high speed continuous braking distance assessment is the worst condition for thermal fades. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fade characteristic and friction materials & brake fluid amount for improving braking distance. So, we used the dynamometer to measure the friction coefficient, braking distance and required brake fluid amount. First of all, we studied the influence of friction coefficient on the same friction material shape (chamfer shape, area of the friction material, number of slots). Secondly, we knew the effects of braking distance by the shape of the friction material. Through these two studies, the shape of the friction material favorable to the fade characteristics was obtained. Finally, we measured the amount of required brake fluid in caliper after 10 consecutive braking cycles through Dynamometer. And then, we measured the amount of compression deformation and uneven wear of the friction material.
Technical Paper

Development of a Dedicated CNG Three-Way Catalyst Model in 1-D Simulation Platforms

2019-09-09
2019-24-0074
A growing interest in heavy-duty engines powered with CNG dictated by stringent regulations in terms of emissions, has made it essential to study a specific Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Oxygen storage phenomena characterize catalytic converter efficiency under real world driving operating conditions and, consequently, during strong dynamics in Air-to-Fuel (A/F) ratio. A numerical “quasi-steady” model has been set-up to simulate the chemical process inside the reactor. A dedicated experimental campaign has been performed in order to evaluate the catalyst response to a defined lambda variation pattern of the engine exhaust stream, thus providing the data necessary for the numerical model validation. In fact, goal of the present research activity was to investigate the effect of very fast composition transitions of the engine exhaust typical of the mentioned driving conditions (including fuel cutoffs etc.) on the catalyst performance and on related emissions at the tailpipe.
Technical Paper

Engine Exhaust Noise Optimization Using Sobol DoE Sequence and NSGA-II Algorithms

2019-06-05
2019-01-1483
Exhaust muffler is one of the most important component for overall vehicle noise signature. Optimized design of exhaust system plays a vital role in engine performance as well as auditory comfort. Exhaust orifice noise reduction is often contradicted by increased back pressure and packaging space. The process of arriving at exhaust design, which meets packaging space, back pressure and orifice noise requirements, is often manual and time consuming. Therefore, an automated numerical technique is needed for this multi-objective optimization. In current case study, a tractor exhaust system has been subjected to Design of Experiments (DoE) using Sobol sequencing algorithm and optimized using NSGA-II algorithm. Target design space of the exhaust muffler is identified and modeled considering available packaging constrain. Various exhaust design parameters like; length of internal pipes, location of baffles and perforation etc. are defined as input variables.
Technical Paper

Development of an Accelerated Test for Tire Flat-Spotting

2019-06-05
2019-01-1509
Tire flat-spotting occurs when tires remain in a loaded condition without rolling for an extended period of time, and can be temporary or permanent depending on the length of storage, vehicle loading and environmental factors. Tire non-uniformity caused from flat-spots often induce shake and shimmy vibration in vehicles due to increased tire-wheel force variation input into the chassis. This results in increased warranty costs for OEMs and tire suppliers and customer dis-satisfaction in third-party quality surveys such as J. D. Power IQS. Flat-spotting is of particular concern for slow-moving vehicle inventory parked for long periods at plants and/or dealership lots. OEMs often stipulate or recommend inventory storage practices for dealers that require physical movement of vehicles at some set duration to reduce the risk of tires developing permanent flat-spots.
Article

NASA high-temp materials, coatings enhance commercial products

2019-05-20
NASA officials are announcing the availability of eight disruptive NASA materials and coatings technologies ready for commercialization. NASA officials are looking for companies interested in using the organization’s high-temperature materials and coatings, including those designed to withstand high temperatures, to improve existing products or introduce new ones.
Standard

Material Handler Nomenclature and Specifications

2019-04-15
CURRENT
J2506_201904
This SAE Standard establishes terminology and the content of commercial literature specifications for self-propelled crawler and wheeled material handlers, pedestal mounted material handlers and their equipment as defined in 3.1. Illustrations used here are not intended to include all existing commercial machines or to be exactly descriptive of any particular machine. They have been provided to describe the principles to be used in applying this document. (Material handlers share many design characteristics with hydraulic excavators and log loaders; primarily 360 degree continuous rotation of the upperstructure relative to the undercarriage or mounting. They differ in their operating application. Material handlers are used for the handling of scrap material and normally utilize grapples or magnets. Hydraulic excavators are used for the excavation of earth, gravel and other loose material utilizing a bucket.
Technical Paper

The Adaptive Cycle Engine on Standard Duty Cycles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0232
Continuing research introduced at the 2018 WCX conference, this paper shows the result of simulations where a midsize sedan (1700 kg) fitted with an adaptive cycle engine and a CVT is operated over three standard duty cycles: US06, UDDS, and HWFET, and compared with the results obtained from other engine cycles installed on the same vehicle. Four different engine cycles are compared: conventional 4-stroke, 6-stroke cycle with no air storage, 6-stroke cycle with air storage, and fully adaptive cycle with air storage and a number of strokes determined by instantaneous demand and state of charge of the storage tank. Results show that the fully adaptive engine achieves a better mileage in all scenarios, closely followed by the partially adaptive 6-stroke cycle with storage. Gains over a conventional 4-stroke powerplant range from 3.4 mpg on the HWFET cycle, to 7.6 mpg on the UDDS cycle.
Technical Paper

Advances in Tank Heaters Based on PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) Plastic Nanomaterials

2019-04-02
2019-01-0152
The global trend on emission reduction is leading to a wider diffusion of SCR systems for diesel engines and to the introduction of WI (water injection) systems in gasoline engines. Cars are equipped with tanks for water and urea solutions (AD-blue). Both liquids can freeze in the car operative temperature range: the tanks must be equipped with heaters to guarantee a sufficient amount of additives in liquid form in any condition. We propose solutions based on plastic PTC (in the following nanoPTC) effect nanomaterials for thermal management of those liquids. The proposed heaters can be molded in any shape, following the specific constraints of each tank, in carpet like shapes for a distributed heating of the tank, or in bulky components integrating sensors housings, pipes, pumping systems or in the packaging of other components. The PTC effect is distributed avoiding overheating in parts with poor thermal exchange (dry condition).
Technical Paper

The Differential Braking Steering Control of Special Purpose Flat-Bed Electric Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0440
Special purpose flat-bed vehicle is commonly utilized to move heavily items such as containers in warehouse, port and other freight handling scene, the hydraulic steering system have be gradually replaced by electric ones. However, the cost of electric steering system is high for commercial activities. Thus, for some corporates, the differential braking steering strategy becomes an ideal alternative. The purpose of this paper is to present a steering control method for flat-bed electric vehicle based on differential braking system. There are two main components of the control method, steering while moving forward and pivot steering, and each of them was composed by upper layer and executive layer. To evaluate the practicability of the control methods, a 7-DOF flat-bed vehicle model was established in Simulink.
Technical Paper

Investigating Collaborative Robot Gripper Configurations for Simple Fabric Pick and Place Tasks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0699
Fiber composite materials are widely used in many industrial applications - specially in automotive, aviation and consumer goods. Introducing light-weighting material solutions to reduce vehicle mass is driving innovative materials research activities as polymer composites offer high specific stiffness and strength compared to contemporary engineering materials. However, there are issues related to high production volume, automation strategies and handling methods. The state of the art for the production of these light-weight flexible textile or composite fiber products is setting up multi-stage manual operations for hand layups. Material handling of flexible textile/fiber components is a process bottleneck. Consequently, the long term research goal is to develop semi-automated pick and place processes for flexible materials utilizing collaborative robots within the process. Collaborative robots allow for interactive human-machine tasks to be conducted.
Technical Paper

High Precise Benchmarks by CSD (Computational Solid Dynamics) with Meshfree Methods

2019-04-02
2019-01-0797
The virtual optimisation of tooling equipment is nowadays one of the common challenges in mechanical serial production. Even some numerical Eulerian approaches (grid-based) exist for modelling solid materials under dynamic loading, most of them are not very successful. Especially the solids undergoing large deformation and the subsequent material separation and propagating cracks demonstrate the limitations: variables become discontinuous across the crack surface, and the computational domain loses its continuum nature. Grid-based methods are not naturally equipped to deal with such situations due to the mesh distortion, mesh entanglement and requirement of mesh refinement. Very promising alternatives to the Eulerian methods are meshfree Lagrangian methods. Among them, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is entirely meshfree and naturally equipped to handle large material deformation. In SPH the computational domain is discretised by a set of particles.
Technical Paper

Duct Shape Optimization Using Multi-Objective and Geometrically Constrained Adjoint Solver

2019-04-02
2019-01-0823
In the recent years, adjoint optimization has gained popularity in the automotive industry with its growing applications. Since its inclusion in the mainstream commercial CFD solvers and its continuously added capabilities over the years, its productive usage became readily available to many engineers who were previously limited to interfacing the customized adjoint source code with CFD solvers. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate using an adjoint solver a method to optimize duct shape that meets multiple design objectives simultaneously. To overcome one of the biggest challenges in the duct design, i.e. the severe packaging constraints, the method here uses geometrically constrained adjoint to ensure that the optimum shape always fits into the user-defined packaging space. In this work, adjoint solver and surface sensitivity calculations are used to develop the optimization method.
Technical Paper

Approximating Convective Boundary Conditions for Transient Thermal Simulations with Surrogate Models for Thermal Packaging Studies

2019-04-02
2019-01-0904
The need for transient thermal simulations in vehicle packaging studies has grown rapidly in recent years. To date, the computational costs associated with the transient simulation of 3D conjugate heat transfer phenomena has prohibited the widespread use of full vehicle transient simulations. This paper presents results from a recent study that explored a method to circumvent the computational costs associated with long transient conjugate heat transfer simulations. The proposed method first segregates the thermal structural and fluid physics domains to take advantage of time scale differences. The two domains are then re-coupled to calculate a series of steady state conjugate heat transfer simulations at various vehicle speeds. The local convection terms are then used to construct a set of surrogate models dependent on vehicle speed, that predict the local heat transfer coefficients and the local near wall fluid temperatures.
Technical Paper

Reliability Physics Approach for High-Density Ball Grid Arrays in Autonomous Vehicle Applications

2019-04-02
2019-01-1251
Integration of advanced sensing systems in autonomous vehicles is possible due to high performance processors that utilize high-density ball grid array (HD-BGA) packaging. The configuration of advanced sensors within autonomous vehicles requires the placement of processing modules within non-conventional vehicles compartments that can drastically influence the reliability of HD-BGAs. Durability of HD-BGAs to different loads depend on their location within the vehicle as well as the form factor of the package itself. Reliability Physics Approach (RPA) combines simulation tools and empirical models to predict the reliability of advanced electronic packages under complex environmental and operational loads by identifying the susceptibility of electronic components to the dominant failure mechanism.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Navigation in Mobile Robots for Long-Term Autonomy in Automotive Manufacturing Environments

2019-04-02
2019-01-0505
In recent times, a number of reference implementations of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) and navigation techniques have been made publicly available via the ROS Community. Several implementations have transitioned to commercial products (vacuum robots, drones, warehouse robots, etc.). However, in such cases, they are specialized and optimized for their specific domains of deployment. In particular, their success criteria have been based primarily on mission completion and safety of humans around them. In this light, deployment in any new operational design domain (ODD) requires at least a careful verification of performance and often re-optimization. We seek the technological gaps that need to be addressed to ensure the mobile robots are fit for automotive manufacturing environments. Automotive final assembly environments pose significant additional challenges for mobile robot deployment.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Development of the 2019 Chevrolet Corvette C7 ZR1

2019-04-02
2019-01-0665
This paper presents an overview of the aerodynamic development of the 2019 Chevrolet Corvette C7 ZR1. Extensive wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics simulations were completed to engineer the ZR1’s aerodynamics to improve lift-to-drag efficiency and track capability over previous Corvette offerings. The ZR1 architecture changes posed many aerodynamic challenges including increased vehicle cooling, strict packaging demands, wider front track width, and aggressive exterior styling. Through motorsports-inspired aerodynamic development, the ZR1 was engineered to overcome these challenges through the creation of new devices such as a raised rear wing and front underwing. The resulting Standard ZR1 achieved a top speed of 212 mph making it the fastest Corvette ever [1]. Optionally, the ZR1 with the ZTK Performance Package provides the highest downforce of any Corvette, generating approximately 950 pounds at the ZTK’s top speed [1].
Standard

Military Tire Glossary

2019-03-25
WIP
J2013
This glossary of tire military/industry represents the latest state-of-the-art terms and definitions for military use. This SAE recommended practice shall remain open for comments from the reader and shall also be reviewed and updated periodically. Many similar terms and definitions were reviewed from which the ones best applied to military use were selected. It is the purpose of this task force to provide technical definitions in present day use.
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