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Technical Paper

Photo oxidation analysis method for automotive coating weathering performance evaluation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2555
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE Accelerated artificial weathering performance has been always observed as critical and most important factor for durability prediction of colour and resin for a coating system. Photo oxidation of resin is the phenomenon behind coating’s ageing. Though accelerated weathering tests protocols are widely used in industry, they are very costly and still very time consuming. One automotive grade accelerated testing can go as long as 8 months duration. METHODOLOGY (maximum 150 words) Photo oxidation value (POV) is proportionate to the degradation of the resin material used in coating. During the accelerated weathering POV is measured for the coating at stipulated interval during initial phase and trend is plotted for deterioration verses weathering test duration. POV can be analysed with the help of FTIR analysis to observe bond absorption energy and bond separation energy in the resin system. This trend can be extrapolated to predict the weathering performance of coating.
Technical Paper

MITIGATION FOR EDGE CORROSION PROTECTION FOR AUTOMOTIVE BODIES

2019-11-21
2019-28-2561
TITLE: MITIGATION FOR EDGE CORROSION PROTECTION FOR AUTOMOTIVE BODIES. Keyword: Edge corrosion, Edge protection, Rust on edges, Corrosion mitigation. Objective: A major challenge to automotive industry is to protect the vehicle from corrosion in varying environment with respect to different service conditions. One of the main types of corrosion that affects aesthetic look is edge corrosion on sheet metal. Mostly edge is acting as starting point of corrosion due to unprotected metal exposed to environment. A special attention to be given to exposed edges to protect from rust formation. Methodology: To mitigate corrosion in visible area, various solution proposed in manufacturing process, material usage, sealer application, BIW design. Samples were prepared as per design of experiments with respect to manufacturing process condition and subjected for testing. Results: Proposed solutions were validated in manufacturing process line and reports are discussed.
Technical Paper

NEXT GENERATION POWER DISTRIBUTION UNIT IN WIRING HARNESS

2019-11-21
2019-28-2571
Keywords – Miniaturization, Low Profile (LP) Relays, Low Profile (LP) Fuses, Fuse box, Wiring Harness Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. Methodology Miniaturization involves replacing the mini fuses and J-case fuses with LP mini and LP J-case fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Interior cleanliness tracker

2019-11-21
2019-28-2466
The future of mobility is being driven towards fully autonomous driving. As a result, people spend majority of the time in vehicles for chores other than driving. The focus of automotive makers shifts towards providing best-in-class passenger comfort. One of the least focused area in passenger comfort is vehicle interior cleanliness which requires periodic human intervention. An intelligent vehicle can outsmart a human by self-caring to maintain the cleanliness elements on floor, seat and roof. This paper addresses subjects like wetness, dirt and stains in the vehicle interior utilizing the capability of Interior sensing platform. An internally mounted camera in the vehicle can capture images of the interior and apply image processing techniques to identify the subjects mentioned above. The wetness on the floor mats can lead to moldy odor, corrosion, failure of the electronic components in the car.
Technical Paper

Thermal Challenges in Automotive Exhaust System through Heat Shield Insulation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2539
While advanced automotive system assemblies contribute greater value to automotive safety, reliability, emission/noise performance and comfort, they are also generating higher temperatures that can reduce the functionality and reliability of thesystem over time. Thermal management and insulation are extremely important and highly demanding in BSVI, RDE and Non-IC engine operating vehicles. Passenger vehicle and Commercial vehicle exhaust systems are facing multiple challenges such as packaging constraints, weight reduction andthermalmanagement requirements.Frugal engineering is mandatory to develop heat shield in the exhaust system with minimum heat loss. The focus of the paper is to design, develop and validate heat shield products with different variables such as design gap, insulation material, sheet metal thickness and manufacturing processes. 1D and 3D computational simulations are performed with different gaps from 3 mm to 14 mm are considered.
Training / Education

Fuel Systems Material Selection and Compatibility with Alternative Fuels

2019-11-19
This course will introduce the participants to the factors governing fuel-material compatibility and methods to predict and empirically determine compatibility for new alternative fuel chemistries.  By understanding the mechanisms and factors associated with chemically-induced degradation, participants will be able to assess the impact of fuel chemistry to infrastructure components, including those associated with vehicle fuel systems.  This course is unique in that it looks at compatibility from a fuel chemistry perspective, especially new fuel types such as alcohols and other biofuels. 
Technical Paper

Sensor Perception and Motion Planning for an Autonomous Material Handling Vehicle.

2019-10-22
2019-01-2611
The ground mobile robotics study is structured on the two pivotal members namely Sensor perception and Motion planning. Sensor perception or Exteroception comprises the ability of measurement of the layout of environment relative to vehicle’s frame of reference which is a necessity for the implementation of safe navigation towards the goal destination in an unstructured environment. Environment scanning has played a significant role in mobile robots application to investigate the unexplored environment in the sector of defence while transporting and handling material in warehouse and hospitals. Motion Planning is a conjunction of analysing the sensor’s information about the local frame and global map while being able to plan the route from starting point to the target destination. In this paper, a 3600 2-D LiDAR is used to capture the spatial information of the surrounding, the scanning results are presented in a local and global map.
Technical Paper

Machinability and parametric optimization of Inconel 600 using Taguchi-Desirability analysis under dry environment

2019-10-11
2019-28-0068
Inconel 600 is a face-centered cubic structure and nickel-chromium alloy. Alloy 600 has good resistance to oxidation, corrosion resistant, excellent mechanical properties and good creep rupture strength at higher temperature. Alloy 600 is used in chemical and food processing, heat treating, phenol condensers, soap manufacture, vegetable, and fatty acid vessels. In this context, the present paper investigates the machinability characteristics of Alloy 600 under dry environment. Also, the parametric effect of cutting speed, feed rate and cutting depth on the force, surface roughness and tool wear are carried out using 3-Dimensional surface and 1-Dimensional plots. The optimal parameters are determined systematically based on Taguchi-desirability analysis with turned with TiAlN coated carbide insert. From the graphical analysis of collected data, the low rate of feed and moderate cutting for roughness and cutting force and average feed rate for tool wear with low cutting depth.
Technical Paper

Investigation of machinability characteristics and chip morphology on Inconel 718: Dry and MQL

2019-10-11
2019-28-0066
Nickel based superalloys Inconel 718 has a unique property. It contains oxidation corrosion resistant materials. This property makes it highly suitable for extreme environments subjected to pressure and heat. In the present study, dry and MQL(Minimum Quantity Lubrication) experiments are carried out on Inconel 718 alloy based on designed L16 orthogonal array using the advanced coated cutting tool and uncoated tool, respectively. The levels of turning parameters are varied at 70, 120, 170 and 220 m/min of turning speed, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25 mm/rev of feed rate and 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mm of cutting depth. The cutting forces, surface roughness, flank wear, and chip morphology are taken for current investigation. The factor effect on output responses is studied using responses surface 3D and 1D plots.
Technical Paper

Turning of Inconel 825 with coated carbide tool applying vegetable-based cutting fluid mixed with CUO, Al2O3 and CNT Nanoparticles by MQL

2019-10-11
2019-28-0060
Inconel 825 is nickel (Ni)-iron (Fe)-chromium (Cr) alloy with additions of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), and titanium (Ti). The alloy has excellent resistance to corrosion and is often the most cost-effective alloy in sulphuric acid piping vessels and chemical process equipment. No attempt of applying MQL with the addition of nanoparticles was reported conferring to the works accessed. The present study is focused on evaluating the effect of the addition of nanoparticles (CUO, Al2O3 and CNT) in vegetable oil applied by MQL mode during turning of Inconel 825 with coated carbide tool. Cutting force, surface roughness and tool wear are evaluated. The results showed that the addition of nCNT substantially improved the machining performance, smaller flank and crater wear on the tool edge, while the adhesion and abrasion are observed as wear mechanism and better results are obtained at 0.5% of nCNT+ vegetable oil to produce the lowest values.
Technical Paper

Study of Mechanical Properties of Similar and Dissimilar Metals of Monel 400 and SS 321by using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Process

2019-10-11
2019-28-0141
In the present study the fabrication of joints between the nickel base alloys and steels of various grades have been under taken, joining of these metals has assumed new importance by virtue of their widespread in nuclear and aerospace applications. Such joints provide excellent strength, oxidation and corrosion resistance. This paper deals with the study of weldability, and mechanical properties of weld joints of two different alloys such as nickel based alloy- monel 400 and austenitic stainless steel AISI 321. The joining of the similar and dissimilar metals is carried out by GTAW process by employing two different types of filler rods such as SS321 and ERNiCrMo-3.
Technical Paper

Corrosion and Corrosive Wear of Steel for Automotive Exhaust Application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0178
In the current scenario, durable exhaust system design, development and manufacturing are mandatory for the vehicle to be competitive and challenging in the automotive market. Material selection for the exhaust system plays a major role due to the increased warranty requirements and regulatory compliances. The materials used in the automotive exhaust application are cast iron, stainless steel, mild steel. The materials of the exhaust systems should be heat resistant, wear and corrosion resistant. Stainless steel is the most commonly used material in the automotive exhaust system. Due to increasing cost of nickel and some other alloying elements, there is a need to replace the stainless steel with EN 8 steel. Recent trends are towards light weight concepts, cost reduction and better performance. In order to reduce the cost and to achieve better wear and corrosion resistance, the surface of the EN 8 steel is modified with coatings.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation Mechanical and Corrosion Characteristics of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy 7075-T6

2019-10-11
2019-28-0175
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a quite new solid-state joining process. This joining technique is energy efficient, environment friendly, and adaptable. In particular, it can be used to join high-strength Aluminium alloys and other metallic alloys that are difficult to weld by conventional fusion welding. Friction Stir Welding heats metal to the temperature below re crystallization. FSW avoids welding defects like porosity and hot cracking which are frequently in conventional welding techniques due to alloy’s very low re-crystallization temperature and higher heat dissipating nature. This process combining deformation heating and mechanical work to obtain high defect free joints. Aluminum alloy 7075-T6 is generally used in various industrial applications such as automobile, ship building and aerospace due to their light weight, good mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

Amelioration of modular mobility by adopting split cell solar panel cleaning and cooling therof

2019-10-11
2019-28-0078
In photovoltaic system the efficiency of solar cells is determined in combination with latitude and climate. The electricity generation in photovoltaic cell is more in the morning time than in the afternoon time. This is due to the fact that an increase in solar cell temperature leads to a decrease in efficiency of the solar panel. This work aims to provide necessary cooling to the solar panel for favourable output during noon time. Normally electrical modular vehicles use non-split cell solar panels. In order to increase the efficiency, we are using split cell solar panel as it increases voltage by halving the size of the silicon chips. Thus, halving the cells results in increasing efficiency and lowering the operation temperature. The solar panel should be maintained at a particular temperature by adopting sprinkling of water method in solar panel for hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

Damage Analysis of Composite Laminates

2019-10-11
2019-28-0092
The favourable mechanical properties of Composite materials are excellent stiffness/weight and strength/weight ratios, easy formability and corrosion resistance. The application of composites in structural components is still limited by the difficulty in predicting their service lives. The objective of this research paper is to develop and evaluate damage initiation or delamination onset and growth in a C-C composite 8 layered pre-preg material 3D laminate model (dimension 25x3.4x85mm and ply thickness 1mm) under various loading conditions for two cases, one without crack and another with crack using ANSYS Autodyne tool subjected to a uni-axial load of 40N at the free end. Mapped quadrilaterals mesh is generated with 2610 nodes and 1792 elements. Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) formulations are more powerful than Fracture Mechanics approaches because they allow the prediction of both initiation and crack propagation.
Technical Paper

Critical wear assessment of AA8011/Hybrid metal matrix composites with surface amendment using Friction Stir process

2019-10-11
2019-28-0096
Friction Stir Process (FSP) was used for surface modification of steel, titanium, aluminum and magnesium based alloy has been considerably reviewed during the last decade. FSP can improve surface properties such as abrasion resistance, hardness, strength, ductility, corrosion resistance, fatigue life and formability without affecting the bulk properties of the material. The aluminum alloy having low ductility and softness characteristics are restricted because of their poor tribological properties. Preliminary studies reveal that, an ideal circumstance is to improve the aluminum alloy material life cycles by the way of strengthening the surface layer which can be modified through reinforcing nano particles through FSP. By the way, this experiment was carried out to obtain three set of samples like virgin AA8011, AA8011 with shape memory alloy and AA8011 along with shape memory alloy and silicon nitride during FSP under optimal process parametric condition.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and corrosion behaviour of 7075 aluminium matrix composite reinforced with TiC and Al2O3

2019-10-11
2019-28-0094
Various research regarding new methods of fabrication and modifications of Aluminium alloy to improve the existing properties are going on. The wide application of aluminium in aerospace and automobile Industry, demands improved mechanical properties with little to zero increment in weight. This work is based on the fabrication of hybrid metal matrix composites of 7075 aluminium alloy with the addition of TiC (Titanium Carbide) and Al2O3(Aluminium Oxide) reinforcements is fabricated using stir casting technique. Weight percentage of 5%, Al2O3 8% and Tic 12%, Tic 15% and Al2O3 10%. Samples are prepared for each mass distribution . Varying weight fraction samples are prepared to have a proper comparative study of the mechanical properties. In the fabrication we gradually increased the weight of TiC and Al2O3 as we progressed with the experiment.. The objective is to have a clear idea of mechanical properties variation with variation in reinforcement.
Technical Paper

Corrosion characteristics on friction stir welding of dissimilar AA2014/AA6061 alloy for automobile application.

2019-10-11
2019-28-0063
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a widely used solid state welding process in which its heats metal to below recrystallization temperature. FSW mostly avoids welding defects like hot cracking and porosity which are mainly in conventional welding techniques due to alloy’s higher heat dissipating nature and low re-crystallization temperature. In this process combining mechanical work and deformation heating to get high defect free welding joints. Aluminium Alloys 2014 and 6061 are generally used in a wide range of applications such as an automobile, shipbuilding and aerospace due to their high corrosion resistance, lightweight and good mechanical properties. In the present work, aluminium alloys of AA6061 and AA2014 were effectively welded by friction stir welding technique. The mechanical and Corrosion behaviour of the welded joints were investigated at different welding parameters.
Technical Paper

Investigation on microstructure and mechanical properties of corrosion resistance alloy C-2000 fabricated by conventional arc welding technique

2019-10-11
2019-28-0177
In the current work the metallurgical and tensile properties of the weld joints of alloy C-2000 were investigated. Welding technique employed in this study is Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG) and Pulsed Current Tungsten Inert Gas (PC-TIG) welding with autogenous mode and Ni-Cr-Mo rich ERNiCrMo-10 filler wire. The results show that PC-TIG weldment obtained the refined microstructure compared to the TIG weldment. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed the extent of Cr segregation was observed in all the weldments. PC-TIG welding shows reduced segregation compared to the corresponding TIG. X-ray diffraction (XRD) corroborated the existence of Ni3Cr2 phases in the weld fusion zone. Tensile test results show the PC-TIG weldment obtained marginally higher tensile properties comparing over the corresponding TIG weldment. The strength of the weldments is inferior in all cases in comparison to base metal.
Training / Education

Materials Degradation in Mechanical Design Wear, Corrosion, Fatigue and their Interactions

2019-10-08
Materials degradation from environmental conditions is a common factor that will often occur in mechanical equipment used in every type of environment. These processes can frequently materialize in unpredicted and harmful ways, especially when they interact and lead to early component damage or failure. This five-session course will summarize the mechanisms that cause materials and mechanical components to degrade in service through exposure to deleterious mechanical and environmental conditions.
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