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Technical Paper

NEXT GENERATION POWER DISTRIBUTION UNIT IN WIRING HARNESS

2019-11-21
2019-28-2571
Keywords – Miniaturization, Low Profile (LP) Relays, Low Profile (LP) Fuses, Fuse box, Wiring Harness Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. Methodology Miniaturization involves replacing the mini fuses and J-case fuses with LP mini and LP J-case fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost.
Technical Paper

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF A PASSENGER VEHICLE TO ANALYSE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS USING CRADLE TO GRAVE APPROACH

2019-11-21
2019-28-2581
OBJECTIVE: Climate change is primary driver in the current discussions on CO2 reduction in the automotive industry. Current Type approval emissions tests (BS III, BS IV) covers only tailpipe emissions, however the emissions produced in upstream and downstream processes (e.g. Raw material sourcing, manufacturing, transportation, vehicle usage, recycle phases) are not considered in the evaluation. The objective of this project is to assess the environmental impact of the product considering all stages of the life cycle, understand the real opportunities to reduce environmental impact across the product life cycle. METHODOLOGY: As a part of environmental sustainability journey in business value chain, Life-cycle assessment (LCA) technique helps to understand the environmental impact categories. To measure overall impact, a cradle to grave approach helps to assess entire life cycle impact throughout various stages.
Technical Paper

Thermal Challenges in Automotive Exhaust System through Heat Shield Insulation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2539
While advanced automotive system assemblies contribute greater value to automotive safety, reliability, emission/noise performance and comfort, they are also generating higher temperatures that can reduce the functionality and reliability of thesystem over time. Thermal management and insulation are extremely important and highly demanding in BSVI, RDE and Non-IC engine operating vehicles. Passenger vehicle and Commercial vehicle exhaust systems are facing multiple challenges such as packaging constraints, weight reduction andthermalmanagement requirements.Frugal engineering is mandatory to develop heat shield in the exhaust system with minimum heat loss. The focus of the paper is to design, develop and validate heat shield products with different variables such as design gap, insulation material, sheet metal thickness and manufacturing processes. 1D and 3D computational simulations are performed with different gaps from 3 mm to 14 mm are considered.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Combined Outcome of Rice Husk Nano Additive and Water Injection Method on the Performance, Emission and Combustion Characters of the Low Viscous Pine Oil in a Diesel Engine

2019-10-22
2019-01-2604
The research work intends to assess the need and improvement of using a low viscous bio oil, RH (Rice Husk) Nano Particles and water injection method in enhancing the performance, emission and combustion characters of a diesel engine. One of the major setbacks for using biodiesel was its higher viscosity. Hence, a low viscous oil (Pine oil) which doesn’t need transesterification process was used as a biofuel in this study. To further improve its characteristics a non-metallic Nano additive produced from rice husk was added at 3 proportions (50, 100, 200 ppm) and the optimal quantity was found as 100ppm based on the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) value of 30.2% at peak load condition. This efficiency value was accompanied by a considerable decrease in pollutants like HC (Hydrocarbon), Smoke, CO (Carbon monoxide). On the contrary NOx (Oxides of Nitrogen) emission was found to be increased for all load values.
Technical Paper

Sensor Perception and Motion Planning for an Autonomous Material Handling Vehicle.

2019-10-22
2019-01-2611
The ground mobile robotics study is structured on the two pivotal members namely Sensor perception and Motion planning. Sensor perception or Exteroception comprises the ability of measurement of the layout of environment relative to vehicle’s frame of reference which is a necessity for the implementation of safe navigation towards the goal destination in an unstructured environment. Environment scanning has played a significant role in mobile robots application to investigate the unexplored environment in the sector of defence while transporting and handling material in warehouse and hospitals. Motion Planning is a conjunction of analysing the sensor’s information about the local frame and global map while being able to plan the route from starting point to the target destination. In this paper, a 3600 2-D LiDAR is used to capture the spatial information of the surrounding, the scanning results are presented in a local and global map.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Numerical Cold Flow Testing of Gas Turbine Combustor through an Integrated Approach using Rapid Prototyping and Water Tunnel

2019-10-11
2019-28-0051
In the present work, it is aimed at developing an integrated approach for combustor modeling involving rapid prototyping and water tunnel testing to assess the cold flow numerical simulations; the physical model will be subjected to cold flow visualization and parametric studies and CFD analysis to demonstrate its capability for undergoing rigorous cold flow testing. A straight through annular combustor is chosen for the present study because of it has low pressure drop, less weight and used widely in modern day aviation engines. Numerical Analysis has been performed using ANSYS-FLUENT. Three dimensional RANS equations are solved using k-ɛ model for the Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.64 x 10^5- 1.5 x 10^5 based on the annulus diameter. Post processing the results is done in terms of jet penetration, formation of re-circulation zone, effective mixing, flow split and pressure drop for different cases.
Technical Paper

Amelioration of modular mobility by adopting split cell solar panel cleaning and cooling therof

2019-10-11
2019-28-0078
In photovoltaic system the efficiency of solar cells is determined in combination with latitude and climate. The electricity generation in photovoltaic cell is more in the morning time than in the afternoon time. This is due to the fact that an increase in solar cell temperature leads to a decrease in efficiency of the solar panel. This work aims to provide necessary cooling to the solar panel for favourable output during noon time. Normally electrical modular vehicles use non-split cell solar panels. In order to increase the efficiency, we are using split cell solar panel as it increases voltage by halving the size of the silicon chips. Thus, halving the cells results in increasing efficiency and lowering the operation temperature. The solar panel should be maintained at a particular temperature by adopting sprinkling of water method in solar panel for hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

Multi response optimization on machining Titanium alloy using Taguchi-DEAR analysis in abrasive water jet cutting

2019-10-11
2019-28-0070
It is very important to derive the optimal process parameters combination in EDM process to enhance its efficacy. In the present study an attempt has been made to perform multiple criteria decision making using Taguchi-Methodology in EDM process. Titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy has been machined as workpiece specimen with tungsten carbide tool electrode. Material removal rate, surface roughness and tool wear rate has been used as performance measures. From the experimental results, the optimal process parameters has been found. It has been observed Peak current has more influential nature on determining the performance measures in EDM process.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Ammonia in a Modern Spark-Ignition Engine

2019-10-07
2019-24-0237
Ammonia is now recognized as a very serious asset in the context of the hydrogen energy economy, thanks to its non-carbon nature, competitive energy density and very mature production, storage and transport processes. If produced from renewable sources, its use as a direct combustion fuel could participate to the flexibility in the power sector as well as help mitigating fossil fuel use in certain sectors, such as long-haul shipping. However, ammonia presents unfavorable combustion properties, requiring further investigation of its combustion characteristics in practical systems. In the present study, a modern single-cylinder spark-ignition engine is fueled with gaseous ammonia/air mixtures at various equivalence ratios and intake pressures. The results are compared with methane/air and previous ammonia/hydrogen/air measurements, where hydrogen is used as combustion promoter. In-cylinder pressure and exhaust concentrations of selected species are measured and analyzed.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Optimum Reduction of Required Brake Fluid Level for Improvement of the High Speed Continuous Brake Distance

2019-09-15
2019-01-2121
The high speed continuous braking distance assessment is the worst condition for thermal fades. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fade characteristic and friction materials & brake fluid amount for improving braking distance. So, we used the dynamometer to measure the friction coefficient, braking distance and required brake fluid amount. Through the measurements, the research was carried out as follows. First of all, we studied the influence of friction coefficient about different shapes (chamfer shape, area of the friction material, number of slots) on the same friction material. Secondly, we knew the effects of braking distance by the shape of the friction material. Through these two studies, the shape of the friction material favorable to the fade characteristics was derived. Finally, we measured the amount of required brake fluid in caliper after 10 consecutive braking cycles through Dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Emission Conversion Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filters Over Lifetime

2019-09-09
2019-24-0156
Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) recently entered the market, and are already regarded a state-of-the-art solution for gasoline exhaust aftertreatment systems to enable EU6d-TEMP fulfilment and beyond. Due to their rapid market introduction, extensive field experience with GPFs is not yet available. Especially for four-way catalytic converters, the prognosis of the emission conversion performance over lifetime poses an ambitious challenge, which significantly influences future catalyst diagnosis calibrations. In the first part of the paper, experimental GPF ash loading results are presented. Since most of the ash accumulated in the filter results from the combustion of lubricating oil additives, a burner test bench with a purpose-designed oil injection system was chosen for the investigations. The analysis of the backpressure results show that, contrary to high soot loadings, the ash load has a relatively low impact on engine performance and fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of an Ammonia-Fueled SI Engine with Hydrogen Enrichment

2019-09-09
2019-24-0137
While the optimization of the internal combustion engine (ICE) remains a very important topic, alternative fuels are also expected to play a significant role in the reduction of CO2 emissions. High energy densities and handling ease are their main advantages amongst other energy carriers. Ammonia (NH3) additionally contains no carbon and has a worldwide existing transport and storage infrastructure. It could be produced directly from renewable electricity, water and air, and is thus currently considered as a smart energy carrier and combustion fuel. However, ammonia presents a low combustion intensity and the risk of elevated N-based emissions, thus rendering in-depth investigation of its suitability as an ICE fuel necessary. In the present study, a recent single-cylinder GDI SI engine is fueled with gaseous ammonia/hydrogen/air mixtures at various hydrogen fractions, equivalence ratios and intake pressures.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of the Influence of Water Injection Strategies on DISI Engine Particle Emissions

2019-09-09
2019-24-0101
Increasing the efficiency of modern gasoline engines (with direct injection and spark-ignition - DISI) requires innovative approaches. The reduction of the engine displacement, accompanied by an increase of the mean pressure, is limited by the tendency of increasing combustion anomalies. Conventional methods for knock mitigation, on the contrary, have a negative effect on consumption and efficiency. A promising technology to solve these conflicting objectives is the injection of water. Both the indirect and the direct water injection achieve a significant reduction in the load temperature. The fuel enrichment can be reduced, whereby the operating range of the exhaust aftertreatment can be extended. In addition, water injection paves the way for an increase in the geometric compression ratio, which leads to an efficiency advantage even at part load.
Technical Paper

Reduction of NOx in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Emissions Using Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) with In-Cylinder Injection of Aqueous Urea

2019-09-09
2019-24-0144
The subject of this study was the effect of in-cylinder selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of NOx emissions in diesel exhaust gas by means of direct injection of aqueous urea (NH2-CO-NH2) into the combustion chamber. A naturally aspirated single cylinder test engine was modified to accept an electronically controlled secondary common rail injection system to deliver the aqueous urea directly into the cylinder during engine operation. Direct in-cylinder injection was chosen to ensure precise delivery of the reducing agent without the risk of premature reactions. Aqueous urea also works as the primary reducing agent by breaking down into ammonia (NH3) and Cyanuric Acid ((HOCN)3). These compounds serve as the primary reducing agents in the NOx reduction mechanism explored here. The main reduction agent, aqueous urea, was mixed with glycerol (C3H8O3) in an 80-20 ratio by weight with the desire to function as a lubricant for the secondary injector.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a Model-Based Water Injection Combustion Control System for On-Board Application

2019-09-09
2019-24-0015
Water Injection (WI) has become a key technology for increasing combustion efficiency in modern GDI turbocharged engines. In fact, the addition of water mitigates significantly the occurrence of knock, reduces exhaust gas temperatures, and opens the possibility to reach optimum heat release phasing even at high load. This work presents the latest development of a model-based WI controller, and its experimental validation on a GDI TC engine. The controller is based on a novel approach that involves an analytic combustion model to define the spark advance (SA) required to reach a combustion phase target, considering injected water mass effects. The calibration and experimental validation of the proposed controller is shown in detail in the paper.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Water and EGR Effects on Combustion Characteristics of GDI Engines Using a Chemical Kinetics Approach

2019-09-09
2019-24-0019
The modern spark ignition engines, due to the introduced strategies for limiting the consumption without reducing the power, are sensitive to both the detonation and the increase of the inlet turbine temperature. In order to reduce the risk of detonation, the use of dilution with the products of combustion (EGR) is an established practice that has recently improved with the use of water vapor obtained via direct or indirect injection. The application and optimization of these strategies cannot ignore the knowledge of physical quantities characterizing the combustion such as the laminar flame speed and the ignition delay, both are intrinsic property of the fuel and are function of the mixture composition (mixture fraction and dilution) and of its thermodynamic conditions. The experimental measurements of the laminar flame speed and the ignition delay available in literature, rarely report the effects of dilution by EGR or water vapor.
Technical Paper

Engine Exhaust Noise Optimization Using Sobol DoE Sequence and NSGA-II Algorithms

2019-06-05
2019-01-1483
Exhaust muffler is one of the most important component for overall vehicle noise signature. Optimized design of exhaust system plays a vital role in engine performance as well as auditory comfort. Exhaust orifice noise reduction is often contradicted by increased back pressure and packaging space. The process of arriving at exhaust design, which meets packaging space, back pressure and orifice noise requirements, is often manual and time consuming. Therefore, an automated numerical technique is needed for this multi-objective optimization. In current case study, a tractor exhaust system has been subjected to Design of Experiments (DoE) using Sobol sequencing algorithm and optimized using NSGA-II algorithm. Target design space of the exhaust muffler is identified and modeled considering available packaging constrain. Various exhaust design parameters like; length of internal pipes, location of baffles and perforation etc. are defined as input variables.
Technical Paper

Development of an Accelerated Test for Tire Flat-Spotting

2019-06-05
2019-01-1509
Tire flat-spotting occurs when tires remain in a loaded condition without rolling for an extended period of time, and can be temporary or permanent depending on the length of storage, vehicle loading and environmental factors. Tire non-uniformity caused from flat-spots often induce shake and shimmy vibration in vehicles due to increased tire-wheel force variation input into the chassis. This results in increased warranty costs for OEMs and tire suppliers and customer dis-satisfaction in third-party quality surveys such as J. D. Power IQS. Flat-spotting is of particular concern for slow-moving vehicle inventory parked for long periods at plants and/or dealership lots. OEMs often stipulate or recommend inventory storage practices for dealers that require physical movement of vehicles at some set duration to reduce the risk of tires developing permanent flat-spots.
Article

NASA high-temp materials, coatings enhance commercial products

2019-05-20
NASA officials are announcing the availability of eight disruptive NASA materials and coatings technologies ready for commercialization. NASA officials are looking for companies interested in using the organization’s high-temperature materials and coatings, including those designed to withstand high temperatures, to improve existing products or introduce new ones.
Standard

Moisture Transmission Test Procedure--Hydraulic Brake Hose Assemblies

2019-05-14
WIP
J1873
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended for all vehicle hydraulic brake hoses. It is an accelerated test which is intended to provide the user with a method of comparing the ability of hydraulic brake hose designs to retard the ingress of moisture into brake fluid. This document specifies a laboratory performance requirement. ASTM D 1364 interlaboratory reproducibility and correlation of data have not been defined, nor has correlation been established between field vehicle brake fluid moisture content and data obtained by this document.
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