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Technical Paper

Threshold Monitoring of Urea SCR Systems

To meet stringent 2010 NOx emissions, many manufacturers are expected to deploy urea selective catalytic reduction systems. Indications from ARB are that a threshold monitor must be developed to monitor their performance. The most capable monitoring technology at this time relies on NOx sensors. This paper assesses the capability of the NOx sensor as an SCR monitoring device. To this end, the NOx sensor must be able to distinguish between a marginal and a threshold catalyst with enough separation to allow for variability. We present the noise factors associated with the NOx conversion of the SCR system, and analyze what NOx sensor accuracy we need to preserve separation in the face of those noise factors. It is shown that a 1.75 threshold monitor is not feasible with current NOx sensor technology. We analyze the benefit of a partial volume monitor, and show there is no advantage unless the slope error of the NOx sensor is drastically reduced from current levels.
Technical Paper

Diagnostics for Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

Regulatory authorities are actively revising and updating the rules for on board diagnostics of diesel powertrains. Diesel oxidation catalysts are among the parts that will have to be monitored. This paper discusses some of the issues related to the feasibility of monitoring these catalysts. We concentrate on the effect of real world noise factors on the ability to distinguish marginal from threshold catalysts and demonstrate that with current sensor and catalyst technology the separation between the two is poor.
Technical Paper

Co-fueling of Urea for Diesel Cars and Trucks

Urea SCR is an established method to reduce NOx in dilute exhaust gas. The method is being used currently with stationary powerplants, and successful trials on motor vehicles have been conducted. The reason most often cited for rejecting urea SCR is lack of urea supply infrastructure, yet urea and other high nitrogen products are traded as commodities on the world market as a fertilizer grade, and an industrial grade is emerging. For a subset of commercial vehicles, urea can be provided by service personnel at designated terminals. But this approach does not support long distance carriers and personal use vehicles. The preferred delivery method is to add urea during vehicle refueling through a common fuel nozzle and fill pipe interface: urea / diesel co-fueling. Aqueous urea is well suited to delivery in this fashion.