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Technical Paper

Has Electronic Stability Control Reduced Rollover Crashes?

Vehicle rollovers are one of the more severe crash modes in the US - accounting for 32% of all passenger vehicle occupant fatalities annually. One design enhancement to help prevent rollovers is Electronic Stability Control (ESC) which can reduce loss of control and thus has great promise to enhance vehicle safety. The objectives of this research were (1) to estimate the effectiveness of ESC in reducing the number of rollover crashes and (2) to identify cases in which ESC did not prevent the rollover to potentially advance additional ESC development. All passenger vehicles and light trucks and vans that experienced a rollover from 2006 to 2015 in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Database System (NASS/CDS) were analyzed. Each rollover was assigned a crash scenario based on the crash type, pre-crash maneuver, and pre-crash events.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Diesel Engine Components for Model-Based Control (First Report): The construction and validation of a model of the Air Intake System

Model based control design is an important method for optimizing engine operating conditions so as to simultaneously improve engines' thermal efficiency and emission profiles. Modeling of intake system that includes an intake throttle valve, an EGR valve and a variable geometry turbocharger was constructed based on conservation laws combined with maps. Calculated results were examined the predictive accuracy of fresh charge mass flow, EGR rate and boost pressure.
Technical Paper

Stability of a One Box Type Vehicle in a Cross-Wind-An Analysis of Transient Aerodynamic Forces and Moments

One-box type vehicles are especially liable to a loss of stability when entering a region of cross-wind. The reasons for this instability were investigated using scale models and by means of a mathematical simulation. Results indicated that yawing moment attains a peak at a precise position of the vehicle relative to the cross-wind. Visualization of the air flow and measurement of the pressure distributions established the cause of the phenomenon. Furthermore a study was conducted into the effects of body shape on stability and the efficacy of various modifications was assessed.
Technical Paper

Development of the Camshaft with Surface Remelted Chilled Layer

A camshaft for an automobile engine is generally made of chilled cast iron. But, because of increased demand for higher performance engines, a camshaft with many camshaft has been expected. The cam intervals were necessarily narrow. So it was difficult to manufacture the conventional chilled cast iron camshaft at a moderate price. In the case of a rocker-arm type valve mechanism, higher wear resistance was necessary. After due consideration to solve these problems, development of surface remelted chilled layer camshafts by Toyota's unique manufacturing method has been accomplished. In 1984 Toyota Motor Corporation started the mass-production of this camshaft, first for the new 1.0 liter 1E engine, and then for the 1.3 liter 2E engine. In this paper, the excellent wear resistance, the low manufacturing cost and the characteristic manufacturing method are described.