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Training / Education

Side Impact Occupant Safety and CAE

2019-11-25
Side impact crashes account for approximately twenty-six percent of all motor vehicle fatal crashes, second only to frontal crashes, according to a report by the National Highway Transportation and Safety Administration (NHTSA). While car companies and suppliers continue to develop new technologies that make vehicles safer, NHTSA rolled out updated safety regulations (FMVSS 214) based on new research studies, making vehicle safety design more and more complex. This seminar is designed to familiarize participants with the engineering principles behind vehicle and restraint designs for occupant safety.
Technical Paper

Passenger "Sleeper Bus" Structure, an Optimization Study using Finite Element Analysis

2019-11-21
2019-28-2537
Sleeper buses are increasingly used as connectivity between cities and remote areas with sleeping comfort for passengers. During the normal operation, the bus body is subjected to several loads, external loads from the road (i.e. crossing over a speed bump, breaking & cornering). Moreover, there is a substantial possibility that these loads may lead to a structural failure. Hence, it is necessary to determine stresses occurred in the bus body to ensure its integrity under these driving scenarios. During the accident, rollover/front/rear/side impact, energy absorbing capacity of bus body structure is crucial for safety of passengers. The objective of this study is to reduce weight of bus structure while maintaining cost & safety as constraint. 3D Model prepared in NX and finite element model created in hypermesh ,LS-dyna/optistruct used as solver and post processing done in hyperview. In this study, fully loaded bus with passengers as well as maximum language mass, considered.
Technical Paper

Body Structure Strength Of Sleeper Coaches During Rollover Test As Per AIS 119

2019-11-21
2019-28-2567
Bus passenger safety has always been a concern considering various impacts like side impact, front impact, rollover etc. happening in real life scenarios. Various standards have been formulated for simulating these conditions and with respect to rollover, standards like ECE-R66 are being used to understand the superstructure strength. In India, we have AIS-052 (bus body code) and AIS-031 specific for bus rollover testing. AIS-119 has been published for rollover testing of sleeper coaches with modifications in the survival space creation in sleeper coaches for berths. With physical testing being more expensive, CAE simulations are being considered as vital option which also helps in design modification in a lesser time. This paper discusses the scope of numerical simulation of sleeper coach rollover using an explicit dynamic solver RADIOSS to understand the structure deformations, survival space clearances/intrusions.
Training / Education

Tire and Wheel Safety Issues

2019-11-07
One of the most important safety critical components on cars, trucks, and aircraft is the pneumatic tire. Vehicle tires primarily control stopping distances on wet and dry roads or runways and strongly influence over-steer/under-steer behavior in handling maneuvers of cars and trucks. The inflated tire-wheel assembly also acts as a pressure vessel that releases a large amount of energy when catastrophically deflated. The tire can also serve as a fulcrum, both directly and indirectly, in contributing to vehicle rollover. This seminar covers these facets of tire safety phenomena.
Training / Education

Injuries, Anatomy, Biomechanics & Federal Regulation

2019-10-16
Safety continues to be one of the most important factors in motor vehicle design, manufacture and marketing. This seminar provides a comprehensive overview of these critical automotive safety considerations: injury and anatomy; human tolerance and biomechanics; occupant protection; testing; and federal legislation. The knowledge shared at this seminar will enable attendees to be more aware of safety considerations and to better understand and interact with safety experts. This course has been approved by the Accreditation Commission for Traffic Accident Reconstruction (ACTAR) for 18 Continuing Education Units (CEUs).
Training / Education

The Role of the Expert Witness in Product Liability Litigation

2019-10-10
Note: Last day of class ends at approximately 1:00 pm According to the Federal Rules of Evidence, an expert witness is anyone who can assist the trier of fact (the jury) in understanding any issue in dispute at trial. The witness' ability to give this assistance can be derived from any specialized training, education, background, or experience. To be effective in providing this assistance, however, requires that the expert witness understand the true role that he or she is to play both before and at the trial.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis between American and European Requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Focusing on Commercial Vehicles

2019-09-15
2019-01-2141
Analysis of road accident has showed that an important portion of fatal crashes involving commercial vehicles is caused by rollovers. ESC systems in commercial vehicles can reduce rollovers, severe understeer or oversteer conditions and minimize occurences of jackknifing conditions. Several studies have estimated that this positive effect of ESC on road safety is substantial. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is expected to prevent by far the most fatalities and injuries: about 3,000 fatalities (-14%), and about 50,000 injuries (-6%) per year. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control Systems is mandatory for all vehicles (since Nov 1st, 2011 for new types of vehicle and Nov 1st 2014 for all new vehicles), including commercial vehicles, trucks and trailers.
Training / Education

Advanced Applications of Heavy Vehicle EDR Data

This class will provide the student with the skills, knowledge, and abilities to interpret, analyze and apply Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorder (HVEDR) data in real world applications. This course has been designed to build on the concepts presented in the SAE course Accessing and Interpreting Heavy Vehicle Event Data Recorders (ID# C1022).
Book

Stapp Car Crash Journal Vol. 62, 2018

2019-04-30
This title includes the technical papers developed for the 2018 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion about the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes.
Technical Paper

Accuracy Assessment of Three-Dimensional Site Features Generated with Aid of Photogrammetric Epipolar Lines in PhotoModeler and Using Minimal sUAS Imagery

2019-04-02
2019-01-0410
Photogrammetry is widely used in the accident reconstruction community to extract three-dimensional information from photographs. This article extends a prior study conducted by the authors, whereby model accuracy was assessed for a technique that exploited vehicle edges and epipolar line projections to construct 3D vehicle models, by examining 3D roadway and site features. To do so, artificial images were generated using an ideal computer-generated camera within a computer-assisted drawing environment to allow for a known reference model to compare with results produced using photogrammetry. A systematic study was undertaken by modeling the curvature, elevation, and super-elevation of a roadway and associated markings, sidewalks, and buildings, either by relying on discrete points or utilizing epipolar lines. The models were assessed for accuracy, and the sensitivity of the accuracy to camera elevation was considered.
Technical Paper

Active Steering and Anti-Roll Shared Control for Enhancing Roll Stability in Path Following of Autonomous Heavy Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0454
Rollover accident of heavy vehicle during cornering is a serious road safety problem worldwide. In the past decade, based on the active intervention into the heavy vehicle roll dynamics method, researches have proposed effective anti-roll control schemes to guarantee roll stability during cornering. Among those studies, however, roll stability control strategies are generally derived independent of front steering control inputs, the interactive control characteristic between steering and anti-roll system have not been thoroughly investigated. In this paper, a novel roll stability control structure that considers the interaction between steering and anti-roll system, is presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

VirtualCrash.com - Occupant Crash Simulation Analysis Made Easy

2019-04-02
2019-01-1036
Over 30 years of occupant crash safety simulations have seen ever more sophisticated tools and models to keep pace with ever more demanding and expanding requirements. These sophisticated tools, however, require highly trained and experienced analysis specialists to operate. This keeps them out of reach of occasional users such as program managers, restraints buyers, and design engineers. Yet, the people involved in the early stages of vehicle development can have a great impact on vehicle safety performance and the costs of achieving the targets. By combining prebuilt models and a fully capable finite element solver with an easy to use web interface, we aim to make the simulation technology available to anybody with a web browser. The Virtualcrash.com application is richly featured. Alike to sled testing, there is a choice of multiple vehicle geometries, from sub-compacts to large trucks.
Technical Paper

Has Electronic Stability Control Reduced Rollover Crashes?

2019-04-02
2019-01-1022
Vehicle rollovers are one of the more severe crash modes in the US - accounting for 32% of all passenger vehicle occupant fatalities annually. One design enhancement to help prevent rollovers is Electronic Stability Control (ESC) which can reduce loss of control and thus has great promise to enhance vehicle safety. The objectives of this research were (1) to estimate the effectiveness of ESC in reducing the number of rollover crashes and (2) to identify cases in which ESC did not prevent the rollover to potentially advance additional ESC development. All passenger vehicles and light trucks and vans that experienced a rollover from 2006 to 2015 in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Database System (NASS/CDS) were analyzed. Each rollover was assigned a crash scenario based on the crash type, pre-crash maneuver, and pre-crash events.
Technical Paper

Pickup Truck and Trailer Gross Vehicle Weight Study

2019-04-02
2019-01-1109
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the dynamic performance of pickup truck - trailer configurations, using performance measures adopted by Commercial Vehicle Safety and Enforcement (CVSE). The pickup truck models are selected based on the US truck classification that segregates trucks on the basis of the vehicle’s gross vehicle weight ratings (GVWR). Three different types of trailers - gooseneck trailer, pintle hook trailer and three-axle trailer with parametric hitch - are utilized in this study. The truck-trailer configurations will be evaluated for static rollover threshold, load transfer ratio, rearward amplification, friction demand, lateral friction utilization, high speed, low speed and transient off tracking and three-point handling performance. These measures are based on definitions from Canada’s heavy vehicle weights and dimensions study.
Technical Paper

Low Speed Override of Passenger Vehicles with Heavy Trucks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0430
In low speed collisions (under 15 mph) that involve a heavy truck impacting the rear of a passenger vehicle, it is likely that the front bumper of the heavy truck will override the rear bumper beam of the passenger vehicle, creating an override/underride impact configuration. There is limited data available for study when attempting to quantify vehicle damage and crash dynamics in low-speed override/underride impacts. Low speed impact tests were conducted to provide new data for passenger vehicle dynamics and damage assessment for low speed override/underride rear impacts to passenger vehicles. Three tests were conducted, with a tractor-trailer impacting three different passenger vehicles at 5 mph and 10 mph. This paper presents data from these three tests in order to expand the available data set for low speed override/underride collisions.
Technical Paper

Two Phase Heavy Truck Acceleration Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-0411
There have been several papers published over the past 25 years regarding the acceleration of heavy trucks, including different loading conditions, drivetrain configurations, and driving techniques. The papers provide a large data set that measures the speed, distance, and time of the vehicles during acceleration testing and present the data in tabular or graphical formats. Although the data as presented can be useful, it can be challenging to pore over all the data to determine the correct set for a specific application in accident reconstruction. As of this paper’s date of publication, there are approximately eight relevant papers with a total of 268 acceleration tests performed, spanning many years. This paper reviews all the available published literature and summarizes the relevant data in a comprehensive list of accelerations for different heavy truck configurations, which provides a valuable resource to the accident reconstruction field.
Technical Paper

Reconstruction of 3D Accident Sites Using USGS LiDAR, Aerial Images, and Photogrammetry

2019-04-02
2019-01-0423
The accident reconstruction community has previously relied upon photographs and site visits to recreate a scene. This method is difficult in instances where the site has changed or is not accessible. In 2017 the United States Geological Survey (USGS) released historical 3D point clouds (LiDAR) allowing for access to digital 3D data without visiting the site. This offers many unique benefits to the reconstruction community including: safety, budget, time, and historical preservation. This paper presents a methodology for collecting this data and using it in conjunction with aerial imagery, and camera matching photogrammetry to create 3D computer models of the scene without a site visit.
Technical Paper

Accuracy and Sensitivity of Yaw Speed Analysis to Available Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-0417
Accident reconstructionists rarely have complete data with which to determine vehicle speed, and so the true value must be bracketed within a range. Previous work has shown the effect of friction uncertainty in determining speed from tire marks left by a vehicle in yaw. The goal of the current study was to assess improvements in the accuracy of vehicle speed estimated from yaw marks using progressively more scene and vehicle information. Data for this analysis came from staged S-turn maneuvers that in some cases led to rollover of sport utility vehicles. Initial speeds were first calculated using the critical curve speed (CCS) formula on the yaw marks from the first portion of the S-maneuver. Then computer simulations were performed with progressively more input data: i) the complete tire marks from the whole S-maneuver, ii) measured vehicle mass, iii) measured suspension stiffness and damping, and iv) measured steering history.
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