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Technical Paper

Noise and vibration simulations method for electric hybrid tractor powertrain.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2469
Internal combustion (IC) engines have been serving as prime source of power in tractors, since late 19th Century. Over this period, there have been significant improvements in IC engine technology leading to increased power density, reduction in tailpipe emissions and refinement in powertrain noise of tractors. As the regulations governing tailpipe emissions continue to be more stringent, original equipment manufacturers also have initiated work on innovative approaches such as diesel-electric hybrid powertrains to ensure compliance with new norms. However, introduction of such technologies may impact customer’s auditory, vibratory and drivability perceptions. Absence of conventional IC engine noise, association of electric whistle and whine, torque changes with activation/de-activation of motors and transmission behavior under transient conditions may result in new NVH issues in hybrid electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis between American and European Requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Focusing on Commercial Vehicles

2019-09-15
2019-01-2141
Analysis of road accident has showed that an important portion of fatal crashes involving commercial vehicles is caused by rollovers. ESC systems in commercial vehicles can reduce rollovers, severe understeer or oversteer conditions and minimize occurences of jackknifing conditions. Several studies have estimated that this positive effect of ESC on road safety is substantial. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is expected to prevent by far the most fatalities and injuries: about 3,000 fatalities (-14%), and about 50,000 injuries (-6%) per year. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control Systems is mandatory for all vehicles (since Nov 1st, 2011 for new types of vehicle and Nov 1st 2014 for all new vehicles), including commercial vehicles, trucks and trailers.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Control of a Novel Clutchless Multiple-Speed Transmission for Electric Vehicles

2019-09-09
2019-24-0063
Conventional electric vehicles adopt either single-speed transmissions or direct drive architecture in order to reduce cost, losses and mass. However, the integration of optimized multiple-speed transmissions is considered as a feasible method to enhance EVs performances, (i.e. top speed, acceleration and grade climbing), improving powertrain efficiency, saving battery energy and reducing customer costs. Perfectly in line with these objectives, this paper presents a patented fully integrated electric traction system, as scalable solution for electrifying light duty passenger and commercial vehicles (1.5-4.2 tons), with a focus on minibuses (<20 seats). The adoption of high-speed motor coupled to multiple-speed transmission offers the possibility of a relevant efficiency improvement, a 50% volume reduction with respect to a traditional transmission, superior output torque and power density.
Standard

SAE J1939 Functional Safety Communications Protocol

2019-07-15
WIP
J1939-76

This document provides the technical requirements for implementing the SAE J1939 Functional Safety Communication Protocol in a manner determined suitable for meeting industry applicable functional safety standards.

Technical Paper

Development of an Advanced Motor Control System for Electric Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0597
Electric vehicles are considered as one of the most popular way to decrease the consumption of petroleum resources and reduce environmental pollutions. Motor control system is one of the most important part of electric vehicles. It includes power supply module, IGBT driver, digital signal processing (DSP) controller, protection adjustment module, and resolver to digital convertor. To implement the control strategies on motor control system, a lot of practical aspects need to be taken into accounts. It includes setup of the initial excitation current, consistency of current between motor and program code, over-modulation, field weakening control, current protection, and so on. In this paper, an induction motor control system for electric vehicles is developed based on DSP. The control strategy is based on the field-oriented control (FOC) and space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM).
Technical Paper

Modelling and Control of a Hybrid Urban Bus

2019-04-02
2019-01-0354
This paper describes the development and on-vehicle validation testing of next generation parallel hybrid electric powertrain technology for use in urban buses. A forward-facing MATLAB/Simulink powertrain model was used to develop a rule-based deterministic control system for a post-transmission parallel hybrid urban bus. The control strategy targeted areas where conventional powertrains are typically less efficient, focused on improving fuel economy and emissions without boosting vehicle performance. Stored electrical energy is deployed to assist the IC engine system leading to an overall reduction in fuel consumption while maintaining vehicle performance at a level comparable with baseline conventional IC engine operation.
Journal Article

Development of a Learning Capability in Virtual Operator Models

2019-03-14
Abstract This research developed methods for a virtual operator model (VOM) to learn the optimal control inputs for operation of a virtual excavator. Virtual design, used to model, simulate, and test new features, has often been limited by the fidelity of the virtual model of human operators. Human operator learns, over time, the capability, limits, and control characteristics of new vehicles to develop the best strategy to maximize the efficiency of operation. However, VOMs are developed with fixed strategies and for specific vehicle models (VMs) and require time-consuming re-tuning of the VOM for each new vehicle design. Thus, there typically is no capability to optimize strategies, taking account of variation in vehicle capabilities and limitations. A VOM learning capability was developed to optimize control inputs for the swing-to-pile task of a trenching operation. Different control strategies consisted of varied combinations of speed control, position control, and coast.
Standard

Snowmobile Brake Control Systems

2019-02-27
CURRENT
J1282_201902
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to provide the minimum acceptable criteria for snowmobile hand brake control systems. This recommendation is not intended to cover competition vehicles, nor is it intended to limit development of new and/or improved technology in controls. Although these recommendations are primarily addressed to hand control systems using an outer flexible conduit with a multiple strand inner cable or hydraulic type brake control system, the basic requirements of freedom of movement, strength, material, etc., will apply to any system.
Standard

Recommendations for Children's Snowmobile

2019-02-15
WIP
J1038

This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the test procedures, performance requirements, and criteria necessary to evaluate minimum safety and reliability requirements of a children's snowmobile as identified in 1.2.

Standard

Agricultural and Forestry Off-Road Machinery Control and Communication Network

2019-01-14
CURRENT
J1939/2_201901
SAE J1939-2 specifies the requirements for application of SAE J1939 in agricultural and forestry equipment. This document specifies the series of documents within the set of SAE J1939 documents that are applicable to agricultural and forestry equipment and provides further requirements for this industry. The SAE and ISO groups have cooperated to define agricultural and forestry networks in a manner to allow compatibility of ECUs and messaging protocols between the A&F and the T&B networks.
Technical Paper

Modifications in Minibus Design for Drag Reduction

2019-01-09
2019-26-0071
The main objective of this paper is used to reduce drag of the minibus vehicle so as to reduce fuel consumption (power consumption). As Mini-bus is designed as H2O2 fuel cell and electric bus, no emissions are created to the environment. Different modified Computer Aided Design (CAD) model of minibus was used and performed Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) on it. While performing CFD on it, various process of simulations are done are importing CAD file from CATIA, designing of wind tunnel in its geometry and using Boolean operations (subtracting the body from tunnel block), Meshing in ANSYS and solving it. Models like k-ε Standard and k-ε Realizable models are used for good results. After observing the results, due to the changes in front and rear part of the minibus, there is reduction of almost 32% of the drag coefficient for Dolphin Bus and 42% of the drag coefficient for Aero-Dolphin Bus which results in a power savings of about 13.5% for Dolphin Bus and 18% for Aero-Dolphin Bus.
Standard

SAE J1939 Functional Safety Communications Protocol

2018-11-26
CURRENT
J1939-76_201811
This document provides the technical requirements for implementing the SAE J1939 Functional Safety Communication Protocol in a manner determined suitable for meeting industry applicable functional safety standards.
Standard

R134a Refrigerant Charge Determination Test Method

2018-09-11
CURRENT
J3023_201809
The purpose of this document is to establish guidelines for determining the critical R134a refrigerant charge for off-road, self-propelled work machines as defined in SAE J1116 and Agricultural Tractors as defined in ANSI/ASAE S390. It will develop a minimum to maximum refrigerant charge range in which the HVAC system can maintain proper operation. Operating conditions and characteristics of the equipment will influence the optimum charge. Since these conditions and characteristics vary greatly from one application to another, careful consideration should be taken to determine the optimum R134a refrigerant charge for the HVAC system.
Standard

Truck and Bus Lane Departure Warning Systems Test Procedure and Minimum Performance Requirements

2018-08-28
CURRENT
J3045_201808
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes a uniform, powered vehicle test procedure and minimum performance requirement for lane departure warning systems used in highway trucks and buses greater than 4546 kg (10000 pounds) GVW. Systems similar in function but different in scope and complexity, including Lane Keeping/Lane Assist and Merge Assist, are not included in this document. This document does not apply to trailers, dollies, etc. This document does not intend to exclude any particular system or sensor technology. The specification will test the functionality of the LDWS (e.g., ability to detect lane presence, and ability to detect an unintended lane departure), its ability to indicate LDWS engagement, its ability to indicate LDWS disengagement, and determine the point at which the LDWS notifies the Human Machine Interface (HMI) or vehicle control system that a lane departure event is detected.
Journal Article

Hydro-Pneumatic Energy Harvesting Suspension System Using a PSO Based PID Controller

2018-08-01
Abstract In this article, a unique design for Hydro-Pneumatic Energy Harvesting Suspension HPEHS system is introduced. The design includes a hydraulic rectifier to maintain one-way flow direction in order to obtain maximum power generation from the vertical oscillation of the suspension system and achieve handling and comfort car drive. A mathematical model is presented to study the system dynamics and non-linear effects for HPEHS system. A simulation model is created by using Advanced Modeling Environment Simulations software (AMEsim) to analyze system performance. Furthermore, a co-simulation platform model is developed using Matlab-Simulink and AMEsim to optimize the PID controller parameters of the external variable load resistor applied on the generator by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO).
Standard

Network Management

2018-07-23
WIP
J1939/81
SAE J1939-81 Network Management defines the processes and messages associated with managing the source addresses of applications communicating on an SAE J1939 network. Network management is concerned with the management of source addresses and the association of those addresses with an actual function and with the detection and reporting of network related errors. Due to the nature of management of source addresses, network management also specifies initialization processes, requirements for reaction to brief power outages and minimum requirements for ECUs on the network.
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