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Magazine

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2019

2019-09-26
Artificial Intelligence and Autonomous Vehicles A "STEP" Forward for Product Lifecycle Management The Challenge of Replacing Hard Chrome Defining an Open System Architecture Standard for Defense Systems Solid-State Microwave Power Module Defeating Commercial Drone Threats with Open-Source SDR Influence of Leading-Edge Oscillatory Blowing on Time-Accurate Dynamic Store Separation Developing an understanding of, and potentially controlling, pitch bifurcation of a store release from an aircraft during flight could improve weapons delivery. Green's Function Extraction from Atmospheric Acoustic Propagation Understanding what affects acoustic waves propagating in the atmosphere is important for a variety of military applications including the development of new remote sensing techniques.
Standard

IEEE-1394b for Military and Aerospace Vehicles - Applications Handbook

2019-08-12
CURRENT
AIR5654A
This Handbook is intended to accompany or incorporate AS5643, AS5643/1, AS5657, AS5706, and ARD5708. In addition, full understanding of this Handbook also requires knowledge of IEEE-1394-1995, IEEE-1394a, and IEEE-1394b standards. This Handbook contains detailed explanations and architecture analysis on AS5643, bus timing and scheduling considerations, system redundancy design considerations, suggestions on AS5643-based system configurations, cable selection guidance, and lessons learned on failure modes.
Standard

S400 Copper Media Interface Characteristics Over Extended Distances

2019-07-09
CURRENT
AS5643/1A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes guidelines for the use of IEEE-1394-2008 Beta (formerly IEEE-1394b) as a data bus network in military and aerospace vehicles. It encompasses the data bus cable and its interface electronics for a system utilizing S400 over copper medium over extended lengths. This document contains extensions/restrictions to “off-the-shelf” IEEE-1394 standards, and assumes that the reader already has a working knowledge of IEEE-1394. This document does not identify specific environmental requirements (electromagnetic compatibility, temperature, vibration, etc.); such requirements will be vehicle-specific and even LRU-specific. However, the hardware requirements and examples contained herein do address many of the environmental conditions that military and aerospace vehicles may experience. One should refer to the appropriate sections of MIL-STD-461E for their particular LRU, and utilize handbooks such as MIL-HDBK-454A and MIL-HDBK-5400 for guidance.
Standard

Automotive Gear Lubricants for Commercial and Military Use

2019-01-07
CURRENT
J2360_201901
The gear lubricants covered by this standard exceed American Petroleum Institute (API) Service Classification API GL-5 and are intended for hypoid-type, automotive gear units, operating under conditions of high-speed/shock load and low-speed/high-torque. These lubricants may be appropriate for other gear applications where the position of the shafts relative to each other and the type of gear flank contact involve a large percentage of sliding contact. Such applications typically require extreme pressure (EP) additives to prevent the adhesion and subsequent tearing away of material from the loaded gear flanks. These lubricants are not appropriate for the lubrication of worm gears. Appendix A is a mandatory part of this standard. The information contained in Appendix A is intended for the demonstration of compliance with the requirements of this standard and for listing on the Qualified Products List (QPL) administered by the Lubricant Review Institute (LRI).
Journal Article

Combined Battery Design Optimization and Energy Management of a Series Hybrid Military Truck

2018-10-31
Abstract This article investigates the fuel savings potential of a series hybrid military truck using a simultaneous battery pack design and powertrain supervisory control optimization algorithm. The design optimization refers to the sizing of the lithium-ion battery pack in the hybrid configuration. The powertrain supervisory control optimization determines the most efficient way to split the power demand between the battery pack and the engine. Despite the available design and control optimization techniques, a generalized mathematical formulation and solution approach for combined design and control optimization is still missing in the literature. This article intends to fill that void by proposing a unified framework to simultaneously optimize both the battery pack size and power split control sequence. This is achieved through a combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and Pontryagin’s minimum principle (PMP) where the design parameters are integrated into the Hamiltonian function.
Magazine

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: April 2018

2018-04-05
Connectivity takes center stage Telematic links have become the norm, helping fleet owners and operators improve efficiency and letting OEMs predict component failures. More power, less noise, fewer emissions These key attributes drive development of new generators both big and small. TARDEC pursues advanced power generation U.S. Army, GM collaborate on fuel-cell-generated electricity to power the vehicle's propulsion system and onboard electronics, while providing off-vehicle power via an Exportable Power Take-Off unit. Developing an alternative engine concept Ricardo's CryoPower engine leverages two unique combustion techniques for reduced emissions and fuel consumption-liquid nitrogen and split combustion. Long-haul trucking and stationary power generation will be the first beneficiaries of the technologies. Technology time-warp The road to autonomous driving has been under construction for decades, as showcased by SAE's Mobility History Committee at the 2018 WCX in Detroit.
Standard

Lubricating Oil, Internal Combustion Engine, Military Combat/Tactical Service

2013-02-25
CURRENT
J2359_201302
This SAE Standard covers engine military oils suitable for lubrication of reciprocating internal combustion engines of both spark-ignition and compression-ignition types, and for power transmission fluid applications in combat/tactical service equipment (see 7.1). This document is equivalent to MIL-PRF-2104G when all requirements are met.
Technical Paper

Guiding Framework for Feasibility Evaluation of Localised Production and Drop in Blending of Aviation Turbine Fuel with Bio Derivatives for Non-civilian Air Bases

2011-10-18
2011-01-2792
The potential for small scale local production of Bio fuel derivatives and their partial blending with aviation turbine fuel in non-civilian bases has been investigated. A feasibility study on technical readiness levels for process viability is presented in the paper. Demand side analysis for various blend mixes and corresponding requirement for production facilities and land area requirements are performed. Sustainable production and blending operations are the basis for selection of key performance indicators for the air base. Guiding framework and readiness evaluation processes are delineated for the base. Qualitative inference is combined with quantitative scoring system within the framework.
Technical Paper

Experimental Stress/Strain Analysis of a Standardized Sensor Platform for a C-130 Aircraft

2005-10-03
2005-01-3426
Project Oculus is an in-flight deployable mechanical arm/pod system that will accommodate 500 pounds of sensor payload, developed for a C-130 military aircraft. The system is designed for use in counter narco-terrorism and surveillance applications by the Department of Defense and the National Guard [1]. A prototype of the system has been built and is in the testing/analysis phase. The purpose of this study was to analyze the actual stresses and strains in the critical areas found using previous Finite Element (FE) simulations and to ensure that acceptable safety requirements have been met. The system components tested will be redesigned, tested, and reconstructed in the case of unacceptable safety factors or if more reliable methods can be implemented. The system was built to be deployed and retracted in flight, to avoid causing any problems in take off and landing.
Technical Paper

A Military Space Plane Candidate

1997-10-01
975630
This paper presents a Military Space Plane design concept. While the current military space plane activity is focused on rocket-powered concepts, the concept presented here is powered by a rocket-based combined cycle engine that uses both rocket and air-breathing engine cycles. The design concept is the reference SSTO design concept used in the NASA HRST ANSER study. The reference concept is a derivative of the NASA air-breathing Access to Space study SSTO design concept. The Access to Space air-breathing vehicle's combined cycle engine was replaced by the Aerojet rocket-based combined cycle engine. The orbital performance capability of the reference design concept is presented for 100 n mi., polar, and 225 n mi., 51 deg. orbits. The sensitivity of GTOW to payload and margin is also presented.
Technical Paper

Challenging Power Density Requirements for Future Fighter APUs

1991-09-01
912177
Future fighters will require more compact, lighter weight, small gas turbine auxiliary power units (APUs) capable of faster starting, and operation, up to altitudes of 50,000 ft. The US Air Force is currently supporting an Advanced Components Auxiliary Power Unit (ACAPU) research program to demonstrate the technologies that will be required to accomplish projected secondary power requirements for these advanced fighters. The requirements of the ACAPU Program represent a challenging task requiring significant technical advancements over the current state-of-the-art, prominent among which are: Small high heat release high altitude airbreathing combustors. High temperature monolithic ceramic and metallic small turbines. Capability to operate, and transition from non-airbreathing to airbreathing modes. This paper discusses these challenging requirements and establishes technology paths to match and exceed the required goals.
Technical Paper

Future Military APU Requirements

1991-09-01
912176
Future tactical aircraft will have increased capabilities that will place greater demands on their secondary power systems. Added capabilities such as low observability or internal weapons storage are being planned for without significantly increasing the aircraft's size and weight. The power system must therefore have reduced volume, weight, and complexity, while also being more reliable and maintainable. The auxiliary power unit (APU) is a critical component that must be improved to upgrade the capabilities of the power system. Increasing the APU's power density is one important way for reducing the power system's size and weight. Increased power density, however, will require a power unit operating with higher gas generator temperatures, so this condition will be the major challenge for new APU designs.
Technical Paper

Enhanced HUD Symbology Associated with Recovery from Unusual Attitudes

1990-09-01
901919
The present study examined the degree of spatial awareness obtained using what has been called an Augie Arrow, enabled so that it could be displayed as either a “nearest horizon pointer” (NH) or an “up arrow” (UP) indicator. Another issue investigated concerned the usefulness of analog dials vice digital readouts of airspeed and altitude as an aid to recovery. During simulated flight, twelve subjects were required to recover from six unusual attitudes employing one of four HUD formats: (1) Standard HUD, (2) Augie Arrow, (3) Analog Dials, and (4) Augie Arrow with Analog Dials. Results revealed that the Augie Arrow produced the most rapid recovery time. The Augie Arrow configuration was optimal at the most severe unusual attitudes, especially for the NH mechanization. The Dials only HUD was not particularly helpful in recovery, and the Arrow with Dials HUD was rated as a significant clutter problem.
Technical Paper

System Concept Effectiveness

1966-02-01
660728
Frequently, a choice between system concepts must be made on the basis of something other than a detailed evaluation of the design effectiveness of these systems. This paper develops a rudimentary analysis process for use in addressing this problem.
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