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Technical Paper

Development of a Muffler Insertion Loss Flow Rig

2019-06-05
2019-01-1482
Bench tests are an important step to developing mufflers that perform adequately with acceptable pressure drop. Though the transmission loss of a muffler without flow is relatively simple to obtain using the two-load method, the presence of mean flow modifies the muffler behavior. The development of an insertion loss test rig is detailed. A blower produces the flow, and a silencer quiets the flow. Acoustic excitation is provided by a loudspeaker cluster right before the test muffler. The measurement platform allows for the measurement of flow-induced noise in the muffler. Also, the insertion loss of the muffler can be determined, and this capability was validated by comparison to a one-dimensional plane wave model.
Technical Paper

Engine Exhaust Noise Optimization Using Sobol DoE Sequence and NSGA-II Algorithms

2019-06-05
2019-01-1483
Exhaust muffler is one of the most important component for overall vehicle noise signature. Optimized design of exhaust system plays a vital role in engine performance as well as auditory comfort. Exhaust orifice noise reduction is often contradicted by increased back pressure and packaging space. The process of arriving at exhaust design, which meets packaging space, back pressure and orifice noise requirements, is often manual and time consuming. Therefore, an automated numerical technique is needed for this multi-objective optimization. In current case study, a tractor exhaust system has been subjected to Design of Experiments (DoE) using Sobol sequencing algorithm and optimized using NSGA-II algorithm. Target design space of the exhaust muffler is identified and modeled considering available packaging constrain. Various exhaust design parameters like; length of internal pipes, location of baffles and perforation etc. are defined as input variables.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of Internal Helmholtz Resonators Created by Punching Small Holes on a Thin-Walled Tube

2019-06-05
2019-01-1486
Helmholtz resonators are normally an afterthought in the design of mufflers to target a very specific low frequency, usually the fundamental firing frequency of the engine. Due to space limitations in a complex muffler design, a resonator may have to be built by punching a few small holes on a thin-walled tube to create a neck passage into a small, enclosed volume outside the tube. The short neck passage created by punching a few small holes on a thin-walled tube can pose a great challenge in numerical modeling, especially when the boundary element method (BEM) is used. In this paper, a few different BEM modeling approaches are compared to one another and to the finite element method (FEM). These include the multi-domain BEM implemented in a substructure BEM framework, modeling both sides of the thin-walled tube and the details of each small hole using the Helmholtz integral equation and the hypersingular integral equation, and modeling just the mid surface of the thin-walled tube.
Technical Paper

On the Measurement and Simulation of Flow-Acoustic Sound Propagation in Turbochargers

2019-06-05
2019-01-1488
Internal combustion engines are increasingly being equipped with turbochargers to increase performance and reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Being part of exhaust and intake systems, the turbocharger strongly influences the orifice noise emission. Although 1D-CFD simulations are commonly used for the development of intake and exhaust systems, validated acoustic turbocharger models are not yet state-of-the-art. Consequently, the aim of the paper is the investigation of the turbocharger’s influence on the orifice noise and the development of an accurate 1D-CFD model. The passive acoustic transmission loss was measured for a wide operating range of four turbochargers, including wastegate and VTG-system variations. Low frequency attenuation is dominated by impedance discontinuities, increasing considerably with mass flow and pressure ratio.
Technical Paper

Multi-Physics and CFD Analysis of an Enclosed Coaxial Carbon Nanotube Speaker for Automotive Exhaust Noise Cancellation

2019-06-05
2019-01-1569
Automotive exhaust noise is one of the major sources of noise pollution and it is controlled by passive control system (mufflers) and active control system (loudspeakers and active control algorithm). Mufflers are heavy, bulky and large in size while loudspeakers have a working temperature limitation. Carbon nanotube (CNT) speakers generate sound due to the thermoacoustic effect. CNT speakers are also lightweight, flexible, have acoustic and light transparency as well as high operating temperature. These properties make them ideal to overcome the limitations of the current exhaust noise control systems. An enclosed, coaxial CNT speaker is designed for exhaust noise cancellation application. The development of a 3D multi-physics (coupling of electrical, thermal and acoustical domains) model, for the coaxial speaker is discussed in this paper. The model is used to simulate the sound pressure level, input power versus ambient temperature and efficiency.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Acoustic and Thermal Performance of Sound Absorbers with Microperforated Aluminum Foil

2019-06-05
2019-01-1580
Aluminum foil applied to the surface of sound absorbing materials has broad application in the automotive industry. A foil layer offers thermal insulation for components close to exhaust pipes, turbo chargers, and other heat sources in the engine compartment and underbody. It can also add physical protection for acoustic parts in water-splash or stone-impingement areas of the vehicle exterior. It is known that adding impermeable plain foil will impact the sound absorption negatively, so Microperforated Aluminum Foil (MPAF) is widely used to counteract this effect. Acoustic characteristics of MPAF can be modeled analytically, but deviation of perforation size and shape, variation of hole density, material compression, and adhesive applied to the back of the foil for the molding process can impact the acoustic and thermal insulation performance.
Standard

Application Layer - Diagnostics

2019-05-01
WIP
J1939/73
SAE J1939-73 Diagnostics Application Layer defines the SAE J1939 messages to accomplish diagnostic services and identifies the diagnostic connector to be used for the vehicle service tool interface. Diagnostic messages (DMs) provide the utility needed when the vehicle is being repaired. Diagnostic messages are also used during vehicle operation by the networked electronic control modules to allow them to report diagnostic information and self-compensate as appropriate, based on information received. Diagnostic messages include services such as periodically broadcasting active diagnostic trouble codes, identifying operator diagnostic lamp status, reading or clearing diagnostic trouble codes, reading or writing control module memory, providing a security function, stopping/starting message broadcasts, reporting diagnostic readiness, monitoring engine parametric data, etc.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Soot and Fuel Invasion in Diesel Engine Oils through a Combination of Dielectric Constant Sensor and Viscosity Sensor

2019-04-02
2019-01-0302
To satisfy the latest emission standards, the use of advanced technologies such as exhaust gas recirculation, diesel particulate filter, and complicated injection strategies are increasing in modern diesel engines. However, some of these complicated technologies may cause soot and diesel fuel to enter the engine oil during engine operation and ultimately affect oil performance. Once the soot and diesel fuel content is beyond a certain level, the engine oil should be changed to guarantee adequate lubrication. Thus, a proper method of monitoring oil condition is required. It is well known that soot and diesel fuel affect oil permittivity and viscosity significantly. Thus, in this study, a new method to monitor oil quality is proposed by measuring the dielectric constant and oil viscosity. Carbon black was used as the substitute for soot and was mixed with diesel fuel at different ratios. Both the dielectric constant and oil viscosity increase as soot content increases.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Experiments Using a 2007 Toyota Auris Event Data Recorder and Additional Data from CAN Bus

2019-04-02
2019-01-0635
An experimental campaign based on the harness and Event Data Recorder (EDR) of a production vehicle (Toyota Auris 2007, Generation 02EDR) was setup for laboratory experiments. The experiments involved triggering non-deployment events in the EDR by hitting the Airbag Control Module (ACM) with a pendulum style impactor with different pendulum weight, in frontal and rear directions and at different initial angles. The ACM was hit in three different conditions: ACM fixed, ACM free to move and ACM launched towards impactor. The wheel speed sensors were emulated with the same 7/14 mA pulses such that the vehicle was simulated to be moving with a ramping up and down speed during the impact. This was done such that the EDR data has vehicle speed in both its pre and post-crash data. The Bosch Crash Data Retrieval (CDR) tool was used to download the EDR data. Data from these experiments is shown and discussed. An in-house built sniffer was utilized to filter and store the relevant CAN bus data.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations on the Influence of Valve Timing and Multi-Pulse Injection on GCAI Combustion

2019-04-02
2019-01-0967
Gasoline Controlled Auto-Ignition (GCAI) combustion, which can be categorized under Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is a low-temperature combustion process with promising benefits such as ultra-low cylinder-out NOx emissions and reduced brake-specific fuel consumption, which are the critical parameters in any modern engine. Since this technology is based on uncontrolled auto-ignition of a premixed charge, it is very sensitive to any change in boundary conditions during engine operation. Adopting real time valve timing and fuel-injection strategies can enable improved control over GCAI combustion. This work discusses the outcome of collaborative experimental research by the partnering institutes in this direction. Experiments were performed in a single cylinder GCAI engine with variable valve timing and Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) at constant indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). In the first phase intake and exhaust valve timing sweeps were investigated.
Technical Paper

Advances in Tank Heaters Based on PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) Plastic Nanomaterials

2019-04-02
2019-01-0152
The global trend on emission reduction is leading to a wider diffusion of SCR systems for diesel engines and to the introduction of WI (water injection) systems in gasoline engines. Cars are equipped with tanks for water and urea solutions (AD-blue). Both liquids can freeze in the car operative temperature range: the tanks must be equipped with heaters to guarantee a sufficient amount of additives in liquid form in any condition. We propose solutions based on plastic PTC (in the following nanoPTC) effect nanomaterials for thermal management of those liquids. The proposed heaters can be molded in any shape, following the specific constraints of each tank, in carpet like shapes for a distributed heating of the tank, or in bulky components integrating sensors housings, pipes, pumping systems or in the packaging of other components. The PTC effect is distributed avoiding overheating in parts with poor thermal exchange (dry condition).
Technical Paper

Development of 4-Cylinder 2.0L Gasoline Engine Cooling System Using 3-D CAE

2019-04-02
2019-01-0156
To satisfy the global fuel economy restrictions getting stricter, various advanced cooling concepts, like active flow control strategy, cross-flow and fast warm-up, have been applied to the engine. Recently developed Hyundai’s next generation 4-cylinder 2.0L gasoline engine, also adopts several new cooling subsystems. This paper reviews how 3-D CAE analysis has been extensively used to evaluate cooling performance effectively from concept phase to pre-production phase. In the concept stage, the coolant flow in the water jacket of cylinder head and block was investigated to find out the best one among the proposed concepts and the further improvement of flow was also done by optimizing cylinder head gasket holes. Next, 3-D temperature simulation was conducted to satisfy the development criteria in the prototype stage before making initial test engines.
Technical Paper

Study on Heat Losses during Flame Impingement in a Diesel Engine Using Phosphor Thermometry Surface Temperature Measurements

2019-04-02
2019-01-0556
In-cylinder heat losses in diesel engines decrease engine efficiency significantly and account for approximately 14-19% [1, 2, 3] of the injected fuel energy. A great part of the heat losses during diesel combustion presumably arises from the flame impingement onto the piston. Therefore, the present study investigates the heat losses during flame impingement onto the piston bowl wall experimentally. The measurements were performed on a full metal heavy-duty diesel engine with a small optical access through a removed exhaust valve. The surface temperature at the impingement point of the flame was determined by evaluating a phosphor’s temperature dependent emission decay. Simultaneous cylinder pressure measurements and high-speed videos are associated to the surface temperature measurements in each cycle. Thus, surface temperature readings could be linked to specific impingement and combustion events.
Technical Paper

Mixing-Limited Combustion of Alcohol Fuels in a Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0552
Diesel-fueled, heavy-duty engines are critical to global economies, but unfortunately they are currently coupled to the rising price and challenging emissions of Diesel fuel. Public awareness and increasingly stringent emissions standards have made Diesel OEMs consider possible alternatives to Diesel, including electrification, fuel cells, and spark ignition. While these technologies will likely find success in certain market segments, there are still many applications that will continue to require the performance and liquid-fueled simplicity of Diesel-style engines. Three-way catalysis represents a possible low-cost and highly-effective pathway to reducing Diesel emissions, but that aftertreatment system has typically been incompatible with Diesel operation due to the prohibitively high levels of soot formation at the required stoichiometric fuel-air ratios. This paper explores a possible method of integrating three-way catalysis with Diesel-style engine operation.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Research on Emission Control Technology of Low-Speed Two-Stroke Diesel Engine Based on EGR and Miller Cycle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0945
This paper investigates the influences of EGR and Miller cycle on NOx emission of a heavy-duty two-stroke diesel engine. The NOx emission is strictly restricted by the IMO Tier III Emission Regulations, resulting in an insufficient application of the single emission reduction technology to meet the emission requirements. It is asserted that EGR is the most effective manner to reduce NOx emission, but the fuel consumption increases simultaneously. In consideration of emission reduction with fuel economy, EGR and Miller cycle were combined and studied in this paper. Parameters like in-cylinder pressure, in-cylinder temperature, mass in the chamber, emission (NOx and soot) and fuel consumption rate were investigated based on a single-cylinder 3D model. The wet condition that happens in the engine application was considered in the model development process. The model was validated and compared with the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Thermal Barrier Coatings on HCCI Engine Combustion Using CFD Simulations with Conjugate Heat Transfer

2019-04-02
2019-01-0956
Thermal barrier coatings with low conductivity and low heat capacity have been shown to improve the performance of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. These coatings improve the combustion process by reducing heat transfer during the hot portion of the engine cycle without the penalty thicker coatings typically have on volumetric efficiency. Computational fluid dynamic simulations with conjugate heat transfer between the in-cylinder fluid and solid piston of a single cylinder HCCI engine with exhaust valve rebreathing are carried out to further understand the impacts of these coatings on the combustion process. For the HCCI engine studied with exhaust valve rebreathing, it is shown that simulations needed to be run for multiple engine cycles for the results to converge given how sensitive the rebreathing process is to the residual gas state.
Technical Paper

A Test Rig for Evaluating Thermal Cyclic Life and Effectiveness of Thermal Barrier Coatings inside Exhaust Manifolds

2019-04-02
2019-01-0929
Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) may be used on the inner surfaces of exhaust manifolds in heavy-duty diesel engines to improve the fuel efficiency and prolong the life of the component. The coatings need to have a long thermal cyclic life and also be able to reduce the temperature in the substrate material. A lower temperature of the substrate material reduces the oxidation rate and has a positive influence on the thermo-mechanical fatigue life. A test rig for evaluating these properties for several different coatings simultaneously in the correct environment was developed and tested for two different TBCs and one oxidation-resistant coating. Exhausts were redirected from a diesel engine and led through a series of coated pipes. These pipes were thermally cycled by alternating the temperature of the exhausts. Initial damage in the form of cracks within the top coats of the TBCs was found after cycling 150 times between 50°C and 530°C.
Technical Paper

A Mechanism-Based Thermomechanical Fatigue Life Assessment Method for High Temperature Engine Components with Gradient Effect Approximation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0536
High temperature components in internal combustion engines and exhaust systems must withstand severe mechanical and thermal cyclic loads throughout their lifetime. The combination of thermal transients and mechanical load cycling results in a complex evolution of damage, leading to thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) of the material. Analytical tools are increasingly employed by designers and engineers for component durability assessment well before any hardware testing. The DTMF model for TMF life prediction, which assumes that micro-crack growth is the dominant damage mechanism, is capable of providing reliable predictions for a wide range of high-temperature components and materials in internal combustion engines. Thus far, the DTMF model has employed a local approach where surface stresses, strains, and temperatures are used to compute damage for estimating the number of cycles for a small initial defect or micro-crack to reach a critical length.
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