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Technical Paper

NEXT GENERATION POWER DISTRIBUTION UNIT IN WIRING HARNESS

2019-11-21
2019-28-2571
Keywords – Miniaturization, Low Profile (LP) Relays, Low Profile (LP) Fuses, Fuse box, Wiring Harness Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. Methodology Miniaturization involves replacing the mini fuses and J-case fuses with LP mini and LP J-case fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost.
Technical Paper

Determining the State Of Health [SOH] of Li Ion cell

2019-11-21
2019-28-2579
“NuGen Mobility Summit-2019” Paper Title : Determining the State Of Health [SOH] of Li Ion cell Authors: Sushant Mutagekar, Ashok Jhunjhunwala, Prabhjot Kaur Objective Cells age with life. This aging is dependant on various factors like charging/discharging rates, DOD of operation and operating temperature. As the cell ages it undergoes power fade (ability to deliver required power at particular State of Charge [SOC]) and capacity fade (the charge storage capacity of cell). In an Electric Vehicle it is important to know what power shall be demanded from a battery irrespective of what its current SOC is and number of cycles it has undergone. With minimal accuracy and less computational power, it is difficult for a Battery Management System [BMS] to accurately determine SOH; the paper proposes a a precise model that may help.
Technical Paper

IOT based Battery Diagnostics for Battery swapping station.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2441
An electric vehicle is significantly promoted by government and industry to reduce carbon footprint and effective energy management. IC engines get replaced by the battery and diagnosis parameters of engine also need to replace with battery parameters. Main objective is to provide analysis of battery to battery swapping stations. State of charge and state of health plays important role in battery management system and vehicle performance. State of health estimation has many techniques, but large equipment needs for it and become costlier and bulkier. Batteries internal resistance increases as it gets degraded, proposed technique based on adaptive method which didn’t need any extra hardware, this technique identifies the health based on degraded capacity. Cloud platform is used to store the data and process it and display to users and swapping station. Status updating unit located on battery is connected to cloud and it gives complete analysis of battery to vehicle users.
Technical Paper

Improved Performance of Electric Vehicles with Supercapacitor

2019-11-21
2019-28-2468
Background: Due to Environmental concern worldwide, Mobility is under pressure to shift gear from fossil fuel to Electric. This is Rebirth of Electric Mobility is with state’s initiative, but it is facing bigger challenges than the 1900s era. Fossil fuel vehicles have already carved the benchmark on ease of range per charge, and time of charge (filling of fossil fuel), which needs to be at least matched by Electric Vehicles. The success of electric vehicles will not only be driven by state policy but also by performance and Economic Viability. While at this introduction level state is trying best to offset cost by way of subsidy/tax-sops offering. So, in clear terms “Performance of Electric Vehicles” need to be addressed and enhanced to put them in main stream in place of fossil fuel vehicles. In last 100 years there has been significant technological development in Motors, and Energy Storage, which is base of Electric mobility.
Technical Paper

Low Voltage Powertrain in Light Electric Vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2467
Engineering objective Light Electric Vehicles (LEV) with Li-ion batteries suffer from short battery life and poor efficiency, due to low grade electronics. Battery management systems (BMS) cannot always keep the pack in balance, and after cell voltages drift, capacity of the pack diminishes and some cells may destruct, causing a fire. The paper describes a novel approach to LEV powertrains using parallel connected battery cells & control methodology that keep cells in balance naturally, thereby eliminating BMS and hence safer to use. Li-Ion cells with different chemistries can be used and superior thermal management reduces temperature rise, resulting in longer battery life. Methodology Based on the original invention by the author, the system circuit schematics was designed and simulated using OrCAD PSpice. After obtaining results from the simulation, the first prototype device was constructed and tested in laboratory.
Technical Paper

Real world energy efficiency calculation for e-Rickshaws - A Comparative study (Lead Acid Vs Lithium Ion Battery vehicles)

2019-11-21
2019-28-2486
E-Rickshaws are receiving considerable attention as a sustainable passenger transportation in Indian mobility space. As per the recent reports, more than 1.5 million e-rickshaws are currently operating in the country. These are quieter, cleaner and convenient mode for last mile connectivity and are typically used for short distance (<10Km) commutation. For owners, these vehicles offer value in terms of affordability and operating cost. Challenge for manufacturers is to design a vehicle which balances the requirements of both passengers and owners. Energy efficiency (Energy consumption per Km) influences such critical decisions. There is always a difference between the catalog value and actual on-road Energy efficiency figures and therefore it's important to really understand owner requirements w.r.t. market where vehicle is going to be operated.
Technical Paper

Performance & efficiency Improvement of Electric Vehicle Power train

2019-11-21
2019-28-2483
Introduction: The advent of electric mobility is changing the conventional mobility techniques and their application in automobiles across all segments. This development comes with challenges ranging across varied sub -systems in a vehicle including Power Train, HVAC, Accessories, etc. Objective: This paper would concentrate on the Power train related sub systems & improvement of the same both in terms of Efficiency & Performance. Methodology: The electric power train consists of three major sub parts: 1. Motor Unit 2. Controller with Power electronics 3. Battery Pack with BMS We would concentrate on improving the overall efficiency and performance of all these subsystems while they perform in vehicle environment and work in tandem by deploying following techniques: a. Improved Regenerative Braking for converting vehicles Kinetic energy into electrical energy using specific algorithms and control techniques b.
Technical Paper

Design analysis of a retrofit system for an electric two wheeler

2019-11-21
2019-28-2482
Two wheelers are the major mode of single transport in the metros of India. They contribute about 70 % of the auto market unit wise. Also it is proved from the research that for per unit energy consumption they contribute more to the environment emission. Conventional IC engine based energy supply unit can be replaced with an electric DC motor with chargeable battery as the energy source for the two wheelers present in the market. In the current research, engine is replaced with the motor, batteries and controller. The above system is placed on the space emptied by the conventional engine, The design developed is tested on different gradients for identifying the motor torque for minimum and maximum resistances available on the road. The paper provides an insight on the of the torque requirements based on variable resistances required for two wheelers. Also the system will be used as a retrofit for the existing IC engine bikes to be converted in electric bikes.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Battery Cooling Systems in Electric Vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2481
As electric vehicles are working on stored energy in batteries or cells. These units needs to be regulated by cool down or heat up to perform utmost and to ensure individual cell life. Battery cooling systems are installed on vehicles to regulate the temperature around these packs. To ensure maximum performance of these units, numerical simulation is performed. Optimization (includes study of cover design, number of openings, area & position of openings around the cover in which unit is mounted) of flow rate as well as flow path into battery cooling systems is carried out. This study is carried to design a stable unit.
Technical Paper

EV Cell Chemistry for the Indian Market

2019-11-21
2019-28-2479
Chemical reaction inside a cell, converts chemical energy into electrical energy and causes electric current to flow. If electric current passes backwards in a cell, it charges the cell. In a Li-Ion battery Lithium ions move from negative electrode to positive electrode during discharge and backwards when charging.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Industrial Automotive Battery Management system

2019-11-21
2019-28-2498
Battery operated vehicle need accurate management system because of its quick changes in State of charge (SOC) due to aggressive acceleration profiles and regenerative braking. Li-ion battery needs control over its operating area for its safe working. So, the main objective of the proposed system is to develop a BMS having algorithms to estimate accurate SOC, predict degradation parameters, balance individual cells, manage cell temperature, and provide safe area of operation defined by voltage and temperature. Proposed methodology uses Model-based Design approach wherein nonlinear behavior of battery is modeled as Equivalent Circuit Model to compute the SOC and degradation effect on battery to decide the end of life of battery, also performing inductive Active balancing on cells to equalize the charge. proposed algorithms communicate with the vehicle ECU through CAN to assist the driver for runtime estimation, time for battery swapping, Alerts.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management of Li-Ion Battery Pack using GT-SUITE

2019-11-21
2019-28-2500
Objective It is very important to simulate the battery pack being built to understand its behavior when used in applications especially Electric vehicles (EV). All Li-Ion cells are not the same. They need to be characterized before building any battery pack. Hence modeling the battery pack to simulated its performance in the actual conditions becomes important. Methodology To understand the behavior of cells in the on-field environment, they are tested at various conditions like different rates of charging/discharging, various depth of discharge (DOD), ambient temperature, etc. HPPC test is also performed on cells to derive its RC model equivalent model. GT Suite simulation software is used to model the Li-Ion cell using the testing data. Depending on the pack configuration, the modeled cell is connected in the required series and parallel configuration, to study the battery pack with respect to aging, performance and cooling requirements.
Technical Paper

EV Charging Concept for the Indian Market

2019-11-21
2019-28-2502
Predominantly the biggest question that haunts the EV Market is the charging infrastructure that should eventually ease the nervousness of the consumers and allowing EV to penetrate the Indian market with changes done within urban areas and highways. There are multitude of options available ranging from onboard charging via home charging point to a Fast DC off board charger that can be used to charge an EV. There are multiple factors that can be used to evaluate the options and their pros / cons. Some of these factors are: • Cost, time to charge, health of battery, charging and discharge rate of the battery, etc… • Convenience and availability of charging point • Ease of operation including payment • Safety and Security • Ambient temperature in which charging is done There are mainly these categories of charging options: • Residential charging based on a home charging point. The charger is mounted on the vehicle (onboard) and the EV cable can be connected to the home plug point.
Technical Paper

Performance of Switched Reluctance Motor for Small Electric Vehicle in Urban Mobility

2019-11-21
2019-28-2501
Small electric vehicles are challenging in nature while designing the power train and especially the mounting of batteries within the volume available. In this research, power train of small electric vehicle is designed and it is compared with the electric vehicles. The designed vehicle should meet the requirements of urban car so that it can be preferred in urban mobility. Emphasis is given on studying performance parameters such as motor speed, torque for different urban driving cycles by altering the motor and its no. of poles. Battery pack is designed to fit under the front hood of the vehicle whereas motor is fitted at the rear. Range is estimated using Simulink and it is validated with mathematical calculation using Peukert method performed in MATLAB. It is concluded that the designed vehicle with Switched Reluctance Motor 6/4 configuration of 15 kW, 110 Nm is sufficient to meet the urban car in 2020 targets. NCA battery is preferred for range improvement.
Technical Paper

ELECTRIC BICYCLE WITH REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM

2019-11-21
2019-28-2490
One of the significant challenges in the present scenario is the depletion of fossil fuels. As the use of conventional fuel is increasing day by day, it will lead to the complete depletion of fossil fuel in the future. So, an alternate solution to this problem is the use of electric vehicles which is independent of the dependence on fossil fuels. Electric vehicles (EVs) use batteries to power them and are electric motor driven. One advantage of using these electric vehicles is that they are pollution free and smokeless. One of the critical limitations of these electric vehicles is the low driving range per charge. The main proposal of this paper is the implementation of a regenerative braking system (RBS) which helps in recovering the kinetic energy that gets wasted during braking. RBS will be very useful in hilly terrain areas where much potential energy can get recovered while moving down the hill.
Technical Paper

Development of Electric Vehicle Controller by using MBD approach

2019-11-21
2019-28-2494
The automobile industry is moving towards electrification of Vehicle to remove the exhaust gas emissions. A project was undertaken to develop Electric Vehicle control system from concept to vehicle trials in less than a year. The complete development cycle of an electronic controller required to be compressed to prepare mule electric vehicle within timeline. Agile methodology has been used for this project instead of waterfall as other control systems were in developing stage; system requirements were changing frequently. This paper presents the electric vehicle control unit development with agile methodology using model based development (MBD) in MATLAB and Simulink environment. The project flow consists of major phases like design of electrical architecture, system requirements specification, selection and setting up the simulation platform, EVCU strategy development, testing on Model in Loop (MIL)/ Hardware in Loop (HIL), vehicle trials.
Technical Paper

Design improvements in advanced automotive batteries using AI

2019-11-21
2019-28-2505
Introduction: The advent of electric mobility is changing the conventional mobility techniques and with this comes challenges to improve the performance of battery to optimize power consumption in electric vehicles. Objective: This paper would focus on the optimization of battery performance incoherent with vehicle power consumption behavior in terms of efficiency using decision-making ability based on given input signals
Technical Paper

Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System For Hot Climate Regions

2019-11-21
2019-28-2507
ELECTRIC VEHICLE THERMAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR HOT CLIMATE REGIONS Rana Tarun*, Yamamoto Yuji, Kumar Ritesh, Bhagatkar Shubhada Pranav Vikas India Private Limited, India Key Words Electric Vehicles (EV); Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS); COP; Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System (EVTMS); BTMS and HVAC System Integration; Thermal System Performance Comparison; Active Liquid Cooling; EV Battery Cooling Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective Electric Vehicles is the need of time to limit global warming and it is in application at a wide scale in colder or mild climate regions where ambient temperature is limited to mild or moderate level. Its application (Heat pump, CO2) is constrained to cold climates only due to securing better COP for heating function, sacrificing cooling COP of the existing system when operated in Hot Climate Regions, thus limiting its application to nearly half of the automotive user-base.
Technical Paper

Thermal Challenges in Automotive Exhaust System through Heat Shield Insulation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2539
While advanced automotive system assemblies contribute greater value to automotive safety, reliability, emission/noise performance and comfort, they are also generating higher temperatures that can reduce the functionality and reliability of thesystem over time. Thermal management and insulation are extremely important and highly demanding in BSVI, RDE and Non-IC engine operating vehicles. Passenger vehicle and Commercial vehicle exhaust systems are facing multiple challenges such as packaging constraints, weight reduction andthermalmanagement requirements.Frugal engineering is mandatory to develop heat shield in the exhaust system with minimum heat loss. The focus of the paper is to design, develop and validate heat shield products with different variables such as design gap, insulation material, sheet metal thickness and manufacturing processes. 1D and 3D computational simulations are performed with different gaps from 3 mm to 14 mm are considered.
Technical Paper

Testing Electric Vehicle sub-systems using low cost programmable electronic load

2019-11-21
2019-28-2492
The advancements in Electric Vehicles have introduced many complex sub-systems with demanding and sporadic power needs. For example, the current consumed by electric motor or bank of super-capacitors involve transients making them non-linear loads. Conventional test systems for load analysis mainly involved resistive loads where the rate of rise or fall of current was linear, falling short to accommodate the dynamic behavior of the Electric Vehicle loads. In this paper, we have proposed a low cost; yet effective electronic load that is independent of the battery voltage and can sink the current in any prescribed pattern with respect to time. The simulation results have shown the effectiveness of the hardware with respect to changes in temperature, aging and sudden input fluctuations. The implemented electronic load is interfaced to a desktop application to program the dynamic load behavior and the test duration.
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