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Technical Paper

Vision based solution for auto- maneuvering of vehicle for emerging market

2019-11-21
2019-28-2517
Vision based solution for auto- maneuvering of vehicle for emerging market: Author/Co-Author: Singh Ashwani, SDV Ram Kumar, Bose Souvik, Lalwani Chandraprakash General Motors Technical Centre India Key words: Image Processing, Gap finding, virtual/Imaginary lines, Advance Driver Assist System (ADAS), Vehicle to vehicle(V2V)/Vehicle to Infrastructure(V2I/V2X) Research & Engineering Objective: For the various levels of autonomous, the current perception algorithms involve considerable number of sensor inputs like cameras, radars and Lidars and their fusion logics. The planning route for the vehicle navigation is done through map information which is highly volatile and keep changing many at times. Existing steering assist feature during a curve is available by combining additional driver monitoring camera & 360 degree camera. The complexity is very high in the implementation and computation of these algorithm. These solutions are not cost-effective for emerging markets.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Property Evaluation of Paper Honeycomb reinforced Plastics

2019-11-21
2019-28-2538
Mechanical Property Evaluation of Paper Honeycomb Reinforced Plastics Vignesh Balaji S G, Pradeep Hyundai Motor India Engineering Pvt. Ltd, Chennai. India Key Words: Paper Honeycomb, Epoxy Composites, Mechanical Properties, Tensile, Impact & Flexural Test Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective : Composite Materials are widely being used in many engineering applications because of their desirable properties & Cost, Weight Effectiveness. They are widely being used as their Strength-Weight Ratio is Higher than any Other Material. Paper Honeycomb Material is basically a paper made of honeycomb shapes enforced between layers of Glass Mat. This paper deals with the evaluation of Tensile Strength, Flexural (Three-Point Bending) Strength & Flexural Modulus, Impact Strength of Paper Honeycomb Reinforced Epoxy Composites. The Scope of this Material defines the quality of Paper Honeycomb Reinforced Composites which can be used for Automotive Trim Parts.
Technical Paper

Telescopic Rear Wiper Arm with Cam and Roller Mechanism for Increased Wiping Area

2019-11-21
2019-28-2407
All round visibility is critical for safety of vehicle and road users. A vehicle must be designed in such a way that the driver encounters minimal hindrance for visibility of vehicle surroundings. This is even more essential during poor visibility conditions like during rain, snow, heavy fog etc. At present, wiper systems play an essential role in providing better visibility. There are other technological aides like cameras, sensors etc., but they must be considered as secondary systems, the must not be relied upon. Current wiper systems for front windscreen are very efficient, in terms of wiping area. But the wiper systems for rear windscreen are starkly opposite. The rear wiper arm length is very low, mainly due to low height of rear windscreen. This combined with the motion of wiper arm in an arc, results in low wiping area, leading to poor visibility through rear mirror. This paper addresses this problem with a simple solution - Telescopic Wiper Arm with Cam and Roller Mechanism.
Technical Paper

Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2397
Title Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation Authors Mr. Shubham Kedia, Dr. Divyanshu Joshi, Dr. Muthiah Saravanan Mahindra Research Valley, Mahindra & Mahindra, Chennai Objective Objective metrics for evaluation of major vehicle dynamics performance attributes i.e. ride, handling and steering are required to compare, validate and optimize dynamic behavior of vehicles. Some of these objective metrics are recommended and defined by ISO and SAE, which involve data processing, statistical analysis and complex mathematical operations on acquired data, through simulations or experimental testing. Due to the complexity of operations and volume of data, evaluation is often time consuming and tedious. Process automation using existing tools such as MS Excel, nCode, Siemens LMS, etc. includes several limitations and challenges, which make it cumbersome to implement.
Technical Paper

Powertrain topologies for 2 wheelers : From ICE to Electrification

2019-11-21
2019-28-2480
As Battery cost is expected to see a Downward trend, Electrification of Powertrain in general is expected to pick up and 2wheeler Market is foreseen to be the Flag bearer in this race towards Electrification. In this paper, we would like to emphasize on the Journey of 2wheelers from Conventional Internal combustion Engine to Electrified Powertrains which we foresee in the future. Methodology: EV - Analysis of OEM strategies and upcoming trends in connectivity and electrification. Estimation of current market size of 2Wheeler and segmentation based on different personas. Building survey data based personas around ownership patterns for electric 2Wheelers. Mapping consumer decision process for electric 2Wheelers. Analyse the decision influencers and role of influencers in decision making process. Hybrid - Analysis of different hybrid topologies. Feasibility study via simulation and focus group assessments to evaluate the design. PoC will also be tried to validate the concept.
Technical Paper

ROS-based number and color robot teacher

2019-10-28
2019-01-2610
Education is become more and more important in our society and people are looking for attractive an innovative ways for learning. It is also found that teaching through fun is more efficient especially with children at early stages. Our system is about building a robot to teach children simple numbers and colors. This will help children in their early years to learn in an enjoyable way. We use pioneer 3dx robot in addition to Lidar, camera and robotic arm to build a model for our proposed system. Our system has three main parts: navigation, image processing and robotic arm control. The navigation part is achieved by using gmapping and Simultaneous Localization And M aping (SLAM). The image processing part is based on image segmentation to recognize numbers and colors. The robotic arm control uses inverse kinematic analysis to locate the desired cube and pick it up. ROS was used to program the robot to achieve the desired functionalities.
Technical Paper

Sensor Perception and Motion Planning for an Autonomous Material Handling Vehicle.

2019-10-28
2019-01-2611
The ground mobile robotics study is structured on the two pivotal members namely Sensor perception and Motion planning. Sensor perception or Exteroception comprises the ability of measurement of the layout of environment relative to vehicle’s frame of reference which is a necessity for the implementation of safe navigation towards the goal destination in an unstructured environment. Environment scanning has played a significant role in mobile robots application to investigate the unexplored environment in the sector of defence while transporting and handling material in warehouse and hospitals. Motion Planning is a conjunction of analysing the sensor’s information about the local frame and global map while being able to plan the route from starting point to the target destination. In this paper, a 3600 2-D LiDAR is used to capture the spatial information of the surrounding, the scanning results are presented in a local and global map.
Technical Paper

ROS-based Guidance Robot for Visually Impaired Patients

2019-10-28
2019-01-2609
According to recent statistics from the World Health Organization, the total number of visually impaired people in the world is very large. In order to solve the movement difficulties for blind people, we used pioneer 3dx robot to design and develop a system that can be used to help blind people when they move or travel. The proposed system can be used to guide the blinds and warn them to stop. It can also help blind people to avoid obstacles while walking. This will certainly compensate the visual defects of the blinds and improve their safety. The system uses Lidar and camera mounted on pioneer 3dx robot to achieve the desired functionalities. ROS was used to integrate the hardware and the software. The system was tested indoor and the robot was able to help blind people reach different destination safely.
Technical Paper

Lane Line detection by Lidar intensity value interpolation

2019-10-28
2019-01-2607
We present an approach to estimate a single lane line using a LiDAR unit for autonomous vehicles. By comparing the difference in elevation of LiDAR channels, a drivable region is defined. Further, by filtering and sorting intensity values, we are able to distinguish potential lane markings. By calculating the standard deviation of the lane markings in the y-axis the data can be further refined to specific points of interest. By applying a statistical approximation, to these points of interest, we can interpolate a linear approximation of the lane line.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Type and Tip Deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection Fuel Injector End of Injection Spray Characteristics

2019-10-28
2019-01-2600
There has been a great effort expended in identifying causes of Hydro-Carbon (HC) and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions resulting from poor spray preparation, leading to characterization of fueling behavior near nozzle. It has been observed that large droplet size is a primary contributor to HC and PM emission. Imaging technologies have been developed to understand the break-up and consistency of fuel spray. However, there appears to be a lack of studies of the spray characteristics at the End of Injection (EOI), near nozzle, in particular, the effect that tip deposits have on the EOI characteristics. Injector tip deposits are of interest due to their effect on not only fuel spray characteristics, but also their unintended effect on engine out emissions. Using a novel imaging technique to extract near nozzle fuel characteristics at EOI, the impact of tip deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel injectors at the EOI is being examined in this work.
Technical Paper

Improving competitiveness of Additive Manufacturing Aerospace serial parts

2019-09-16
2019-01-1900
The interest of selective laser melting technology for aerospace parts is very high due to their high complexity and their freedom of design which allow functions integration. However, the competitiveness of Laser Beam Melting (LBM) machines for aerospace industry is limited by two major road blocks. On the one hand, basic parametric set sold with LBM machines are more oriented to historical qualification than productivity rates. For instance, the ongoing qualification on EOS M290 by AIRBUS COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT only enables us to produce a hundred pieces per machine per year. On the other hand, wasted times between two consecutive manufacturing batches are significant and are impacting the yearly output of the machines. The present project focuses on two activities, focusing on the largest available machines, XLINE2000R and M400, in order to maximize the amount of pieces per build.
Technical Paper

Ceramic Bound Materials: A Suitable Solution for Light Brakes

2019-09-15
2019-01-2109
A ceramic bound matrix has been investigated to be used as a friction material. The materials were produced by means of ceramic technology, and four formulations were tested by means of a tribometer (pin-on-disc tester) using a gray cast iron counterpart. Test sections included speeds between 1 and 12 m/s, and loads between 25 and 400 N. The characterization of the tribolayers was carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy. The four developed materials were named A, B, C, and D with different ratio of components. They exhibited different wear rates and coefficients of friction. All the materials exhibited sensitivity to speed, while showed a lower sensitivity to load. The coefficient of friction level seems to be suitable for brake applications, oscillating between 0.6 and 0.4, depending on the test section. This kind of materials with further efforts can be possibly useful in future electric vehicles that will not demand large and expensive brakes.
Technical Paper

Experimental Characterization of Methane Direct Injection From an Outward-Opening Poppet-Valve Injector

2019-09-09
2019-24-0135
The in-cylinder direct injection of natural gas represents a further step towards cleaner and more efficient internal combustion engines (ICE). However, the injector design and its characterization, either experimentally or from numerical simulation, is challenging because of the complex fluid dynamics related to gas compressibility. In this work, the underexpanded flow of methane from an outward-opening poppet-valve injector has been experimentally characterized by Schlieren and Shadowgraph high-speed imaging. The jet evolution was also followed through Mie-scattering imaging using n-heptane droplets as a tracer. The investigation has been performed at ambient temperature and pressure and different nozzle pressure ratios (NPR) ranging from 10 to 17. The gaseous jet has been characterized in terms of its macroscale parameters.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation of Mixture Formation in a Small Bore DISI Engine by Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence (LIEF)

2019-09-09
2019-24-0133
Legislative and customer demands in terms of fuel consumption and emissions are an enormous challenge for the development of modern combustion engines. Downsizing in combination with turbocharging and direct injection is one way to increase efficiency and therefore meet the requirements. This results in a reduction of the displacement and thus the bore diameter. The application of direct injection with small cylinder dimensions increases the probability of the interaction of liquid fuel with the cylinder walls, which may result in disadvantages concerning especially particulate emissions. This leads to the question which bore diameter is feasible without drawbacks concerning emissions as a result of wall wetting. The emerging trends towards long-stroke engine design and hybridization make the use of small bore diameters in future gasoline engines a realistic scenario.
Technical Paper

Imaging and Vibro-Acoustic Diagnostic Techniques Comparison for a GDI Fuel Injector

2019-09-09
2019-24-0058
This work presents the results of an experimental investigation on a GDI injector, in order to analyze fuel injection process and atomization phenomenon, correlating imaging and vibro-acoustic diagnostic techniques. A single-hole, axially-disposed, 0.200 mm diameter GDI injector was used to spray commercial gasoline in a test chamber at room temperature and atmospheric backpressure. The explored injection pressures were ranged from 5.0 to 20.0 MPa. Cycle-resolved acquisitions of the spray evolution were acquired by a high-speed camera. Contemporarily, the vibro-acoustic response of the injector was evaluated. More in detail, noise data acquired by a microphone sensor were analyzed for characterizing the acoustic emission of the injection, while a spherical loudspeaker was used to excite the spray injection at a proper distance detecting possible fuel spray resonance phenomena.
Technical Paper

Morphological Characterisation of Gasoline Soot-in-Oil: Development of Semi-Automated 2D-TEM and Comparison with Novel High-Throughput 3D-TEM

2019-09-09
2019-24-0042
Morphology of soot nanoparticles is characteristically complex and 3-dimensional, and plays a defining role in soot-related phenomena. Morphological characterisation of soot is essential to understand the extent of such effects, including harm to human health, and develop strategies to mitigate them. Use of 2D-TEM for characterisation is associated with numerous and significant sources of error and uncertainty related to a 2D-3D information gap. Volume reconstruction by 3D-TEM avoids many of these sources of error, and has been shown in simulation studies to be highly accurate. However, the technique has traditionally been too slow to permit study of enough individual structures to satisfactorily characterise a bulk soot-sample. Similarly, the prevalence of manual image processing in 2D-TEM studies of soot can limit characterisations to as few as 50 individual particles per sample.
Technical Paper

Optical Evaluation of Directly Injected Methane Using a Newly Developed Highly Repetitive Laser Diagnostics System

2019-09-09
2019-24-0134
New certification procedures like WLTP and RDE, as well as more stringent emission regulations in general, demand for further improvements in engine research and development. In order to meet the challenges of reducing pollutants while maintaining high performance and high efficiency many different approaches are discussed. Beside various concepts for new combustion strategies and alternative fuels, gaining detailed knowledge about the ongoing processes inside engines and combustion chambers during the different operation modes is of major importance. With their influence on combustion and emission formation, fuel injection and mixture formation are playing an important role for further improvements in modern propulsion systems. With the help of optical measurement systems based on laser induced (exciplex) fluorescence (LIF/ LIEF), an advanced understanding of these mechanisms can be obtained.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulations and Tracer-LIF Diagnostics of Wall Film Dynamics in an Optically Accessible GDI Research Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0131
Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and tracer-based Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements have been performed to study the dynamics of fuel wall-films on the piston top of an optically accessible, four-valve pent-roof GDI research engine for a total of eight operating conditions. Starting from a reference point, the systematic variations include changes in engine speed (600; 1,200 and 2,000 RPM) and load (WOT and 500 mbar intake pressure); concerning the fuel path the Start Of Injection (SOI=360°, 390° and 420° CA after gas exchange TDC) as well as the injection pressure (10, 20 and 35 MPa) have been varied. For each condition, 40 experimental images were acquired phase-locked at 10° CA intervals after SOI, providing valuable insights with respect to the wall film dynamics in terms of spatial extent, thickness and temperature.
Training / Education

Photogrammetry and Analysis of Digital Media

2019-09-04
Photographs and video recordings of vehicle crashes and accident sites are more prevalent than ever, with dash mounted cameras, surveillance footage, and personal cell phones now ubiquitous. The information contained in these pictures and video provide critical information to understanding how crashes occurred, and in analyzing physical evidence. This course teaches the theory and techniques for getting the most out of digital media, including correctly processing raw video and photographs, correcting for lens distortion, and using photogrammetric techniques to convert the information in digital media to usable scaled three-dimensional data.
Training / Education

Photography for Accident Reconstruction, Product Liability, and Testing

2019-08-12
Many technical projects, most vehicle and component testing, and all accident reconstructions, product failure analyses, and other forensic investigations, require photographic documentation. Roadway evidence disappears, tested or wrecked vehicles are repaired, disassembled, or scrapped, and components can be tested to failure. Photographs are frequently the only evidence that remains of a wreck, or the only records of subjects before or during tests. Making consistently good images during any inspection is a critical part of the evaluation process.
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