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Training / Education

Designing On-Board Diagnostics for Light and Medium Duty Emissions Control Systems

2020-10-20
On-board diagnosis of engine and transmission systems has been mandated by government regulation for light and medium vehicles since the 1996 model year. The regulations specify many of the detailed features that on-board diagnostics must exhibit. In addition, the penalties for not meeting the requirements or providing in-field remedies can be very expensive. This course is designed to provide a fundamental understanding of how and why OBD systems function and the technical features that a diagnostic should have in order to ensure compliant and successful implementation.
Training / Education

Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration Systems

2020-09-18
As diesel emissions regulations have become more and more stringent, diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become possibly the most important and complex diesel aftertreatment device. This seminar covers many DPF-related topics using fundamentals from various branches of applied sciences such as porous media, filtration and materials sciences and will provide the student with both a theoretical as well as an applications-oriented approach to enhance the design and reliability of aftertreatment platforms.
Training / Education

Design Considerations for Secure Embedded Systems

2020-08-05
Embedded hardware is everywhere you look today from your vehicle’s infotainment system to refrigerator to medical devices and everything else in-between. With so much exposure one would think that such devices are secure against attack; however, sadly for many devices this is not the case. For proof, just look no further than your local news reports. They are full of reports on devices being hacked. So, as engineers, how do we go about first identifying and mitigating (or capitalizing) the potential security vulnerabilities within these devices?
Training / Education

Emissions-Related OBD Systems A Design Overview

2020-03-27
On-board diagnostics, required by governmental regulations, provide a means for reducing harmful pollutants into the environment. Since being mandated in 1996, the regulations have continued to evolve and require engineers to design systems that meet strict guidelines. This one day seminar is designed to provide an overview of the fundamental design objectives and the features needed to achieve those objectives for generic on-board diagnostics. The basic structure of an on-board diagnostic will be described along with the system definitions needed for successful implementation.
Training / Education

Vehicle Crash Reconstruction Principles and Technology

2020-02-17
Crash reconstruction is a scientific process that utilizes principles of physics and empirical data to analyze the physical, electronic, video, audio, and testimonial evidence from a crash to determine how and why the crash occurred. This course will introduce this reconstruction process as it gets applied to various crash types - in-line and intersection collisions, pedestrian collisions, motorcycle crashes, rollover crashes, and heavy truck crashes. Methods of evidence documentation will be covered. Analysis methods will also be presented for electronic data from event data recorders and for video.
Research Report

Unsettled Domains Concerning Autonomous System Validation and Verification Processes

2019-12-20
EPR2019012
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Department of Transportations' (DOT's) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) face similar challenges regarding the regulation of autonomous systems powered by artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms that replace the human factor in the decision-making process. The validation and verification (V&V) processes contribute to the implementation of the correct system requirements. The V&V process is one of the steps of a development lifecycle starting with the definition of regulatory, marketing, operational, performance, and safety requirements. They define what a product is, and they flow down into lower level requirements defining control architectures, hardware, and software. The industry is attempting to define regulatory requirements and a framework to gain safety clearance of such products.
Training / Education

Effective Writing for Engineering and Technical Professionals

2019-11-25
The ability to write concise and unambiguous reports, proposals, manuals, or other technical documents is a key skill for any high-functioning engineer or technical staff person in the mobility industries. Through a combination of class discussions, interactive workshop activities, assignments, checker teams (review teams) and job aids, this course delivers real-life technical writing techniques and tools that can be immediately applied. Attendees discover the importance of knowing their audiences and how to communicate technical information in a "user-friendly" style.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol blends on GDI engine to reduce cost of vehicle ownership

2019-11-21
2019-28-2379
A major challenge for combustion development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline and CNG are such alternative fuels. The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance. Second, the thermal efficiency of the ethanol blend is calculated as a linear function of theoretical Otto cycle efficiency.
Technical Paper

Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

2019-11-21
2019-28-2382
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly.
Technical Paper

A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas – Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

2019-11-21
2019-28-2390
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds.
Technical Paper

Approach for CO2 Reduction in India’s Automotive Sector

2019-11-21
2019-28-2388
India has gone through a lot of transformation over the last decade. Today it is the 6th largest and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rising income level, increased consumerism, rapid growth in urbanization and digitization have attributed to this change. Government focus on “Make in India” for promoting trade and investment in India have ensured that India emerge as one of the largest growing economies in the world. The automotive industry played a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector to boost economic activities in India. The passenger car market has increased 3 times over the last decade and it has led to increased mobility options for many people across India. However, this has put concerns on the country’s energy security and emission levels. According to IEA’s recent report on global CO2 emission, 32.31 Gt of CO2 emissions were from fuel combustion in 2016, out of which transport sector contributed ~25%.
Technical Paper

New CEC Gasoline Direct Injection Fuels Test – Comparison of Deposits and Spray Performance from New and Used injectors.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2392
The use of deposit control additives in European market gasoline is well documented for maintaining high levels of engine cleanliness and subsequent sustained fuel and emissions performance. Co-ordinating European Council (CEC) industry fuels tests have played a crucial role in helping to drive market relevant, effective and low-cost deposit control additives into European market fuels. Until now, there has not been a Gasoline Direct Injection engine test available to fuel marketers in any market globally. However, a new CEC engine test is currently being developed to address that gap. Based on an in-house VW injector coking test, it shows promise for becoming a useful tool with which to develop and measure the performance of deposit control additives. A key requirement of industry tests should be to replicate issues seen in consumer vehicles, thereby providing a platform for relevant solutions.
Technical Paper

Methodology for failure simulation Using 4 corner 6 DOF Road load simulator of Overhanging Components: An Experimental Approach

2019-11-21
2019-28-2404
Nowadays, Road Load Simulators are used by automobile companies to reproduce the accurate and multi axial stresses in test parts to simulate the real loading conditions. The road conditions are simulated in lab by measuring the customer usage data by sensors like Wheel Force transducers, accelerometers, displacement sensors and strain gauges on the vehicle body and suspension parts. The acquired data is simulated in lab condition by generating ‘drive file’ using the response of the above mentioned sensors. For generation of proper drive file, not only good FRF but ensuring stability of inverse FRF is also essential. Stability of the inverse FRF depends upon the simulation channels used. In this paper, an experimental approach was applied for focused failure simulation of engine mount, one of such low correlation zone, with known history of failure.
Technical Paper

Inspection and Maintenance of In-Use Motor Vehicles – Mitigating Environmental impact

2019-11-21
2019-28-2427
The existing rule no. 62 of CMVR, 1989 applies to various commercial vehicles and yet is unable to provide a promising template to have a concise format which will cover all the motor vehicles and their different components with more precise equipment plus virtual testing along with proper management of time during the bulk inspection of all the vehicles. This paper will include all the technicalities and the different course of actions which must be taken into account for the proper implementation of the desired regulations on the designated concern. The idea behind this paper is to have a compact procedural document for the periodical inspection and maintenance of all the motor vehicles running on the Indian Roads that adhere to the basic safety concerns of other on-road vehicles, the pedestrians and the surroundings.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Compression Ratio for DI Diesel Engines for better fuel Economy

2019-11-21
2019-28-2431
Fuel economy is becoming one of the key parameter as it not only accounts for the profitability of commercial vehicle owner but also has impact on environment. Fuel economy gets affected from several parameters of engine such as Peak firing pressure, reduction in parasitic losses, improved volumetric efficiency, improved thermal efficiency etc. Compression ratio is one of key design criteria which affects most of the above mentioned parameters, which not only improve fuel efficiency but also results in improvement of emission levels. This paper evaluates the optimization of Compression ratio and study its effect on Engine performance. The parameters investigated in this paper include; combustion bowl volume in Piston and Cylinder head gasket thickness as these are major contributing factors affecting clearance volume and in turn the compression ratio of engine. Based on the calculation results, an optimum Compression Ratio for the engine is selected.
Technical Paper

APPLICATION ORIENTED HYBRIDIZED DYNAMIC MODELS OF POWERTRAIN CONTROL FOR CONNECTED VEHICLES – A CASE STUDY ON TURBOCHARGER CONTROL

2019-11-21
2019-28-2443
In a connected vehicle environment, the engine drive cycles operate in synchronized and regulated manner. This requires smooth transitions for improved CO_2 footprint. To arrive at this, there is need for intelligent and faster airpath control at transients. Authors aim to model and control every actuator of a coupled system in a synchronized manner with faster dynamic response. The turbocharger control is vital and forms heart of the system; This demands accurate position prediction of VTG. Deriving a control law for turbocharger is challenging due to the hybridized nature of turbocharger models in engine management system. It becomes extremely critical to estimate accurately, the position of VTG without introduction of any sensing devices. The control engineer always need to solve the trade-off between the controller performance KPI’s – rise time, transient response, controllability, observability and capability – stability and dynamics response etc.
Technical Paper

Industry 4.0 in Agriculture

2019-11-21
2019-28-2442
In recent times, there has been an enormous shift towards automation in Auto as well as Agriculture Industry. Farming is playing an important role in the survival of world. Currently, agricultural industry is facing several challenges. These challenges can be reduced or removed by using automation in the agricultural tools and techniques. Industry 4.0 is the industrial fourth revolution which focused on automations in manufacturing technologies such as cyber physical systems, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence and cloud and cognitive computing. The development and improvement of the connectivity between agricultural tools is leading to significant progress in the agricultural practices. Advancement and automation of the technologies with Internet of Things (IoT), replacing traditional agricultural methodologies which causes wide range of improvements in the fields.
Technical Paper

Powertrain topologies for 2 wheelers : From ICE to Electrification

2019-11-21
2019-28-2480
As Battery cost is expected to see a Downward trend, Electrification of Powertrain in general is expected to pick up and 2wheeler Market is foreseen to be the Flag bearer in this race towards Electrification. In this paper, we would like to emphasize on the Journey of 2wheelers from Conventional Internal combustion Engine to Electrified Powertrains which we foresee in the future. Methodology: EV - Analysis of OEM strategies and upcoming trends in connectivity and electrification. Estimation of current market size of 2Wheeler and segmentation based on different personas. Building survey data based personas around ownership patterns for electric 2Wheelers. Mapping consumer decision process for electric 2Wheelers. Analyse the decision influencers and role of influencers in decision making process. Hybrid - Analysis of different hybrid topologies. Feasibility study via simulation and focus group assessments to evaluate the design. PoC will also be tried to validate the concept.
Technical Paper

Potential for Emission Reduction and Fuel Economy with Micro & Mild HEV

2019-11-21
2019-28-2504
The development of modern combustion engines (spark ignition as well as compression ignition) for vehicles compliant with future oriented emission legislation (BS6, Euro VI, China 6) has introduced several technologies for improvement of both fuel efficiency as well as low emissions combustion strategies. Some of these technologies as there are high pressure multiple injection systems or sophisticated exhaust gas aftertreatment system imply substantial increase in test and calibration time as well as equipment cost. With the introduction of 48V systems for hybridization a cost-efficient enhancement and, partially, an even attractive alternative is now available. An overview will be given on current technologies as well as on implemented or simulated vehicle concepts for light duty gasoline and diesel powertrains.
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