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Training / Education

Applied Brake Controls ABS, TCS, and ESC

2020-01-27
Experience the vehicle dynamic enhancements afforded by anti-lock brakes (ABS), traction control (TCS), and electronic stability control (ESC) with this highly interactive two-day seminar. Designed to get you out of the classroom and on to the test track, a total of six 60-minute structured learning experiences behind the wheel will vividly illustrate the benefits, limitations, and ultimate compromises that must be made when designing and implementing modern brake control systems.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Analysis of a Passenger Car to Reduce Drag using Active Grill Shutters and Active Air Dams

2019-11-21
2019-28-2408
Active aerodynamics can be defined as the concept of reducing drag by making real-time changes to certain devices such that it modifies the airflow around a vehicle. Using such devices also have the added advantages of improving ergonomics and performance along with aesthetics. A significant reduction in fuel consumption can also be seen when using such devices. The objective of this work is to reduce drag acting on a passenger car using the concept of active aerodynamics with grill shutters and air dams. First, analysis has been carried out on a baseline passenger car and further simulated using active grill shutters and air dams for vehicle speed ranging from 60 kmph to 120 kmph, with each active device open from 0° to 90°. The improved model obtained is then subjected to variations in yaw angle ranging from -18° to +18°. The optimized model is then validated for a scaled down prototype in a wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

Effect of variable payload on Vehicle dynamics of Passenger buses in Indian usage conditions

2019-11-21
2019-28-2411
A high impetus from Government on road infrastructure development, is giving a fillip to passenger CV space. This has resulted in making the passenger CV segment lucrative enough, thereby pulling in many operators in the business. The quality of road has immensely improved over a decade, as a result of which the average speed and hence the quantum of distance covered by passenger buses has increased significantly. People are preferring to travel in buses over trains, owing to at par ticket cost, high availability, reduced travel time and also improved level of comfort. Aligned to the market need and the trend, OEM's are offering buses with capable powertrains to cater the need of speed, reduced trip time as well as a lot of attention is also being paid to tune in the comfort level for long hauls. A big chunk of passenger travel is catered by the bus operators especially during major festivals in India.
Technical Paper

The Dynamic Stability Index Calculator for Agricultural Tractors Equipped with Front End Loader

2019-11-21
2019-28-2420
The study aims to evaluate the lateral stability of tractor-front end loader system in consideration with difficult work conditions based on various loader bucket lifting heights from ground while driving a system on transversal slopes. In the proposed method the centre of gravity of tractor-front end loader system was calculated and analysed to evaluate the transversal overturning of the system. This overturning of the system was analysed by applying mathematical equations presented in past studies and compared with the newly developed prediction model for 3 test tractors of 25 HP. The excel spreadsheet comprised of mathematical equations used to calculate the Tractor Stability Index (TSI) on transverse slope with respect to loader bucket height and payload in dynamic condition. A criterion has been defined to categorize the Tractor Stability Index (TSI) poor to excellent on a scale of 0 to 4 where <0 being the very poor, 0-2 Poor, 2-4 Good and >4 being the excellent.
Technical Paper

Suspension hard points optimisation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2419
Objective This paper explores the usage of Altair simulation driven optimisation process, Front Suspension hard points of a sedan Car model are optimised for specific target toe curves using MotionView, MotionSolve and HyperStudy This process gives the optimal hard point values to match the target curves without much iterations. Methodology Parametric Multibody model of the front end of sedan is built in MotionView. To Carry out optimisation HyperStudy is used where few of the suspension hard points which affect the toe curves are chosen as design variable. For the chosen Design variables upper and lower bound limits are specified. Ride, Roll and lateral force tests are performed. Optimisation is performed using HyperStudy where it iterates the suspension hard points to match the target toe curves. Each iteration response can be visualized in HyperStudy and can be compared with the target toe curve.
Technical Paper

PMSM motor drive for Electric Vehicle applications

2019-11-21
2019-28-2475
To control air pollution in urban areas and to reduce carbon print in the cities, nowadays EV’s are preferred over IC engine vehicles. Earlier Electric vehicles used DC motor and Induction motors. But Brushless Permanent Magnet motors are preferred over Induction motor for EV’s due to their High Torque density, high-power density and highly efficiency. Prevalent Electric vehicles today have Brushless DC motors. Compared to BLDC, PMSM motor have smoother control and negligible torque ripplesThus, PMSM motor is preferred over BLDC for Electric Vehicle, because of its sinusoidal back emf which results in smoother control, and results into smoother and more comfortable driving experience to users. Methodology Sensor based field-oriented control (FOC) is implemented in 48 V 5kW Interior PMSM motor. . To start the Synchronous motor initial position of the rotor magnetic field should be known.
Technical Paper

Performance & efficiency Improvement of Electric Vehicle Power train

2019-11-21
2019-28-2483
Introduction: The advent of electric mobility is changing the conventional mobility techniques and their application in automobiles across all segments. This development comes with challenges ranging across varied sub -systems in a vehicle including Power Train, HVAC, Accessories, etc. Objective: This paper would concentrate on the Power train related sub systems & improvement of the same both in terms of Efficiency & Performance. Methodology: The electric power train consists of three major sub parts: 1. Motor Unit 2. Controller with Power electronics 3. Battery Pack with BMS We would concentrate on improving the overall efficiency and performance of all these subsystems while they perform in vehicle environment and work in tandem by deploying following techniques: a. Improved Regenerative Braking for converting vehicles Kinetic energy into electrical energy using specific algorithms and control techniques b.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Industrial Automotive Battery Management system

2019-11-21
2019-28-2498
Battery operated vehicle need accurate management system because of its quick changes in State of charge (SOC) due to aggressive acceleration profiles and regenerative braking. Li-ion battery needs control over its operating area for its safe working. So, the main objective of the proposed system is to develop a BMS having algorithms to estimate accurate SOC, predict degradation parameters, balance individual cells, manage cell temperature, and provide safe area of operation defined by voltage and temperature. Proposed methodology uses Model-based Design approach wherein nonlinear behavior of battery is modeled as Equivalent Circuit Model to compute the SOC and degradation effect on battery to decide the end of life of battery, also performing inductive Active balancing on cells to equalize the charge. proposed algorithms communicate with the vehicle ECU through CAN to assist the driver for runtime estimation, time for battery swapping, Alerts.
Technical Paper

ELECTRIC BICYCLE WITH REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEM

2019-11-21
2019-28-2490
One of the significant challenges in the present scenario is the depletion of fossil fuels. As the use of conventional fuel is increasing day by day, it will lead to the complete depletion of fossil fuel in the future. So, an alternate solution to this problem is the use of electric vehicles which is independent of the dependence on fossil fuels. Electric vehicles (EVs) use batteries to power them and are electric motor driven. One advantage of using these electric vehicles is that they are pollution free and smokeless. One of the critical limitations of these electric vehicles is the low driving range per charge. The main proposal of this paper is the implementation of a regenerative braking system (RBS) which helps in recovering the kinetic energy that gets wasted during braking. RBS will be very useful in hilly terrain areas where much potential energy can get recovered while moving down the hill.
Technical Paper

Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2397
Title Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation Authors Mr. Shubham Kedia, Dr. Divyanshu Joshi, Dr. Muthiah Saravanan Mahindra Research Valley, Mahindra & Mahindra, Chennai Objective Objective metrics for evaluation of major vehicle dynamics performance attributes i.e. ride, handling and steering are required to compare, validate and optimize dynamic behavior of vehicles. Some of these objective metrics are recommended and defined by ISO and SAE, which involve data processing, statistical analysis and complex mathematical operations on acquired data, through simulations or experimental testing. Due to the complexity of operations and volume of data, evaluation is often time consuming and tedious. Process automation using existing tools such as MS Excel, nCode, Siemens LMS, etc. includes several limitations and challenges, which make it cumbersome to implement.
Technical Paper

Transient Response Analysis and Synthesis of an FSAE Vehicle using Cornering Compliance

2019-11-21
2019-28-2400
OBJECTIVE Race vehicles are designed to achieve higher lateral acceleration arising at cornering conditions. A focused study on the steady state handling of the car is essential for the analysis of such conditions. The transient response analysis of the car is also equally important to achieve best driver-car relationship and to quantify handling in the range suitable for a racing car. This research aims to investigate the design parameters responsible for the transient characteristics and optimize those design parameters. This research work examines the time-based analysis of the problem to truly capture the non-linear dynamics. Apart from tires, chassis can be tuned to optimize vehicle handling and hence the response times. METHODOLOGY To start with, the system is modelled with governing parameters and simulation is carried out to set baseline configurations. Steady state and transient handling simulations run independent of each other with independent logic, coded on MATLAB.
Technical Paper

Combi Brake System (CBS) design and tuning on an electric two wheeler for cornering maneuver

2019-11-21
2019-28-2399
To reduce the number of traffic accidents, most of the governments have mandated to include Combi Brake System (CBS) or Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) in two wheelers. While most of the homologation requirements for CBS can be fulfilled by straight line motion, CBS behavior is crucial while cornering for safety aspects. When vehicle is in cornering motion, the lateral forces generated at the tire decreases the effective longitudinal force available, which implies lesser braking force at tire. This paper represents a design methodology for tuning CBS for various critical scenarios mainly during cornering maneuver. A detailed study has been made at various combination of vehicle lean angle, vehicle speed and friction coefficient of road in straight line and cornering maneuver to effectively decide on front to rear brake force distribution to avoid either of the tires’ lock-up.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Objective and Subjective test results for Ride comfort with Heave, Pitch and Roll motion for a Passenger Vehicle

2019-11-21
2019-28-2410
Research Objective The importance of evaluating ride comfort with high degrees of accuracy objectively and its correlation with subjective perception is increasing day by day because of the long duration of the driving experience. The complex motion of the vehicle which is the combination of heave, roll and pitch motion is responsible for causing extreme uneasiness to the driver as well as the passenger. In this paper, ride comfort evaluation is done on the highway with similar traffic conditions with the help of Vibration Dose Value Analysis, Suspension Working Space and Ride Diagram methods for two hatchbacks and its correlation with the complex motion like choppiness of the vehicle is established that will help us to enhance the driver ride experience. Methodology The ride testing is performed for two hatchbacks on a highway road with different kinds of terrain ranging from highly uneven road roughness to moderately smooth surface for a speed range of 60-100 kmph.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Effect of Light Weighting Through Roll Stiffness Change on Vehicle Maneuverability and Stability

2019-11-21
2019-28-2406
Objective To achieve better fuel economy and reduced carbon footprint, OEMs are reducing the sprung and unsprung mass. This translates into a reduction in stiffness which profoundly deteriorates the handling/road holding characteristics of the vehicle. To model these changes in stiffness, modifications are made to suspension roll stiffness at the front and rear. This study compares different configurations of roll stiffness and evaluates vehicle behavior using frequency response characteristics and phase change of Yaw Gain recorded. The present work associates acquired data with subjective feedback to outline the shift in vehicle balance emerging from a variation of sprung and unsprung mass ratio. Methodology To study the frequency response characteristics of the vehicle, the pulse input is chosen for this. An ideal pulse input’s Fourier transform represents constant amplitude over all the frequency ranges. By giving a single input, the system is subjected to a range of frequencies.
Technical Paper

A Machine Learning based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for Lightweighting the Automotive Structures

2019-11-21
2019-28-2424
The present work involves Machine Learning (ML) based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for lightweighting the automotive structures. The challenge in deployment of MMDO algorithms in solving real-world automotive structural design problems is the enormous time involved in solving full vehicle finite element models that involve large number of design variables and multiple performance constraints pertaining to vehicle dynamics, durability, crash and NVH domains. With the availability of powerful workstations and using the advanced Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools, it has become possible to generate huge sets of simulation data pertaining to multiple domains.
Technical Paper

Multi body dynamic simulation of tyre traction trailer

2019-11-21
2019-28-2430
Tyre Traction Trailer is a device designed to find the Peak Brake co-efficient of C2 and C3 tyre as per ECE R117. The trailer is towed by the truck and is braked suddenly to evaluate braking co-efficient of specimen tyre. It is a single wheel trailer equipped with load cell to capture tire loads (Normal and longitudinal)while braking. Traction Trailer is modelled in MSC Adams and rigid body simulation is carried out for static stability of the system. Dynamic simulations were performed to understand locking of wheels during braking. Body frame was further modelled as flex body to perform structural analysis of the frame. The paper contains stress and deformation plots of trailer Structure under various loading conditions, change in Centre of gravity, weight transfer and forces on springs during braking and cornering, plots of tractive and normal load on tyre during braking.
Technical Paper

Model Based Design of Chassis-Frame with MATLAB

2019-11-21
2019-28-2429
In the current commercial vehicles market, ride-comfort and handling are crucial parameters for the customer and end user. There are various aspects which determine the vehicle behaviour. One of aspects is the structural rigidity of the vehicle, which has its own effect on vehicle dynamics. To meet the required stiffness of the main structural component of the vehicle i.e. chassis frame, FEA analysis has to be done in current methodology. The number of iterations have to be done to build an appropriate model with low weight, which can meet the design requirements. At first, conceptual design mock-up unit is to be developed then FEA (CAE) analysis to be done on it. If any design criteria are not met, then this cycle repeats again until it fulfils the required stiffness. Today, the direct stiffness procedure is the basic principle of almost every FEA software package.
Technical Paper

Analysis of pressure variation in wheel using statistical methods

2019-11-21
2019-28-2450
Objective: The Objective of the research is to detect drop in level of pressure in the wheel with respect to nominal pressure using data obtained from speed sensors. The research discusses the standard procedure of experimentation to obtain data which eventually used to produce results. This procedure is taken from principles Design of Experiments. Statistical tools are used to analyze and give determining factors for pressure variation. Methodology: To study idea, we made use of two-wheeler platform and collected data of wheel speed sensors on both wheels. The idea is when there is any change in tire pressure the radius of the wheel also changes and usually this relation is direct. Hence, change in tire pressure changes the angular velocity of the wheel. In this approach wheel speed sensors are used to measure the angular speed for standard and reduced pressure conditions.
Technical Paper

TORQUE VECTORING DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEM FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE

2019-11-21
2019-28-2485
Abstract The electrification of conventional internal combustion engine vehicle is a need of today’s advanced world to reduce the dependency of the transportation sector on the oil and gases. It can be achieved by replacing the engine by an electric motor which is powerful enough to provide required torque. The important requirement for a vehicle to drive in the hilly region with steep corners is proper torque distribution on each wheel which is taken care by the differential system. When the friction between road and wheels are different from left to right, then the wheel with low friction contact will lose its traction on the road. These situations are unfavorable for driving a vehicle on off-road and extrema conditions like driving in muddy roads or on the ice. These problems can be overcome by providing individual power supply system to separate wheels.
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