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Introduction to Car Hacking with CANbus

2019-12-19
Vehicle cybersecurity vulnerabilities could impact a vehicle's safe operation. Therefore, engineers should ensure that systems are designed free of unreasonable risks to motor vehicle safety, including those that may result due to existence of potential cybersecurity vulnerabilities. The automotive industry is making vehicle cybersecurity an organizational priority.
Technical Paper

A new appraisal of the thermomechanical behaviour of a hybrid composite brake disc in a formula vehicle

2019-11-21
2019-28-2572
A new appraisal of the thermomechanical behaviour of a hybrid composite brake disc in a formula vehicle Research Objective This paper presents a hybrid composite brake disc with reduced Un Sprung Weight clearing thermal and structural analysis in a formula vehicle.Main purpose of this study is to analyse thermomechanical behaviour of composite brake disc for a formula vehicle under severe braking conditions. Methodology In the disk brake system, the disc is a major part of a device used for slowing or stopping the rotation of a wheel. Repetitive braking of the vehicle leads to heat generation during each braking condition. Based on the practical understanding the brake disc was remodelled with unique slotting patterns and grooves, using the selected aluminium alloy of (AA8081) with reinforcement particle of Silicon carbide (SiC) and Graphite (Gr) as a hybrid composite material for this proposed work.
Technical Paper

High rigidity and light weight bumper material development in India

2019-11-21
2019-28-2553
Vehicle weight reduction becomes important at the view point of fuel efficiency improvement and CO2 reduction in India also as well as developed countries. With this background, High tensile and Super high tensile steel application has become increasing. Similary, weight reduction of big plastic parts like bumper face is one of the most important items, so Honda has developed Thin-wall and light weight bumper face. In the development of light weight bumper, rigidity, impact strength and flowability which are main requirement are cotradictory property. It is necessary to develop new material to achieve this technical concern. Moreover, we verified part shape and thickness optimization to achieve part requirement. Established high property material and part manufacturing technology were applied for current CITY firstly, and it has been expanded to other models sequentially to contribute weight reduction for Honda vehicles.
Technical Paper

Self-Sensing, Lightweight and High Modulus Carbon Nanotube Composites for Improved Efficiency and Safety of Electric Vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2532
Carbon Composites (CFRP) have been touted to be an essential component of future automobiles due to their mechanical properties and lightweight. CFRP has been adopted successfully for secondary and primary structures in Aerospace industry. In Automobiles, they are incorporated in models like the BMW i-series. CFRP suffers from 2 major problems. Delamination of Composites leads to catastrophic and rapid failure which could be dangerous in passenger vehicles. Delamination occurs whenever there is a shock on the composite. Secondly, Composites need regular expensive maintenance to ensure that the material is intact and will not compromise passenger safety. Carbon Nanotubes in composites have shown a substantial increase in delamination resistance. A 0.1wt% addition of HiPCO® Single-walled Carbon Nanotube provides both self-sensing and improved fracture resistance.
Technical Paper

C123 Methodology for concept design of the Chassis Frame

2019-11-21
2019-28-2534
Objective This paper explores the usage of Altair simulation driven concept process, C123 for developing the chassis frame of the SUV along with Multidisciplinary optimisation tool. C123 process is useful for strategic & systematic usage of optimisation to generate design alternatives, trade-off information, best balanced designs, design sensitivities, to actively support the concept development process on daily basis. Methodology C123 is used for developing initial concept design of the chassis frame of the SUV. C123 process is independent of vehicle architectures, manufacture process (e.g. extrusions, sheet metal) & material selection (e.g. metals, composites, mixed etc.) and platform sharing strategy. C1 process is used for identification of optimum Structural Layout, C2 is for rapid optimum Sizing of idealized Sections, C3 is used for detailed optimum Sizing of Manufacturable Sections. Automatic process is used for handling pre and post processing process very efficiently.
Technical Paper

High Durable PU Metallic Monocoat system for tractor sheet metal application.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2541
In sheet metal painting for various applications like Tractor, Automobile, most attractive coating is metallic paints and it is widely applied using 3 coats 2 bake or 3 coat 1 bake technology. Both options, results in high energy consumption, higher production throughput time & lower productivity in manufacturing process. During various brainstorming & sustainable initiatives, paint application process was identified for alternative thinking to reduce burden on environment & save energy. Various other industry benchmarking & field performance requirement studies helped us identify the critical to quality parameters. We worked jointly with supplier to develop mono-coat system without compromising the performance & aesthetical properties. This results in achieving better productivity, elimination of two paint layers, substantial reduction in volatile organic content, elimination of one baking cycle and energy saving.
Technical Paper

MITIGATION FOR EDGE CORROSION PROTECTION FOR AUTOMOTIVE BODIES

2019-11-21
2019-28-2561
TITLE: MITIGATION FOR EDGE CORROSION PROTECTION FOR AUTOMOTIVE BODIES. Keyword: Edge corrosion, Edge protection, Rust on edges, Corrosion mitigation. Objective: A major challenge to automotive industry is to protect the vehicle from corrosion in varying environment with respect to different service conditions. One of the main types of corrosion that affects aesthetic look is edge corrosion on sheet metal. Mostly edge is acting as starting point of corrosion due to unprotected metal exposed to environment. A special attention to be given to exposed edges to protect from rust formation. Methodology: To mitigate corrosion in visible area, various solution proposed in manufacturing process, material usage, sealer application, BIW design. Samples were prepared as per design of experiments with respect to manufacturing process condition and subjected for testing. Results: Proposed solutions were validated in manufacturing process line and reports are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Mathematical Approach to Determine Die Wear during Forging Process and Validation by Experimental Technique

2019-11-21
2019-28-2563
The automotive industry is constantly trying to develop cost effective, high strength and lightweight components to meet the emission and safety norms while remaining competitive in the market. Forging process plays an important role to produce most of the structural components in a vehicle. Precision forging technology is used to produce components with little or no flash leading to elimination of machining process after forging. The load acting on the dies during net or near net forging is very high and leads to wear in the die. In order to have a good die it is important that die wear which is an inevitable phenomenon in a bulk metal forming processes is predicted mathematically. In this study a review on the vast number of studies done in the area of wear and various predictive models is carried out.
Technical Paper

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF LOW CYCLE FATIGUE PROPERTIES IN METALS FOR ROBUST DESIGN

2019-11-21
2019-28-2576
Objective: In ground vehicle industry, strain life approach is commonly used for predicting fatigue life. This approach requires use of fatigue material properties such as fatigue strength coefficient (σf'), fatigue strength exponent (b), fatigue ductility coefficient (εf'), fatigue ductility exponent (c), cyclic strength coefficient (K′) and cyclic strain hardening exponent (n′). These properties are obtained from stable hysteresis loop of constant amplitude strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests. Usually fatigue material properties represent 50th percentile experimental data and doesn't account possible material variation in the fatigue life calculation. However, for robust design of vehicle components, variation in material properties need to be taken into account. In this paper, methodology to develop 5th percentile (B5), 10th percentile (B10) and 20th percentile (B20) fatigue material properties are discussed.
Technical Paper

Determine Thermal Fatigue Requirements for PEPS Antenna Copper Wire over Vehicle Lifetime with defined Reliability Requirements.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2582
Reliability states the degree to which the result of a measurement, calculation, or specification can be depended on to be accurate. And, tests according to GMW specifications represents a minimum of 15 years of vehicle life time with defined Reliability and Confidence level. In this work, actual number of thermal cycles for Thermal Fatigue tests (Thermal Shock and Power Temperature Cycle) are calculated for Copper Wire whose Coffin Manson exponent is 5. Overstressing the PEPS Antenna under thermal fatigue requirement (defined number of thermal cycles based on Reliability and Confidence requirements) will lead to broken Copper wire which will result in component’s functional failure and thus impossible to continue reliability testing. The objective of this paper is to determine thermal fatigue requirements for Antenna’s Copper wire whose Coffin Manson exponent is 5.
Technical Paper

Industry 4.0 in Agriculture

2019-11-21
2019-28-2442
In recent times, there has been an enormous shift towards automation in Auto as well as Agriculture Industry. Farming is playing an important role in the survival of world. Currently, agricultural industry is facing several challenges. These challenges can be reduced or removed by using automation in the agricultural tools and techniques. Industry 4.0 is the industrial fourth revolution which focused on automations in manufacturing technologies such as cyber physical systems, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence and cloud and cognitive computing. The development and improvement of the connectivity between agricultural tools is leading to significant progress in the agricultural practices. Advancement and automation of the technologies with Internet of Things (IoT), replacing traditional agricultural methodologies which causes wide range of improvements in the fields.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the critical parameters affecting the fuel lid performance

2019-11-21
2019-28-2413
Fuel lid is one of the parts which are mostly operated mechanically by the end user while filling the fuel. Therefore part design should be done in such a manner that it can be operated smoothly without any hassles. The conventional steel fuel filler doors are of two types: Three-piece type fuel filler doors also known as the dog-leg type and two-piece type fuel filler doors also known as the butterfly type. Both types of fuel filler doors have a pin that acts as a rotational hinge axis about which the fuel filler door opens and closes. Depending on the styling and shape of the side body outer, fuel lid type is decided. In the current study, dog-leg type fuel lid is considered. The factors that primarily affect the opening-closing performance are the weight of fuel lid, hinge axis, and the friction at the hinge area. The orientation of the hinge axis is derived from the profile of the side body outer panel. The fuel lid weight and hinge axis are decided in the initial design stage.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Noise Emitted by vehicle on an External Pass-By Noise Track and Indoor Anechoic Chamber

2019-11-21
2019-28-2425
Ikshit Shrivastava1, Kiranpreet Singh2 1,2 International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT), Gurugram, India Introduction: Pass By Noise emitted by the vehicle is one of the most critical tests for certification is vehicle worldwide. There are a number of national and international regulations to define test procedure. Though the available tracks are constructed to meet the requirements of these test standards, but there are other external parameters viz. ambient temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and its direction, affecting the measurements. These parameters are beyond the control of human and this contamination of test data results in longer test time to monitor atmospheric/ambient conditions and perform the test. Indoor pass-by noise testing is a comparatively new method of testing, which is yet to be evaluated for repeatability/correlation with conventional exterior pass-by noise testing.
Technical Paper

Inspection and Maintenance of In-Use Motor Vehicles – Mitigating Environmental impact

2019-11-21
2019-28-2427
The existing rule no. 62 of CMVR, 1989 applies to various commercial vehicles and yet is unable to provide a promising template to have a concise format which will cover all the motor vehicles and their different components with more precise equipment plus virtual testing along with proper management of time during the bulk inspection of all the vehicles. This paper will include all the technicalities and the different course of actions which must be taken into account for the proper implementation of the desired regulations on the designated concern. The idea behind this paper is to have a compact procedural document for the periodical inspection and maintenance of all the motor vehicles running on the Indian Roads that adhere to the basic safety concerns of other on-road vehicles, the pedestrians and the surroundings.
Technical Paper

Coupled Electro-Chemical and Thermal Modeling for Cylindrical Lithium-ion Batteries

2019-11-21
2019-28-2488
The shift over of the automobile sector from the ICE to the electric drives is imminent due to arising global issues of pollution and ever rising pressure on the demand of the natural resources due to lower efficiency of the ICE drives. This has led to uprising of the Lithium-ion batteries, with addition of the burden of living to expectation of clean energy and higher efficiencies. Alongside, with limitation in the availability of the lithium-ion batteries they carry a hefty price tag with them, hence causing huddles in the research. Lack of research leads to failure of batteries and may cause life threatening situations when operating in the vehicle. In order to insight the working of the cylindrical lithium-ion batteries under different driving and environmental conditions a methodology is developed for the coupled electro-chemical and thermal phenomenon. This allows anticipating the behaviour of the battery under different conditions that influence its performance.
Technical Paper

Potential for Emission Reduction and Fuel Economy with Micro & Mild HEV

2019-11-21
2019-28-2504
The development of modern combustion engines (spark ignition as well as compression ignition) for vehicles compliant with future oriented emission legislation (BS6, Euro VI, China 6) has introduced several technologies for improvement of both fuel efficiency as well as low emissions combustion strategies. Some of these technologies as there are high pressure multiple injection systems or sophisticated exhaust gas aftertreatment system imply substantial increase in test and calibration time as well as equipment cost. With the introduction of 48V systems for hybridization a cost-efficient enhancement and, partially, an even attractive alternative is now available. An overview will be given on current technologies as well as on implemented or simulated vehicle concepts for light duty gasoline and diesel powertrains.
Technical Paper

FABRICATION AND WEAR CHARACTERISTICS BASALT FIBER REINFORCED POLYPROPYLENE MATRIX COMPOSITES

2019-11-21
2019-28-2570
Generally brake pads are manufacturing by use of asbestos materials, these materials are chemically harmful and toxic, affects human health. The present investigation fabricates polypropylene composites with mixing constant volume [5 Vol.%] of alumina nano particles and different volume percentages [0%, 5%, 10% & 15%] of basalt fibre by hand layup compression technique. The wear characteristics of polypropylene matrix composites were tested by dry sliding condition using pin on disc apparatus configuration with hardened steel counter-face at elevated temperature. The load was applied 30N to 70N with the interval of 20N and varying of sliding speed 300 rpm to 900rpm with the interval of 300rpm for the time period of 0-180 sec. The wear rate was decreases with addition of alumina nano particle and also increases the frictional force for the effect of basalt fibre content present in the composites. The co-efficient of friction was increases from 0.1 to 0.66 under normal loading condition.
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