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Training / Education

Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration Systems

2020-09-18
As diesel emissions regulations have become more and more stringent, diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become possibly the most important and complex diesel aftertreatment device. This seminar covers many DPF-related topics using fundamentals from various branches of applied sciences such as porous media, filtration and materials sciences and will provide the student with both a theoretical as well as an applications-oriented approach to enhance the design and reliability of aftertreatment platforms.
Training / Education

Fundamental Concepts of Turbocharging Modern Engines Current Practices and Trends

2020-06-16
Turbocharging is rapidly becoming an integral part of many internal combustion engine systems. While it has long been a key to diesel engine performance, it is increasingly seen as an enabler in meeting many of the efficiency and performance requirements of modern automotive gasoline engines. This web seminar will discuss the basic concepts of turbocharging and air flow management of four-stroke engines. The course will explore the fundamentals of turbocharging, system design features, performance measures, and matching and selection criteria.
Training / Education

Emissions-Related OBD Systems A Design Overview

2020-03-27
On-board diagnostics, required by governmental regulations, provide a means for reducing harmful pollutants into the environment. Since being mandated in 1996, the regulations have continued to evolve and require engineers to design systems that meet strict guidelines. This one day seminar is designed to provide an overview of the fundamental design objectives and the features needed to achieve those objectives for generic on-board diagnostics. The basic structure of an on-board diagnostic will be described along with the system definitions needed for successful implementation.
Technical Paper

Development of high power density diesel engine for constant speed application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2566
Engine up gradation for higher power rating involves challenges that require hardware changes which not only increase cost but also demand higher space. This paper focuses on the up gradation of a 4 cylinder 4.9l CRDi engine from 24.03 kW/L to 30.75 kW/L by adjustment of various parameters to meet both emission and performance targets. Various challenges like higher exhaust temperature, increased peak firing pressure etc. were met using the proper calibration strategy. To meet SFC targets and keep peak firing pressures, exhaust temperatures within desired limits, different operating points for EGR, main injection timing, rail pressure have been optimized. The operating points for optimization were determined by conducting various drive trials on different type of load conditions in test bench. Calibration strategy involved the safe limits of NOx, soot, CO emissions, fuel consumption.pfp, and exhaust temperature.
Technical Paper

Determining the State Of Health [SOH] of Li Ion cell

2019-11-21
2019-28-2579
“NuGen Mobility Summit-2019” Paper Title : Determining the State Of Health [SOH] of Li Ion cell Authors: Sushant Mutagekar, Ashok Jhunjhunwala, Prabhjot Kaur Objective Cells age with life. This aging is dependant on various factors like charging/discharging rates, DOD of operation and operating temperature. As the cell ages it undergoes power fade (ability to deliver required power at particular State of Charge [SOC]) and capacity fade (the charge storage capacity of cell). In an Electric Vehicle it is important to know what power shall be demanded from a battery irrespective of what its current SOC is and number of cycles it has undergone. With minimal accuracy and less computational power, it is difficult for a Battery Management System [BMS] to accurately determine SOH; the paper proposes a a precise model that may help.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigations on CO2 recovery from petrol engine exhaust using adsorption technology

2019-11-21
2019-28-2577
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon-di-oxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is a difficult and energy consuming process when compared to the catalytic action of catalytic converters on CO, HC and NOX. The best way to reduce it is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industry applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. When compared to other methods of CO2 separation, adsorption technique consumes less energy and the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

2019-11-21
2019-28-2382
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization and In-cylinder NOx and PM Reduction by using EGR and Split Injection Technique

2019-11-21
2019-28-2560
Nowadays, the major most challenge in the diesel engine is the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) trade-off, with minimal reduction in Power and BSFC. Modern day engines also rely on expensive after-treatment devices, which may decrease the performance and increase the BSFC. In this paper, combustion optimization and in-cylinder emission control by introducing the Split injection technique along with EGR is carried out by 1-D (GT-POWER) simulation. Experiments were conducted on a 3.5 kW Single-cylinder naturally aspirated CRDI engine at the different load conditions. The Simulation model incorporates detailed pressure (Burn rate) analysis for different cases and various aspects of ignition delay, premixed and mixing controlled combustion rate, the injection rate affecting oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of Constant speed diesel engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIS

2019-11-21
2019-28-2549
Design and Development of Constant speed diesel engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIS Remesan CB, Sanjay Aurora, Vasundhara V Arde, Vishal Kumar, Om Prakash Yadav, Piyush Ranjan Eicher Engines (A unit of TAFE Motors & Tractors Ltd.) Abstract Development trend in diesel engine is to achieve more power from same size of engine. With increase in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), the peak firing pressure will also increase. The methodology to control the peak firing pressure on higher BMEP is the major challenge. We achieved better SFC with CPCB II emission targets on a constant speed engine. This study involves a systematic approach to optimize combustion parameters with a cost effective and robust inline Fuel Injection System. This paper deals with the strategies applied and experimental results for achieving the power density of 25kW/lit with Inline FIP by keeping lower Peak firing pressure.
Training / Education

Designing On-Board Diagnostics for Light and Medium Duty Emissions Control Systems

2019-11-11
On-board diagnosis of engine and transmission systems has been mandated by government regulation for light and medium vehicles since the 1996 model year. The regulations specify many of the detailed features that on-board diagnostics must exhibit. In addition, the penalties for not meeting the requirements or providing in-field remedies can be very expensive. This course is designed to provide a fundamental understanding of how and why OBD systems function and the technical features that a diagnostic should have in order to ensure compliant and successful implementation.
Technical Paper

Integrated Engine States Estimation using Extended Kalman Filter and Disturbance Observer

2019-10-22
2019-01-2603
Accurate estimation of engine state(s) is vital for engine control systems to achieve their designated objectives. Fusion of sensors can significantly improve the estimation results in terms of accuracy and precision. This paper investigates using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to estimate engine state(s) for Spark Ignited (SI) engines with the external EGR system. The EKF combines air path sensors with cylinder pressure feedback through a control-oriented engine cycle domain model. The model integrates air path dynamics, torque generation, exhaust gas temperature, and residual gas mass. The EKF generates a cycle-based estimation of engine state(s) for model-based control algorithms which is not the focus of this paper. The sensor and noise dynamics are analyzed and integrated into the EKF formulation. To account for ‘none-white’ disturbances including modeling errors and sensor/actuator offset, the EKF engine state(s) observer is augmented with disturbance state(s) estimation.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Type and Tip Deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection Fuel Injector End of Injection Spray Characteristics

2019-10-22
2019-01-2600
There has been a great effort expended in identifying causes of Hydro-Carbon (HC) and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions resulting from poor spray preparation, leading to characterization of fueling behavior near nozzle. It has been observed that large droplet size is a primary contributor to HC and PM emission. Imaging technologies have been developed to understand the break-up and consistency of fuel spray. However, there appears to be a lack of studies of the spray characteristics at the End of Injection (EOI), near nozzle, in particular, the effect that tip deposits have on the EOI characteristics. Injector tip deposits are of interest due to their effect on not only fuel spray characteristics, but also their unintended effect on engine out emissions. Using a novel imaging technique to extract near nozzle fuel characteristics at EOI, the impact of tip deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel injectors at the EOI is being examined in this work.
Technical Paper

Emission and Noise Optimization of CRDe Engine with Pilot Injection Strategies

2019-10-11
2019-28-0019
The combustion strategies play a key role in emission improvisation and noise reduction on diesel engines equipped for higher emission norus. This paper clearly discussed on the selection of various operating points for optimization and employing of proper calibration strategies like pilot strategy, Main injection timing, EGR type and rail pressure variation for best emission and noise output. Various optimization techniques have been implemented in our study. Since the pilot injection quantity as well as timing are varied in our paper, careful matrix formulation is required to determine the best optimum point. Around 340 points were obtained on varying pilot quantity and pilot separation sweep chosen at single engine speed and load for both the pilots. Out of the above points, 5 sensitive points were selected ensuring the sensitivity of the emissions and noise.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Prediction of the Pressure Drop Reduction of Catalytic Converter under Various Mass Flow Rate of Exhaust Gas for a Naturally Aspirated Diesel Engine

2019-10-11
2019-28-0030
Nowadays, Diesel emission control strategies are stringent across the globe which caused the rise in need of diesel after treat treatment devices that are more reliable and efficient. The optimized design of the catalytic converter aids in the durability of the product as well as the improvement in efficient operation of the Indian driving cycle. By changing the convergent and divergent cone angles of the catalytic converter, the consequential decrease in pressure drop leads to efficient flow of exhaust gases. The purpose of this study is to design, test, and analyse the catalytic converter in order to reduce the pressure drop in the exhaust system of a naturally aspirated diesel engine using both experimental and CFD techniques. In this study, a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Catalytic Converter is investigated. For numerical analysis, ANSYS Fluent is used.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on an EGR Based Diesel Engine Fueled with the Blend of Diesel and Plastic Oil and an Antioxidant Additive

2019-10-11
2019-28-0079
Experimental investigations carried out in a diesel engine incorporated with Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), fuelled with the blend of diesel and plastic oil along with an antioxidant additive (p-Phenylenediamine) are presented in this paper. Plastic oil is produced from waste plastics through the process of pyrolysis which could be a potential substitute to fossil diesel in diesel engine applications. Production of plastic oil provides solution to the global twin problems of plastic waste management and energy crisis. Investigations have been carried out with the test fuel separately, test fuel with the additive, test fuel with incorporation of EGR in the engine and test fuel with additive and EGR incorporation. Test results revealed that blend of diesel and plastic oil exhibited performance and emissions at par with pure diesel, 18% reduction in NO emission through EGR incorporation as compared to without EGR and 15% reduction in NO through use of antioxidant additive.
Technical Paper

Study of NOx Reduction Efficiency in NSR and NSR-SCR Combined Systems

2019-10-11
2019-28-0087
The present study was carried out to analyze the catalytic action of K2O-Al2O3 in NOx Storage and Reduction (NSR) monolith catalyst and Fe2O3-TiO2 in Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) monolith catalyst. The core objective of this investigation is to determine the maximum percentage of Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) reduction in NSR and NSR-SCR combined system with respect to engine exhaust gas temperature and compares the results with the results of the conventional mode of operation. To accomplish this task monolith ceramic bricks were coated with K2O-Al2O3 (NSR) and Fe2O3-TiO2 (SCR) catalyst and were placed in different configurations inside the catalytic chamber. Several trials were attempted to get the optimal operating temperature that has a maximum NOx removal efficiency when successively connecting a single NSR catalyst and the combined NSR-SCR double bed catalyst. Single NSR monolith at 320 °C, showed the best NOx conversion rate of 74%.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injector Cone Angle and NTP on Performance and Emissions of BS6 Engine

2019-10-11
2019-28-0108
The combustion phenomenon of diesel engines has got a very major impact on the performance and exhaust emission levels. Several important factors like engine components design, combustion chamber design, Exhaust gas recirculation, exhaust after treatments systems, engine operating parameters etc. decide the quality of combustion. The role of fuel injector is crucial on achieving the desired engine performance and emissions. Efficient combustion depends on the quantity of fuel injected, penetration, atomization and optimum timing of injection. The nozzle through flow, cone angle, no of sprays and nozzle tip penetration are the factors which lead to the selection of perfect injector for a given engine. This paper focusses on the selection of the best fit injector suiting the BS6 application on evaluating the performance and emission characteristics. Injectors used were with varying cone angles and NTP.
Technical Paper

Characterization of AlSi10Mg Alloy Produced by DMLS Process for Automotive Engine Application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0134
Considerable weight of an automobile is constituted by the engine and there is scope for improvement in fuel efficiency and emission control through optimization of weight in the engine. In this work, AlSi10Mg alloy produced by the direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is suggested for engine application which is a lightweight aluminum alloy. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, compressive strength, and hardness of both cast and DMLS manufactured alloy are compared followed by analysis of SEM images of tensile test fractured surfaces. Reciprocating wear test is carried out for one lakh cycles at 125°C temperature with SAE 40 grade oil as lubricant. Co-efficient of friction (COF), wear rate of the cast and DMLS manufactured samples are compared. Wear patterns are analyzed using SEM images of the wear tracks.
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