Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Training / Education

Patent Law for Engineers

2019-09-20
This information-packed seminar focuses on the intricacies of patents, patent infringement litigation and patent licensing. Attendees will explore the important subjects of obtaining U.S. and foreign patents, maintaining U.S. and foreign patent rights, enforcing patent rights, defending against patent rights asserted by competitors, and licensing patent rights for revenue. After this seminar, you will effectively understand patents and ways to protect your company's valuable inventions. Your new knowledge will help your company maintain and enhance its position in the marketplace.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of assembly processes for Adhesive bonded Brackets onto the airframe structure

2019-09-16
2019-01-1855
Aircraft manufacturers use adhesive bonded brackets (ABB) to support wire harnesses, looms and sensors. Using ABBs eliminates the necessity to drill holes in the airframe and significantly reduces the assembly time. Such brackets are installed manually on the airframes in numerous locations using high strength epoxy based adhesives. In addition, the application of adhesive onto bracket is carried out manually. Thus it's time consuming and quality relies on operator’s skill sets to apply a certain quantity of adhesive using a predefined pattern, both of which are commonly not controlled. On the other hand, removing the damaged brackets by manual operations tend to cause dents and scratches in metallic airframes and delamination in composites. Prior research indicates that the brackets can be removed by heating them. But, they are not recommendable to aerospace manufacturers due to the longer process times.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Hydraulic system tests in Aircraft Manufacturing by applying Lean techniques

2019-09-16
2019-01-1901
Lean Manufacturing is generally a challenge across all manufacturing companies. Especially in the aerospace industry where production costs have a significant impact on the overall business success. Additionally, the aircraft Takt time is gradually being reduced to accomplish ramp up requirements. The hydraulic system tests are considered as a production waste (Muda Type I) since it is mandatory but does not add any value to the end customer. Furthermore, due to health and safety aspects, no other production task can be done while the test is being performed. This research project aimed at performing a Kaizen analysis of the hydraulic system test stations to reduce or eliminate idle time while it is taking place. To do so, an extensive literature review has be conducted to provide its research framework. Then, all the project requirements and constraints were identified in order to generate a design specification.
Technical Paper

NDT Application from Conventional to Digital Radiography for the Aircraft Maintenance Industry

2019-09-16
2019-01-1907
Technological innovation can provide improved productivity, increased cost savings, and it can keep or make an organisation competitive. Digital radiography for non-destructive testing (NDT) is such a promising innovation. In organisations with large scale utilisation of non-destructive testing, a transition from film to digital radiography is easily justified. Nevertheless, this is not the case for every organisation. Next to the operational workflow, system flexibility, quality, and regulatory issues also play a role in the trade-off. Especially in the aircraft maintenance industry, where the non-destructive operation is related to a lot of different factors. Motivated by the developments of digital radiography, the NDT department of KLM Engineering & Maintenance (E&M) requested advice in reconsidering their conventional film radiography capabilities. The objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of digital radiography at KLM E&M.
Technical Paper

Investigation into the benefits of implementing a fully integrated MRO Software system in Airlines Maintenance and Engineering

2019-09-16
2019-01-1908
Case studies of various MRO organizations were researched in order to gain a better understanding of the business procedures used in each department of an aircraft maintenance company. The software systems available to aid business processes were researched to understand the computer processes, functions and operational requirements of these software programs. The planning and scheduling of inventory and manpower resources is complex and requires various parameters to be computed by the software systems in order to adequately plan the necessary aircraft maintenance resources. Case studies of aircraft maintenance companies that previously implemented integrated IT software solutions to control and monitor department functions were researched to identify and understand the various problems encountered by these companies during the software implementation phase.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation on the use of Argon to improve FMEP determination through motoring method

2019-08-15
2019-24-0141
Mechanical friction is still one of the current topics in internal combustion engine research and development. In the ever increasing challenge of developing more efficient and less polluting engines, friction reduction is of significant importance; whose investigation needs an accurate and reliable measurement technique. The Pressurized Motoring method is one of the techniques used for both friction and heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. This method is able to simulate mechanical loading on the engine components similar to the fired conditions. It also allows measurement of friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) with a much smaller uncertainty as opposed to that achieved from a typical firing setup. Despite its advantages, this method of FMEP determination is usually criticized over the fact that the thermal conditions imposed in pressurized motoring are far detached from those seen in fired conditions, hence not able to simulate the complete effects on FMEP.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulations and Tracer-LIF Diagnostics of wall film dynamics in an optically accessible GDI research engine

2019-08-15
2019-24-0131
Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and tracer-based Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements have been performed to study the dynamics of fuel wall-films on the piston top of an optically accessible, four-valve pent-roof GDI research engine for a total of eight operating conditions. Starting from a reference point, the systematic variations include changes in engine speed (600; 1,200 and 2,000 RPM) and load (WOT and 500 mbar intake pressure); concerning the fuel path the Start Of Injection (SOI=360°, 390° and 420° CA after gas exchange TDC) as well as the injection pressure (10, 20 and 35 MPa) have been varied. For each condition, 40 experimental images were acquired phase-locked at 10° CA intervals after SOI, providing valuable insights with respect to the wall film dynamics in terms of spatial extent, thickness and temperature.
Technical Paper

Strive for Zero Emission Impact from Hybrid Vehicles

2019-08-15
2019-24-0146
Since several decades, passenger cars and light duty vehicles (LDV) reach full pollutant conversion during warm up conditions; the major challenge has been represented by the cold start and warming up strategies. The focus on technology developments of exhaust after treatment systems have been done in the thermal management in order to reach the warm up conditions as soon as possible. A new challenge is now represented by the Real Driving Emission Regulation as this bring more various, and not any longer cycle defined, Cold Start Conditions. On the other hand, once the full conversion has been reached, it would be beneficial for many EATS components if the exhaust gas temperature could be lowered. To take significant further emission steps, approaching e.g. zero emission concepts, we investigate to bring in electrical heating catalyst (EHC) and emission trap approaches. The clear goal is to have the right temperature in the right place at the right time.
Technical Paper

Efficient test bench operation with early damage detection systems

2019-08-15
2019-24-0192
The efficient operation of test benches within the framework of research and development projects directly correlates with the "health" of the examinee to be investigated. The use of so-called Early Damage Detection Systems (EDDS) is becoming increasingly popular for reasons of Unit Under Test (UUT) monitoring. In the context of this publication the expectations of an EDDS and its structure are discussed as well as its advantages and disadvantages in test bench operation analyzed and compared with the results of measurements. The used EDDS should primarily prevent the damage, up to the loss of the test object by a total loss, in order to ensure a finding possibility of the damaged part at the examined test object. A deviation of the test object behavior from the undamaged condition must be recognized in an early status and must lead to a shutdown of the test bench operation after reaching a defined limit value.
Technical Paper

Optical evaluation of directly injected methane using a newly developed highly repetitive laser diagnostics system

2019-08-15
2019-24-0134
New certification procedures like WLTP and RDE, as well as more stringent emission regulations in general, demand for further improvements in engine research and development. In order to meet the challenges of reducing pollutants while maintaining high performance and high efficiency many different approaches are discussed. Beside various concepts for new combustion strategies and alternative fuels, gaining detailed knowledge about the ongoing processes inside engines and combustion chambers during the different operation modes is of major importance. With their influence on combustion and emission formation, fuel injection and mixture formation are playing an important role for further improvements in modern propulsion systems. With the help of optical measurement systems based on laser induced (exciplex) fluorescence (LIF/ LIEF), an advanced understanding of these mechanisms can be obtained.
Technical Paper

Extension of a 2D Algorithm for Catch Efficiency Calculation to Three Dimensions

2019-06-10
2019-01-2013
Accurate calculation of the catch efficiency β is of paramount importance for any ice accretion calculation since β is the most important factor in determining the mass of ice accretion. A new scheme has been proposed recently in [1] for accurately calculating β on a discretized two-dimensional geometry based on the results of a Lagrangian droplet trajectory integrator (start and impact conditions). This paper proposes an extension to the algorithm in Ref. [1], which is applicable to three-dimensional surfaces with arbitrary surface discretization. The 3D algorithm maintains the positive attributes of the original 2D algorithm, namely mass conservation of the impinging water, capability to deal with overlapping impingement regions and with crossing trajectories, computational efficiency of the algorithm, and low number of trajectories required to reach good accuracy in catch efficiency.
Technical Paper

Summary of the High Ice Water Content (HIWC) RADAR Flight Campaigns

2019-06-10
2019-01-2027
NASA and the FAA conducted two flight campaigns to quantify onboard weather radar measurements with in-situ measurements of high concentrations of ice crystals found in deep convective storms. The ultimate goal of this research was to improve the understanding of high ice water content (HIWC) and develop onboard weather radar processing techniques to detect regions of HIWC ahead of an aircraft to enable tactical avoidance of the potentially hazardous conditions. Both HIWC RADAR campaigns utilized the NASA DC-8 Airborne Science Laboratory equipped with a Honeywell RDR-4000 weather radar and in-situ microphysical instruments to characterize the ice crystal clouds. The purpose of this paper is to summarize how these campaigns were conducted and highlight key results. The first campaign was conducted in August 2015 with a base of operations in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on a Hot-Air-Based Anti-/De-Icing System for the Icing Protection of Aero-Engine Inlet Guide Vanes

2019-06-10
2019-01-2039
In the present study, an experimental investigation was conducted to characterize a hot-air-based anti-/de-icing system for the icing protection of aero-engine inlet guide vanes(IGVs). The experimental study was conducted in a unique icing research tunnel available at Iowa State University (i.e., ISU-IRT). A hollowed IGV model embedded with U-shaped hot-air flowing conduit was designed and manufactured for the experimental investigations. During the experiments, while a high-speed imaging system was used to record the dynamic ice accretion or anti-/de-icing process over the surface of the IGV model for the test cases without and with the hot-air supply system being turned on, the corresponding surface temperature distributions on the IGV model were measured quantitatively by using a row of embedded thermocouples.
Technical Paper

Microwave Technique for Liquid Water Detection in Icing Applications

2019-06-10
2019-01-1930
The partial melting of ingested ice crystals can lead to ice accretion in aircraft compressors, but accurately measuring the relatively small fraction of liquid water content in such flows is challenging. Probe-based methods for detecting liquid water content are not suitable for deployment within turbofan engines, and thus alternatives are sought. Recent research has described approaches based on passive microwave sensing. We present here an approach based on active microwave transmission and reflection, employing a vector network analyzer. Utilization of both transmission and reflection provides additional data over and above emission or transmission only, and permits a more controllable environment than passive sensing approaches. The paper specifically addresses the question of whether such an approach is viable within the context of representative icing wind tunnel and engine flow conditions.
Technical Paper

Simulations of Thin Film Dynamics on a Flat Plate and an Airfoil

2019-06-10
2019-01-1938
The goal of the present study is to investigate the dynamics of a thin water film on a flat plate and an airfoil using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The first case for a wetted flat plate is used to model former experiments and investigate the dynamics of a wind-driven water film. The second case for a thin film on a NACA 0012 airfoil of chord length 0.5 m is used to investigate the dynamics of a wind-driven water film on a curved surface. Particular attention is paid to the interaction between the liquid film and the air shear-layer above the film. As the incoming airflow moves over the thin water film, instability is triggered at the gas-liquid interface. Interfacial waves develop and are advected downstream. The interaction between the air flow and the interfacial waves induces shedding vortices near the interface, which in turn perturb the liquid film farther downstream. Simulations are performed using the open source multiphase flow solvers, Gerris and Basilisk.
Technical Paper

Separating-Reattaching Flows Over an Iced Airfoil

2019-06-10
2019-01-1946
Delayed Detached Eddy Simulations (DDES) of separating-reattaching flows on the suction side of an ice-contaminated airfoil were conducted. A single-section straight-wing NACA23012 airfoil with leading-edge ice was studied. The geometry represents a realistic glaze horn-ice contamination obtained during the icing test campaigns described in [1], which has aerodynamic data for comparison. The three-dimensional transient flow behavior was simulated using the open-source flow solver OVERFLOW, version 2.2l [2] developed by NASA Langley Research Center. Configurations at three angles of attack that exhibit unsteady flow behavior starting with the bursting angle were examined at Mach number of 0.18 and Reynolds number of 1.8x106. As the stall angle was approached the aerodynamic performance parameters displayed large-scale unsteadiness where periods of attached and separated flows were observed. The time-averaged results show good agreement with the aerodynamic test data.
Technical Paper

Icing Test and Measurement Capabilities of the NRC’s Gas Turbine Laboratory

2019-06-10
2019-01-1943
The National Research Council’s Gas Turbine Laboratory provides industry leading icing facilities that allow manufacturers to develop, validate and certify new products for flight in adverse conditions. This paper shows how NRC measurement techniques are used across the facilities, and presents a literature-review of recently developed capabilities. The overview includes new details on some facilities, and future capabilities that are in development or planned for the near future. Methods developed at the NRC for characterizing inclement conditions are discussed and include the Isokinetic Probe, Particle Shadow Velocimetry, the Particle Detection Probe, and a size-binned real-time thermodynamic evaporation model.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Ice Particle Breakup and Ingestion into the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE)

2019-06-10
2019-01-1965
Numerical solutions have been generated which simulate flow inside an aircraft engine flying at altitude through an ice crystal cloud. The geometry used for this study is the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE) which was recently tested in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) in January 2018. The simulations were carried out at predicted operating points with a potential risk of ice accretion. The extent of the simulation is from upstream of the engine inlet to downstream past the strut in the core and bypass. The flow solution is produced using GlennHT, a NASA in-house code. A mixing plane approximation is used upstream and downstream of the fan. The use of the mixing plane allows for steady state solutions in the relative frame. The flow solution is then passed on to LEWICE3D for particle trajectory, impact and breakup prediction. The LEWICE3D code also uses a mixing plane approximation at the boundaries upstream and downstream of the fan.
Technical Paper

Uncertainty of the Ice Particles Median Mass Diameters Retrieved from the HAIC-HIWC Dataset: A Study of the Influence of the Mass Retrieval Method

2019-06-10
2019-01-1983
In response to the ice crystal icing hazard identified twenty years ago, aviation industry, regulation authorities, and research centers joined forces into the HAIC-HIWC international collaboration launched in 2012. Two flight campaigns were conducted in the high ice water content areas of tropical mesoscale convective systems in order to characterize this environment conducive to ice crystal icing. Statistics on cloud microphysical properties, such as Ice Water Content (IWC) or Mass Median Diameter (MMD), derived from the dataset of in situ measurements are now being used to support icing certification rulemaking and anti-icing systems design (engine and air data probe) activities. This technical paper focuses on methodological aspects of the derivation of MMD. MMD are estimated from PSD and IWC using a multistep process in which the mass retrieval method is a critical step.
X