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Training / Education

Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration Systems

2020-09-18
As diesel emissions regulations have become more and more stringent, diesel particulate filters (DPF) have become possibly the most important and complex diesel aftertreatment device. This seminar covers many DPF-related topics using fundamentals from various branches of applied sciences such as porous media, filtration and materials sciences and will provide the student with both a theoretical as well as an applications-oriented approach to enhance the design and reliability of aftertreatment platforms.
Training / Education

Fundamental Concepts of Turbocharging Modern Engines Current Practices and Trends

2020-06-16
Turbocharging is rapidly becoming an integral part of many internal combustion engine systems. While it has long been a key to diesel engine performance, it is increasingly seen as an enabler in meeting many of the efficiency and performance requirements of modern automotive gasoline engines. This web seminar will discuss the basic concepts of turbocharging and air flow management of four-stroke engines. The course will explore the fundamentals of turbocharging, system design features, performance measures, and matching and selection criteria.
Training / Education

Emissions-Related OBD Systems A Design Overview

2020-03-27
On-board diagnostics, required by governmental regulations, provide a means for reducing harmful pollutants into the environment. Since being mandated in 1996, the regulations have continued to evolve and require engineers to design systems that meet strict guidelines. This one day seminar is designed to provide an overview of the fundamental design objectives and the features needed to achieve those objectives for generic on-board diagnostics. The basic structure of an on-board diagnostic will be described along with the system definitions needed for successful implementation.
Technical Paper

Development of high power density diesel engine for constant speed application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2566
Engine up gradation for higher power rating involves challenges that require hardware changes which not only increase cost but also demand higher space. This paper focuses on the up gradation of a 4 cylinder 4.9l CRDi engine from 24.03 kW/L to 30.75 kW/L by adjustment of various parameters to meet both emission and performance targets. Various challenges like higher exhaust temperature, increased peak firing pressure etc. were met using the proper calibration strategy. To meet SFC targets and keep peak firing pressures, exhaust temperatures within desired limits, different operating points for EGR, main injection timing, rail pressure have been optimized. The operating points for optimization were determined by conducting various drive trials on different type of load conditions in test bench. Calibration strategy involved the safe limits of NOx, soot, CO emissions, fuel consumption.pfp, and exhaust temperature.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigations on CO2 recovery from petrol engine exhaust using adsorption technology

2019-11-21
2019-28-2577
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon-di-oxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is a difficult and energy consuming process when compared to the catalytic action of catalytic converters on CO, HC and NOX. The best way to reduce it is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industry applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. When compared to other methods of CO2 separation, adsorption technique consumes less energy and the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Review of architecture and control strategies of Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Technology for Automotive Application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2509
Well-functioning and efficient transport sector is a requirement for economic and social development in the 21st century. Another side of this transport sector is responsible for a many negative social and environmental effects, like a significant contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and reduction in fossil fuels resources. It is need of time to shift to a greener and low carbon economy and for that it is necessary to improve the ways in which energy is produced and used. Other energy sources like battery, fuel cells (FC), supercapacitors (SC) and photovoltaic cells (PV) are the alternative solutions to the conventional internal combustion engines (ICE) for automobiles. Development of Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) along with other cleaner vehicle technologies like Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCV), battery electric vehicles are continuously increasing in the list of green energy options.
Technical Paper

Changes in user experiences of electric vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2489
Research Objective The objective of the paper is to research what are the changes in experiences being brought about due to the advent of Electric Vehicles (EVs). EVs are silent, have less complex propulsion system, and have free space under the hood, amongst other things. Each change brings about both good and bad experiences across the spectrum of users. Some of the bad experiences can be safety incidents leading to death as well. Researching the areas that are harmful to end users, including pedestrians, will be our focus area. Methodology Our methodology will look at the changes at the vehicle architecture level which are inherent to the EV design. Research how are the experiences so far due to these changes. Are these just inconveniences or safety hazards? EVs have excellent NVH characteristics. A farmer may love a silent tractor, but a racing enthusiast may not like a relatively silent sports car.
Technical Paper

Design analysis of a retrofit system for an electric two wheeler

2019-11-21
2019-28-2482
Two wheelers are the major mode of single transport in the metros of India. They contribute about 70 % of the auto market unit wise. Also it is proved from the research that for per unit energy consumption they contribute more to the environment emission. Conventional IC engine based energy supply unit can be replaced with an electric DC motor with chargeable battery as the energy source for the two wheelers present in the market. In the current research, engine is replaced with the motor, batteries and controller. The above system is placed on the space emptied by the conventional engine, The design developed is tested on different gradients for identifying the motor torque for minimum and maximum resistances available on the road. The paper provides an insight on the of the torque requirements based on variable resistances required for two wheelers. Also the system will be used as a retrofit for the existing IC engine bikes to be converted in electric bikes.
Technical Paper

Powertrain topologies for 2 wheelers : From ICE to Electrification

2019-11-21
2019-28-2480
As Battery cost is expected to see a Downward trend, Electrification of Powertrain in general is expected to pick up and 2wheeler Market is foreseen to be the Flag bearer in this race towards Electrification. In this paper, we would like to emphasize on the Journey of 2wheelers from Conventional Internal combustion Engine to Electrified Powertrains which we foresee in the future. Methodology: EV - Analysis of OEM strategies and upcoming trends in connectivity and electrification. Estimation of current market size of 2Wheeler and segmentation based on different personas. Building survey data based personas around ownership patterns for electric 2Wheelers. Mapping consumer decision process for electric 2Wheelers. Analyse the decision influencers and role of influencers in decision making process. Hybrid - Analysis of different hybrid topologies. Feasibility study via simulation and focus group assessments to evaluate the design. PoC will also be tried to validate the concept.
Technical Paper

Noise and vibration simulations method for electric hybrid tractor powertrain.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2469
Internal combustion (IC) engines have been serving as prime source of power in tractors, since late 19th Century. Over this period, there have been significant improvements in IC engine technology leading to increased power density, reduction in tailpipe emissions and refinement in powertrain noise of tractors. As the regulations governing tailpipe emissions continue to be more stringent, original equipment manufacturers also have initiated work on innovative approaches such as diesel-electric hybrid powertrains to ensure compliance with new norms. However, introduction of such technologies may impact customer’s auditory, vibratory and drivability perceptions. Absence of conventional IC engine noise, association of electric whistle and whine, torque changes with activation/de-activation of motors and transmission behavior under transient conditions may result in new NVH issues in hybrid electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

Approach for CO2 Reduction in India’s Automotive Sector

2019-11-21
2019-28-2388
India has gone through a lot of transformation over the last decade. Today it is the 6th largest and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rising income level, increased consumerism, rapid growth in urbanization and digitization have attributed to this change. Government focus on “Make in India” for promoting trade and investment in India have ensured that India emerge as one of the largest growing economies in the world. The automotive industry played a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector to boost economic activities in India. The passenger car market has increased 3 times over the last decade and it has led to increased mobility options for many people across India. However, this has put concerns on the country’s energy security and emission levels. According to IEA’s recent report on global CO2 emission, 32.31 Gt of CO2 emissions were from fuel combustion in 2016, out of which transport sector contributed ~25%.
Technical Paper

Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

2019-11-21
2019-28-2382
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly.
Technical Paper

A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas – Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

2019-11-21
2019-28-2390
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds.
Technical Paper

Effect of Tyre inflation Pressure on Rolling Resistance of Tyre

2019-11-21
2019-28-2415
Rolling resistance, is nothing but the rolling drag, is the force resisting the motion when a body rolls on a surface. It is mainly caused by non-elastic effects; that is,not all the energy needed for deformation of the wheel, roadbed, etc. It is recovered when the pressure is removed, in the form of hysteresis losses and permanent deformation of the tyre surface. So, the rolling resistance contributes to the deformation of roadbed as well as tyre surface of the vehicle. Factors contributing in rolling resistance are tyre inflation pressure, wheel diameter, speed, load on wheel,, surface adhesion, sliding, and relative micro-sliding between the surfaces of contact. In this concerned paper we are significantly working on effect of tyre inflation pressure on rolling resistance and taking all other factors constraint.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Transmissibility of an all-terrain vehicle with spring and damper tuning.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2423
The application in ride and handling development has been mostly subjective or intuitive. Suspension settings are based on the opinions of experts. The product of this research will enable to quantify the performance of a suspension in terms of its ability to minimize the transmission of road irregularities to the chassis and achieve good mechanical grip with the road surface. This work presents a dynamical analysis of the transmissibility of an off-road vehicle suspension, developed in VIT Vellore for Baja SAE India competition. A baseline spring rates curve for ride is developed to provide a solid foundation to tune from. The shock absorbers used for testing are Fox Float Evol R air shock absorbers with progressive damping. A thorough data acquisition of the force curves for shocks from a test rig is done. A detailed characteristic of the air shocks is obtained at various loading conditions. The basic damping curve is modified towards the desired ideal nature with the data obtained.
Technical Paper

Analysis of pressure variation in wheel with the aid of wheel speed sensor

2019-11-21
2019-28-2450
Objective: The Objective of the research is to detect drop in level of pressure in the wheel with respect to nominal pressure using data obtained from speed sensors. The research discusses the standard procedure of experimentation to obtain data which eventually used to produce results. This procedure is taken from principles Design of Experiments. Statistical tools are used to analyze and give determining factors for pressure variation. Methodology: To study idea, we made use of two-wheeler platform and collected data of wheel speed sensors on both wheels. The idea is when there is any change in tire pressure the radius of the wheel also changes and usually this relation is direct. Hence, change in tire pressure changes the angular velocity of the wheel. In this approach wheel speed sensors are used to measure the angular speed for standard and reduced pressure conditions.
Technical Paper

Occupant Controlled Ventilation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2461
Keywords-Coolant,Ventilation Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: Number of Occupants is the major parameter when we consider Air Conditioning System. The number of person who stays in the room may vary in the same way the person who travels in the automobile also vary throughout the distance. This is more prevalent in transportation system like bus, train and where lot of people will travel together and where dropping station in the vehicle is too frequent.In this type,operating A.C has to be varied Methodology: . Instead the number count in the vehicle will be monitored from time to time. Based on the number of count, the cabin has to be cooled or heated and accordingly corresponding power has to be drawn by the compressor from the engine. This human count can be detected based on the number of CO2 sensor located in the cabin. the amount of fresh air that should be added to a cabin can be controlled by a carbon dioxide level transmitter.
Technical Paper

Paper Title : Connectivity in 2wheeler: Opportunities & Challenges

2019-11-21
2019-28-2437
Abstract: Future of Mobility is mainly driven by 3 main pillar viz Connected , Electrified and Automated Driving. With advancement in Communication Technology supplemented by huge customer Base , Connectivity has proven to deliver better Services to the End-user. The next step in this journey would be to connect the so called “Things” and the Things that we want to connect is the 2 wheeler in the Mobility domain This paradigm shift in the Mobility Landscape is expected to bring plethora of opportunities on one side as well as new challenges that were never witnessed in the realm of Mobility in the Past. This paper focuses on Opportunities in terms of Location Based services, Vehicle Management, Data Analytics, Infotainment , and possible Business scenarios and Models as well as challenges in Terms of Security and Data Ownership Methodology: Analysis of OEM and Supplier strategies/approaches and upcoming trends in connectivity and electrification.
Technical Paper

Steering and Handling Performance Optimization Through Correlation of Objective - Subjective Parameters and Multi-body Dynamics Simulation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2412
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: Automobile Industry has driven through the ages with continuous development with innovative technologies and frugal engineering. Expectation of customer is also increasing through the generations. To meet the customer demand for performance and be best in market, OEM needs to deliver best performance of vehicle with cost effective and short development process. Steering and Handling of vehicle is one of major customer touchpoints and needs to be tuned to achieve various conflicting requirements. The objective of this research is to optimize the steering and handling using correlation between three major methods of evaluation. METHODOLOGY: Methodology for optimization of steering and handling performance using correlation between subjective evaluation, objective measurement and multi-body-dynamic simulation is presented.
Technical Paper

Performance & efficiency Improvement of Electric Vehicle Power train

2019-11-21
2019-28-2483
Introduction: The advent of electric mobility is changing the conventional mobility techniques and their application in automobiles across all segments. This development comes with challenges ranging across varied sub -systems in a vehicle including Power Train, HVAC, Accessories, etc. Objective: This paper would concentrate on the Power train related sub systems & improvement of the same both in terms of Efficiency & Performance. Methodology: The electric power train consists of three major sub parts: 1. Motor Unit 2. Controller with Power electronics 3. Battery Pack with BMS We would concentrate on improving the overall efficiency and performance of all these subsystems while they perform in vehicle environment and work in tandem by deploying following techniques: a. Improved Regenerative Braking for converting vehicles Kinetic energy into electrical energy using specific algorithms and control techniques b.
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