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Training / Education

Design Considerations for Secure Embedded Systems

2019-10-14
Embedded hardware is everywhere you look today from your vehicle’s infotainment system to refrigerator to medical devices and everything else in-between. With so much exposure one would think that such devices are secure against attack; however, sadly for many devices this is not the case. For proof, just look no further than your local news reports. They are full of reports on devices being hacked. So, as engineers, how do we go about first identifying and mitigating (or capitalizing) the potential security vulnerabilities within these devices?
Technical Paper

Step & Repeat: Reduce Derivative Aircraft Development Risk with Design Reuse

2019-09-16
2019-01-1871
Designing derivative aircraft is a complex process with potentially large amounts of program risk. In this paper we present new technologies such as digital interface control documents, and generative design that can transform this process. Employing these types of technologies makes the process more verifiable and repeatable. The paper explains how the technologies can be adopted from the early definition of components & LRUs, to their aggregation into reusable subsystems, as well as the automation and validation processes that can be built around them to reduce the associated complexity and program risk.
Technical Paper

Reconfigurable Jig Tooling and In-Process Metrology for High Accuracy Prototype Compound Helicopter Wing Assembly

2019-09-16
2019-01-1877
This paper documents the potential use of reconfigurable reusable jig tooling based on the box-joint system for use in the assembly of a prototype compound helicopter wing. Due to the aircraft configuration the wing design is pinned at both ends and therefore requires a higher degree of accuracy (typically 0.2mm), over the 4m length, than conventional wings. In this paper the cost benefit of reusable tooling in a low volume prototype scenario is examined followed by the design of the jig and location features to enable accurate build and metrology documentation. A prototype 4m test jig comprising of commercially available components and bespoke machined ‘pick-ups’ is presented here. Hardware and measurement process cost modelling is documented along with results for the positional and hinge-line concentricity setting accuracy that was achieved using a laser tracking system.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Hydraulic system tests in Aircraft Manufacturing by applying Lean techniques

2019-09-16
2019-01-1901
Lean Manufacturing is generally a challenge across all manufacturing companies. Especially in the aerospace industry where production costs have a significant impact on the overall business success. Additionally, the aircraft Takt time is gradually being reduced to accomplish ramp up requirements. The hydraulic system tests are considered as a production waste (Muda Type I) since it is mandatory but does not add any value to the end customer. Furthermore, due to health and safety aspects, no other production task can be done while the test is being performed. This research project aimed at performing a Kaizen analysis of the hydraulic system test stations to reduce or eliminate idle time while it is taking place. To do so, an extensive literature review has be conducted to provide its research framework. Then, all the project requirements and constraints were identified in order to generate a design specification.
Technical Paper

Investigation into the benefits of implementing a fully integrated MRO Software system in Airlines Maintenance and Engineering

2019-09-16
2019-01-1908
Case studies of various MRO organizations were researched in order to gain a better understanding of the business procedures used in each department of an aircraft maintenance company. The software systems available to aid business processes were researched to understand the computer processes, functions and operational requirements of these software programs. The planning and scheduling of inventory and manpower resources is complex and requires various parameters to be computed by the software systems in order to adequately plan the necessary aircraft maintenance resources. Case studies of aircraft maintenance companies that previously implemented integrated IT software solutions to control and monitor department functions were researched to identify and understand the various problems encountered by these companies during the software implementation phase.
Training / Education

AS9100D Internal Auditor Training

2019-09-11
Internal audits (a requirement of the AS9100 Rev D Standard) are intended to verify the compliance and effectiveness of the organization's quality management system. Internal auditors must be knowledgeable of these requirements and the expectations as identified in the standard. In addition, the audit requirements outlined in the AS9101 Standard have significantly changed the way auditors are expected to conduct audits in the aviation, space and defense industries.
Training / Education

Effective Writing for Engineering and Technical Professionals

2019-09-09
The ability to write concise and unambiguous reports, proposals, manuals, or other technical documents is a key skill for any high-functioning engineer or technical staff person in the mobility industries. Through a combination of class discussions, interactive workshop activities, assignments, checker teams (review teams) and job aids, this course delivers real-life technical writing techniques and tools that can be immediately applied. Attendees discover the importance of knowing their audiences and how to communicate technical information in a "user-friendly" style.
Technical Paper

High-speed imaging of a vaporizing GDI spray: a comparison between Schlieren, Shadowgraph, DBI and Scattering

2019-08-15
2019-24-0037
The evolution of the liquid and vapor phases of an iso-octane GDI spray was investigated in a constant volume vessel, under inert environment, using high-speed imaging techniques. The tests were performed in nitrogen, at temperatures and density varying between the operating conditions representative of late injection, flash boiling conditions and early injection in a GDI engine. Large scale parameters of the spray (penetration length, spray angle, projected area) were obtained by processing schlieren, shadowgraph, DBI and scattering images. The segmentation of spray images, for both the liquid and vapor phase, was carried out through a novel image processing method. The method bases upon an "optimal" filtering of spray images by means of variational methods, an original thresholding procedure based on the iterative application of the Otsu's method, and the highlighting of the schlieren/shadowgraph textures of the vapor phase through the main curvatures of the image surface.
Technical Paper

Imaging and vibro-acoustic diagnostic techniques comparison for a GDI fuel injector

2019-08-15
2019-24-0058
This work presents the results of an experimental investigation on a GDI injector, in order to analyze fuel injection process and atomization phenomenon, correlating imaging and vibro-acoustic diagnostic techniques. A single-hole, axially-disposed, 0.200 mm diameter GDI injector was used to spray commercial gasoline in a test chamber at room temperature and atmospheric backpressure. The explored injection pressures were ranged from 5.0 to 20.0 MPa. Cycle-resolved acquisitions of the spray evolution were acquired by a high-speed camera. Contemporarily, the vibro-acoustic response of the injector was evaluated. More in detail, noise data acquired by a microphone sensor were analyzed for characterizing the acoustic emission of the injection, while a spherical loudspeaker was used to excite the spray injection at a proper distance detecting possible fuel spray resonance phenomena.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulations and Tracer-LIF Diagnostics of wall film dynamics in an optically accessible GDI research engine

2019-08-15
2019-24-0131
Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and tracer-based Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements have been performed to study the dynamics of fuel wall-films on the piston top of an optically accessible, four-valve pent-roof GDI research engine for a total of eight operating conditions. Starting from a reference point, the systematic variations include changes in engine speed (600; 1,200 and 2,000 RPM) and load (WOT and 500 mbar intake pressure); concerning the fuel path the Start Of Injection (SOI=360°, 390° and 420° CA after gas exchange TDC) as well as the injection pressure (10, 20 and 35 MPa) have been varied. For each condition, 40 experimental images were acquired phase-locked at 10° CA intervals after SOI, providing valuable insights with respect to the wall film dynamics in terms of spatial extent, thickness and temperature.
Technical Paper

Experimental characterization of methane direct injection from an outward-opening poppet-valve injector

2019-08-15
2019-24-0135
The in-cylinder direct injection of natural gas represents a further step towards cleaner and more efficient internal combustion engines (ICE). However, the injector design and its characterization, either experimentally or from numerical simulation, is challenging because of the complex fluid dynamics related to gas compressibility. In this work, the underexpanded flow of methane from an outward-opening poppet-valve injector has been experimentally characterized by Schlieren and Shadowgraph high-speed imaging. The jet evolution was also followed through Mie-scattering imaging using n-heptane droplets as a tracer. The investigation has been performed at ambient temperature and pressure and different nozzle pressure ratios (NPR) ranging from 10 to 17. The gaseous jet has been characterized in terms of its macroscale parameters.
Technical Paper

An embedded simulation approach for tolerance analysis on vehicle propulsion subsystem

2019-08-15
2019-24-0079
An increasing demand for reducing cost and time effort of the design process via improved CAE (Computer-Aided Engineer) tools and methods has characterized the automotive industry over the past two decades. One of the main challenge regarded the effective simulation of a vehicle’s propulsion system dealing with different physical domains: several examples have been proposed in literature mainly based on co-simulation approach which involves a specific tool for each propulsion system part modeling. Nevertheless, these solutions are not fully suitable and effective to perform statistical analysis including all physical parameters. In this respect, this paper presents the definition and implementation of a new simulation methodology applied to a propulsion subsystem.
Training / Education

Vehicle Crash Reconstruction Principles and Technology

2019-08-05
Crash reconstruction is a scientific process that utilizes principles of physics and empirical data to analyze the physical, electronic, video, audio, and testimonial evidence from a crash to determine how and why the crash occurred. This course will introduce this reconstruction process as it gets applied to various crash types - in-line and intersection collisions, pedestrian collisions, motorcycle crashes, rollover crashes, and heavy truck crashes. Methods of evidence documentation will be covered. Analysis methods will also be presented for electronic data from event data recorders and for video.
Standard

Fastener Hardware for Wheels for Demountable Rims

2019-06-17
CURRENT
J1835_201906
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the mounting hardware to be used with demountable rims, wheels for demountable rims, rim spacers designed for 28 degrees bevel mounting systems, and intended for use on commercial vehicles. The dimensions given are those necessary to maintain serviceability and interchangeability of mounting hardware. This document is divided into two sections. Section 1 establishes the practice for new designs for mounting hardware. Section 2 records information on current mounting hardware. Special and less common applications are not covered in this document.
Standard

Oil, Reference, for "L" Stock Rubber Testing

2019-06-13
WIP
AMS3020B
This specification covers a petroleum-base reference oil. This fluid has been typically used as a reference oil to estimate the ability of elastomeric compounds to conform to specified requirements after immersion at a specified temperature for a specified time and temperature as required by the material.
Standard

Message Sets for Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS)

2019-06-11
CURRENT
J2354_201906
This SAE Standard describes standardized medium-independent messages needed by information service providers for Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS). The messages contained herein address all stages of travel (pre-trip and en-route), all types of travelers (drivers, passengers), all categories of information, and all platforms for delivery of information (in-vehicle, portable devices, kiosks, etc.).
Standard

Data Dictionary for Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS)

2019-06-11
CURRENT
J2353_201906
This SAE Recommended Practice provides a set of core data elements needed by information service providers for Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS). The data dictionary herein provides the foundation for ATIS message sets for all stages of travel (pre-trip and en route), all types of travelers (drivers, passengers), all categories of information, and all platforms for delivery of information (in-vehicle, portable devices, kiosks, etc.). The elements of this document are the basis for the SAE ATIS Message Set Standard J2354 and are entered into the SAE Data Registry for ITS wide coordination.
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