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Training / Education

Effective Writing for Engineering and Technical Professionals

2019-09-09
The ability to write concise and unambiguous reports, proposals, manuals, or other technical documents is a key skill for any high-functioning engineer or technical staff person in the mobility industries. Through a combination of class discussions, interactive workshop activities, assignments, checker teams (review teams) and job aids, this course delivers real-life technical writing techniques and tools that can be immediately applied. Attendees discover the importance of knowing their audiences and how to communicate technical information in a "user-friendly" style.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Golf Car Powertrain NVH Sources and Mitigation Methods

2019-06-05
2019-01-1478
Throughout North America the golf market has remained nominally flat in recent history and has grown worldwide. With this growth a trend has been seen where the number of young adults as well as adults over the age of 65 years involved with the game has increased. The demographics in golf showing the most growth also have high standards for the operation of the golf car and have transcended their expectations to align with some of the qualities expected of automobiles. These shifts in consumer expectations along with market competition drive OEMs to deliver refined golf cars making noise and vibration a key aspect in development. This paper showcases a recent study to improve the powertrain N&V performance of an I.C. engine golf car. Primarily, a test-based approach was followed. Chassis rolls and on road testing were performed for vehicle benchmarking and target setting. System and component tests were completed to identify root cause and provide input to mitigation methods applied.
Technical Paper

Determining dynamic vibro-acoustic characteristics and structural damping of an elastic monolithic panel

2019-06-05
2019-01-1538
Antonio Figueroa Shiloh Industries 47632 Halyard Drive Plymouth, MI 48170 Lingguang Chen and Sean F. Wu Department of Mechanical Engineering Wayne State University Detroit, MI 48202 Abstract Evaluations of the dynamic and acoustic responses of panels, partitions, and walls are of concern across many industries, from building home appliances, planning meeting rooms, to designing airplanes and passenger cars. Over the past few decades, search efforts for developing new methodologies and technologies to enable NVH engineers to acquire and correlate dynamically the relationship between input excitations and vibro-acoustic responses of arbitrary-shaped panels has grown exponentially. The application of a particular methodology or technology to the evaluation of a specific structure depends intimately on the goals and objectives of the NVH engineers and industries.
Technical Paper

The History of Laminated Steel

2019-06-05
2019-01-1578
This paper will discuss the background and history of "laminated steel" (commonly called "noiseless steel" or "MPM". It will provide the early development, where it came from and how it was introduced to North America as a new tool for engineering acoustical solutions. A progressive timeline will show laminated steel from its earliest inception and application in Europe to its current role in today's global market. Case histories along with examples of successful applications will detail its important contribution in advancing the technology for component damping. Many manufacturing sources as well as end-users have been impacted over the the decades since it was introduced. Many of these companies will be highlighted.The background information for this paper is provided by many of the individuates who were involved in the very early stages of its introduction as well as those who are currently working to utilize the technology of "laminated steel".
Technical Paper

Developing a Custom Data Acquisition Software Package for a Self-contained Acoustic Testing Facility

2019-06-05
2019-01-1501
This paper provides an overview of custom software developed for the sound generation, control and data acquisition of a self-contained acoustic testing facility system used for conducting random incidence sound absorption tests and sound transmission loss tests on small samples in accordance with SAE J2883 and J1400 standards, respectively. The paper discusses the thoughts behind developing user friendly algorithms and graphical user interfaces (GUI) for sound generation, control, data acquisition, and signal processing to obtain good data and precautions should there be any anomalies in the data.
Technical Paper

Determination of Climatic Boundary Conditions for Vehicular Real Driving Emission Tests

2019-04-02
2019-01-0758
Vehicular Emission testing is gaining importance over the past years in the wake of requirements for real driving emissions with implementation of RDE packages across Europe / USA and various developing countries. Extending the same concept for other countries poses slight challenges in terms of geographical and climatical conditions prevailing in the country, where the climatical conditions are differing from Europe / USA. It is a challenge to accept the same boundary conditions as in Europe, at the same time the challenge is to find a threshold number in a more scientific manner. This study concentrates on determination and recommendation of thresholds for ambient temperature and altitude. The basis for temperature threshold would be to determine the percentage of time the temperature exceeded beyond the threshold over year in the country. The basis for Altitude is considered based on the percentage of total length of roads beyond the threshold altitude limit.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Urban Collision Risk Scenarios in China Based upon FOT on AEBs

2019-04-02
2019-01-0131
Compared with the scenarios on expressway or in closed area (such as a park or a port), urban driving scenarios is more complex and diverse, and challenges automated driving (AD) function more. Meanwhile the lack of urban scenario analysis, especially urban collision risk scenario analysis, leads to slow development of vehicles with AD functions in city, in order to boost evolution of automated vehicles (AVs) in city, field operational test (FOT) need to be carried out in cities. In this paper, urban collision risk scenarios (UCRS) in China, based upon a small scale of FOT on Autonomous Emergency Braking System (AEBs), were analyzed. Despite of road types, weather conditions and light conditions, the UCRS collected in Tianjin, Chongqing and Hefei, China were classified into six categories.
Technical Paper

Validation of Control-Oriented Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Models for Non-Standard Ambient Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0196
Complying to both the increasingly stringent pollutant emissions as well as (future) GHG emission legislation - with increased focus on in-use real-world emissions - puts a great challenge to the engine/aftertreatment control development process. Control system complexity, calibration and validation effort has increased dramatically over the past decade. A trend that is likely to continue considering the next steps in emission and GHG emission legislation. Control-oriented engine models are valuable tools for efficient development of engine monitoring and control systems. Furthermore, these (predictive) engine models are more and more used as part of control algorithms to ensure legislation compliant and optimized performance over the system lifetime. For these engine models, it is essential that simulation and prediction of system variables during non-nominal engine operation, such as non-standard ambient conditions, is well captured.
Technical Paper

DC/DC Modeling and Current Harmonic Analysis in Fuel Cell Hybrid Power System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0375
Fuel cells directly convert the energy stored in hydrogen into electrical energy through an electrochemical reaction, and the only reaction product is water, which can improve the energy efficiency and reduce the pollution caused by fossil fuels. The fuel cell hybrid power system used in vehicles usually consists of a fuel cell stack and a power battery module, and the DC/DC converter is the key component to connect them together. The current ripples caused by the system have been confirmed to have detrimental effects on the fuel cell’s reliability and lifespan. In addition, it is one of the key factors that reduce the system efficiency. So, it is necessary to analyze the current ripple in the system and maintain it at a low level. In this paper, a brief review on the different kinds of converters used in vehicles has been made. Then, with the help of MATLAB/SIMULINK, a simulation model of the hybrid power system based on 4-phase interleaved parallel topology is established.
Technical Paper

Surface Mapping in 3D Coordinate Metrology for Automotive Industry

2019-04-02
2019-01-1270
Surface mapping for freeform using CNC-CMM plays an important role in advanced coordinate industries. CNC-CMM machine can assess the parts specification, which has a significant impact on design, manufacturing, inspection and quality control processes. This article, presented four important issues to give a comprehensive view of the progress in this area. Eventually, the aim of this work is to give an overview of 3D plot mapping using freeform artifact utilizing computer aided inspection technique in the area of industrial dimensional metrology. This work happens as a new guide to cover and develop the lack of standard artifact for evaluation geometrical surface features in 3D coordinate metrology to optimize the precision, accuracy and verification time especially for automotive industry.
Technical Paper

An Interactive Vehicle Recommender System Based on Decision Trees and Multi-Armed Bandits

2019-04-02
2019-01-1079
Recommender systems guide a user to useful objects in a large space of possible options in a personalized way. In this paper, we study how to make recommendations for vehicle purchases. This can effectively reduce the human labor in the traditional setting, where customers get recommended vehicles through conversations with the salesmen in dealerships. Comparing a vehicle recommender system to one in other application domains (movies, music, etc.), we identify two major challenges. First, customers usually only purchase a limited number of vehicles, compared to the number of movies or songs. Thus, it is difficult to obtain rich information about a user's purchase history. Second, the content information obtained about the users (demographic, vehicle preference, etc.) is also very limited during their short stay in the dealership.
Technical Paper

Hazard Cuing Systems for Teen Drivers: A Test-Track Evaluation on Mcity

2019-04-02
2019-01-0399
There is a strong evidence that the overrepresentation of teen drivers in motor vehicle crashes is mainly due to their poor hazard perception skills, i.e., they are unskilled at appropriately detecting and responding to roadway hazards. This study evaluates two cuing systems designed to help teens better understand their driving environment. Both systems use directional color-coding to represent different levels of proximity between one’s vehicle and outside agents. The first system provides an overview of the location of adjacent objects in a head-up display in front of the driver and relies on drivers’ focal vision (focal cuing system). The second system presents similar information, but in the drivers’ peripheral vision, by using ambient lights (peripheral cuing system). Both systems were retrofitted into a test vehicle (2014 Toyota Camry). A within-subject experiment was conducted at the University of Michigan Mcity test-track facility.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Performance of Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) Systems Equipped on Passenger Vehicles for Model Years 2013 to 2018

2019-04-02
2019-01-0416
Over the past decade, manufacturers have introduced vehicles equipped with Automatic Emergency Braking (AEB) into the North American market. These vehicles have the capability to not only detect an impending collision and warn the driver, but also to initiate braking independent of the driver. The collision avoidance strategies used by the various manufacturers have not been studied extensively. In 2013, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) began testing vehicles equipped with AEB in rear-end collision situations in order to issue their front crash prevention safety ratings for these vehicles. To date, over 180 vehicles from 31 manufactures spanning model years 2013 to 2018 have been tested. This paper presents an analysis of the data collected in these tests. The objective of the study was to assess the differences in performance and strategies used, at two different closing speeds, between manufacturers.
Technical Paper

Advances in Tank Heaters Based on PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) Plastic Nanomaterials

2019-04-02
2019-01-0152
The global trend on emission reduction is leading to a wider diffusion of SCR systems for diesel engines and to the introduction of WI (water injection) systems in gasoline engines. Cars are equipped with tanks for water and urea solutions (AD-blue). Both liquids can freeze in the car operative temperature range: the tanks must be equipped with heaters to guarantee a sufficient amount of additives in liquid form in any condition. We propose solutions based on plastic PTC (in the following nanoPTC) effect nanomaterials for thermal management of those liquids. The proposed heaters can be molded in any shape, following the specific constraints of each tank, in carpet like shapes for a distributed heating of the tank, or in bulky components integrating sensors housings, pipes, pumping systems or in the packaging of other components. The PTC effect is distributed avoiding overheating in parts with poor thermal exchange (dry condition).
Technical Paper

A Study on Comprehensive Evaluation of Intelligent Connected Vehicle Cybersecurity

2019-04-02
2019-01-0477
In view of the automotive cybersecurity incidents occur frequently with no evaluation standard, a comprehensive evaluation method is proposed, which firstly reviews the process of obtaining automotive cybersecurity goals and function requirements through threat analysis and risk assessment. Then the international research projects on automotive cybersecurity and the key issues are summarized. It is proposed to score (0-100) from the three dimensions of cybersecurity level, intelligent level and incident response capacity of enterprise, and then comprehensively evaluate the cybersecurity performance level of automobile. Cybersecurity level includes concept design of cybersecurity, verification of protection scheme and penetration test. We conducted penetration testing from seven aspects, including network architecture, ECU, T-box, Radio, IVI, cloud Platform, APP.
Technical Paper

Analyzing and Preventing Data Privacy Leakage in Connected Vehicle Services

2019-04-02
2019-01-0478
The rapid development of connected and automated vehicle technologies together with cloud-based mobility services are revolutionizing the transportation industry. As a result, huge amounts of data are being generated, collected, and utilized, hence providing tremendous business opportunities. However, this big data poses serious challenges mainly in terms of data privacy. The risks of privacy leakage are amplified by the information sharing nature of emerging mobility services and the recent advances in data analytics. In this paper, we provide an overview of the connected vehicle landscape and point out potential privacy threats. We demonstrate two of the risks, namely additional individual information inference and user de-anonymization, through concrete attack designs. We also propose corresponding countermeasures to defend against such privacy attacks. We evaluate the feasibility of such attacks and our defense strategies using real world vehicular data.
Technical Paper

Two Phase Heavy Truck Acceleration Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-0411
There have been several papers published over the past 25 years regarding the acceleration of heavy trucks, including different loading conditions, drivetrain configurations, and driving techniques. The papers provide a large data set that measures the speed, distance, and time of the vehicles during acceleration testing and present the data in tabular or graphical formats. Although the data as presented can be useful, it can be challenging to pore over all the data to determine the correct set for a specific application in accident reconstruction. As of this paper’s date of publication, there are approximately eight relevant papers with a total of 268 acceleration tests performed, spanning many years. This paper reviews all the available published literature and summarizes the relevant data in a comprehensive list of accelerations for different heavy truck configurations, which provides a valuable resource to the accident reconstruction field.
Technical Paper

The History of Human Factors in Seating Comfort at SAE’s World Congress: 1999 to 2018

2019-04-02
2019-01-0405
In many fields of technology, examinations of the past can provide insights into the future. This paper reviews the last 20 years of automotive seat comfort development and research as chronicled by SAE’s session titled “Human Factors in Seating Comfort”. Records suggest that “Human Factors in Seating Comfort” has existed as a separate session at SAE’s World Congress since 1999. In that time there have been 148 unique contributions (131 publications). The history is fascinating because it reflects interests of the time that are driven by technology trends, customer wants and needs, and new theories. The list of contributors, in terms of authors and their affiliations, is also telling. It shows shifts in business models and strategies around collaboration. The paper ends with a discussion of what can be learned from this historical review and the major issues to be addressed. One of the more significant contributions of this paper is the reference list.
Technical Paper

A Comparison between Different Moving Grid Techniques for the Analysis of the TCC Engine under Motored Conditions

2019-04-02
2019-01-0218
The accurate representation of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) flows via CFD is an extremely complex task: it strongly depends on a combination of highly impacting factors, such as grid resolution (both local and global), choice of the turbulence model, numeric schemes and mesh motion technique. A well-founded choice must be made in order to avoid excessive computational cost and numerical difficulties arising from the combination of fine computational grids, high-order numeric schemes and geometrical complexity typical of ICEs. The paper focuses on the comparison between different mesh motion technologies, namely layer addition and removal, morphing/remapping and overset grids. Different grid strategies for a chosen mesh motion technology are also discussed. The performance of each mesh technology and grid strategy is evaluated in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency (stability, scalability, robustness).
Technical Paper

Evolution of Gasoline Direct Injection System for Reduction of Real Mode Emission

2019-04-02
2019-01-0265
Continuous improvement of gasoline engine emissions performance is required to further protect the global environment and also the impact of emissions on a local level. During real world driving, transient engine operation and variation in fuel injection, airflow, and wall temperature are key factors to be controlled. Due to the limited opportunity for optimization of engine control, generation of a well-mixed fuel spray is necessary to create a suitable combustion environment to minimize emissions. Optimum spray performance achieves minimum surface wetting as well as promoting evaporation and diffusion if wetting occurs. Improvement in spray homogeneity is an important step to achieve this. Higher fuel pressure is initially considered to achieve improvements, as it is expected to improve mixture formation by reduction of wall wetting due to high atomization and lower penetration, as well as improvement in spray homogeneity.
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