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Training / Education

Aircraft Virtual Flight Testing and Certification in Off-nominal Multifactorial Situations

2019-10-16
The behavior of a 'pilot-automaton-aircraft-operating environment' system (the System) in off-nominal situations with multiple risks can be unpredictably dangerous. Most multifactorial flight scenarios (corner cases) are considered as theoretically improbable. Such anomalies do nonetheless occur in operations and can lead to inconceivable accidents - 'black swan' events.
Book

The Road to the Top is Not on the Map: Conversations with Top Women of the Automotive Industry

2019-10-01
Carla Bailo, CEO of the Center for Automotive Research, and Terry Barclay, CEO of Inforum, bring together over 30 of the most influential women in the automotive industry to share their insight and advice. From suppliers to OEMs, they hail from every corner of the industry. Readers will learn how to take charge of their own careers by understanding the experiences these professionals. Topics include: • Work-Life Integration - How can you be whole at home, at work, and in the community? • Education and Lifelong Learning - Do you really need a graduate degree? • Mentor and Sponsor Relationships - How do you find mentors and sponsors and form productive relationships with them? • Career Challenges - How do you evaluate when to take career risks? How do you say yes when all the boxes aren't checked? • Resilience - Where do you find the internal fortitude to keep going? • Personal Satisfaction - What do these leaders find most joyful about their careers?
Technical Paper

MANAGEMENT OF MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY PROCESSES RISCS BASED ON MODIFIED FMEA

2019-09-16
2019-01-1870
The quality of production is defined by the actual deviations from the requirements stated in design and technological documentation including drawings. In this article the problem of ensuring steady decrease in quantity of deviations from these requirements by production is considered. Carrying out preventive actions, in combination with control of time and costs of correction of discrepancies of such decrease it is possible to achieve. For the solution of an objective the method of the modified FMEA using parameters and levels of ranging as elements of operation of technological process where at a design stage of a product are set structure, is offered and are adjusted on the basis of feedback of production and operation. Such statement of a problem demands automation of collecting and data processing which can be used for creation of the knowledge base necessary for management of productions.
Technical Paper

Emissions Optimization Potential of a Diesel Engine Running on HVO: A Combined Experimental and Simulation Investigation

2019-08-15
2019-24-0039
The present work investigates some recalibration possibilities of a 1.4l common rail turbo-charged diesel engine for the optimal operation in terms of emissions and fuel consumption (FC) with pure Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO). Initially, steady-state experimental data with nominal engine settings revealed HVO benefits as a drop-in fuel. Under these conditions, pure HVO is associated with lower engine out PM (up to 75%) and CO2 (up to 10%) emissions, and lower mass-based FC (up to 9%), while NOx are similar or slightly higher to diesel fuel. At the next step, a combustion model was developed for the particular engine targeting to identify the optimal IT (Injection Timing) and EGR settings for further emissions (PM, NOx and CO2) and FC reduction with pure HVO. For this purpose, four re-adjusted IT and EGR maps were developed with both conventional diesel and HVO.
Technical Paper

A novel 1D co-simulation framework for the prediction of tailpipe emissions under different IC engine operating conditions.

2019-08-15
2019-24-0147
The prediction of the pollutants emitted by internal combustion engines during driving cycles has been a challenge since the introduction of the emission regulation legislation. During the last decade, along with the more tightening limits and increased public concern about the matter of air quality, the possibility of simulating various driving tests with cost effective computing facilities has become a key feature for modern simulation codes. Many 1D simulation tools are available on the market, offering real time models capable of achieving the simulation of any driving cycle in limited time frames. These approaches are based on the extreme simplification of the engine geometry and on the adoption of engine maps, which, for any engine operating condition, give the engine output in terms of power, or torque, and of exhaust gas composition.
Technical Paper

Friction reduction by optimization of local oil temperatures

2019-08-15
2019-24-0177
The reduction of engine-out emissions and increase of the total efficiency is a fundamental approach to reduce the fuel consumption and emissions of vehicles driven by combustion engines. Conventional passenger cars are operated mainly in lower partial loads most of their lifetime. Under these conditions, oil temperatures which are far below the maximum temperatures allowed, dominate inside the journal bearings. Therefore, the objective of this research project was to investigate possible potentials of friction reduction by optimization of the thermal management of the oil circuit of a combustion engine. Within the engine investigations, it was shown that especially the friction of the main and connecting rod bearings can be reduced with an increase of the oil supply temperature.
Technical Paper

Inner-Insulated Turbocharger Technology to Reduce Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Modern Engines

2019-08-15
2019-24-0184
With more focus on real world emissions from light-duty vehicles, the interactions between engine and after-treatment are critical. For modern engines, most emissions are generated during the warm-up phase following a cold start. For Diesel engines this is exaggerated due to colder exhaust temperatures and larger aftertreatment systems. The De-NOx aftertreatment can be particularly problematic. Engine manufacturers are required to take measures to address these temperature issues which often result in higher fuel consumption (retarding combustion, increasing engine load or reducing the Diesel Air-fuel-ratio). In this paper we consider an inner-insulated turbocharger as an alternative, passive technology which aims to reduce the exhaust heat losses between the engine and the aftertreatment. Firstly, the concept and design of the inner-insulated turbocharger is presented.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Control-Oriented Analytic Engine Simulator

2019-08-15
2019-24-0002
Due to the recent anti-pollution policies, the performance increase in Spark Ignition (SI) engines is currently under the focus of automotive manufacturers. This trend drives the control systems designers to investigate accurate solutions and build more sophisticated algorithms to increase the efficiency of this kind of engines. The development of a control strategy is composed by several phases and steps, and the first part of such process is typically spent to define and validate the logic of the strategy. During this phase a light engine simulator is particularly useful, since it allows producing robust combustion synthetic data with a low calibration and computational effort. In the first part of this paper the description of a control-oriented analytic engine simulator (ANESIM) is carried out.
Technical Paper

Development of a hybrid power unit for Formula SAE application: ICE CFD-1D optimization and vehicle lap simulation

2019-08-15
2019-24-0200
The paper reviews the CFD optimization of a motorcycle engine, modified for the installation in a hybrid powertrain of a Formula SAE car. In a parallel paper [Development of a hybrid power unit for Formula SAE application: packaging optimization and thermo-mechanical design of the electric motor case], the choice of the donor engine (Ducati 959 “Panigale”) is thoroughly discussed, along with all the hardware modifications oriented to minimize the new powertrain dimensions, weight and cost, and guarantee the mechanical reliability. In the current paper, the attention is focused on two main topics: 1) CFD-1D tuning of the modified Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), in order to comply with the Formula SAE regulations, as well as to maximize the power output; 2) Simulation of the vehicle in racing conditions, comparison between a conventional and a hybrid powertrain
Technical Paper

Validation of Using a Steady-State Friction Model for Determining CO2 Emissions in Transient Driving Cycles

2019-08-15
2019-24-0054
MAHLE is conducting extensive parameter studies regarding friction savings on the piston group of fired gasoline and diesel engines to further increase the efficiency of the internal combustion engine. For each tested piston variant, steady-state fired friction measurements are taken across the entire operating range of the engine using the indication method. Based on these measurements, an empirical model is created which describes the Friction Mean Effective Pressure (FMEP) depending on engine speed, engine load and coolant and oil temperature. The friction map is then used in a drive cycle simulation in order to determine fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. A drive cycle corresponds to transient conditions both as a result of the changes in operating point and the engine warm-up. The current legislative drive cycles aim to better reflect real-world driving conditions and thus contain frequent and steep transient events.
Technical Paper

An embedded simulation approach for tolerance analysis on vehicle propulsion subsystem

2019-08-15
2019-24-0079
An increasing demand for reducing cost and time effort of the design process via improved CAE (Computer-Aided Engineer) tools and methods has characterized the automotive industry over the past two decades. One of the main challenge regarded the effective simulation of a vehicle’s propulsion system dealing with different physical domains: several examples have been proposed in literature mainly based on co-simulation approach which involves a specific tool for each propulsion system part modeling. Nevertheless, these solutions are not fully suitable and effective to perform statistical analysis including all physical parameters. In this respect, this paper presents the definition and implementation of a new simulation methodology applied to a propulsion subsystem.
Standard

Training Program Guidelines for Deicing/Anti-Icing of Aircraft on Ground

2019-06-19
CURRENT
ARP5149C
This document establishes the minimum criteria for effective training of air carrier and contractor personnel to deice/anti-ice aircraft to ensure the safe operation of aircraft during ground icing conditions. Appendix D specifies guidelines for particular airplane models.
Standard

Training and Approval of Heat-Treating Personnel

2019-06-11
CURRENT
ARP1962B
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes training and approval of personnel performing certain heat-treating and associated operations that could have a material impact on the properties of materials being heat treated. It also recommends that only approved personnel perform or monitor the functions listed in Table 1.
Technical Paper

Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation of a Scallop Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing

2019-06-10
2019-01-1984
Understanding the aerodynamic impact of swept-wing ice accretions is a crucial component of the design of modern aircraft. Computer-simulation tools are commonly used to approximate ice shapes, so the necessary level of detail or fidelity of those simulated ice shapes must be understood relative to high-fidelity representations of the ice. Previous tests were performed in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel to acquire high-fidelity ice shapes. From this database, full-span artificial ice shapes were designed and manufactured for both an 8.9%-scale and 13.3%-scale semispan wing model of the CRM65 which has been established as the full-scale baseline for this swept-wing project. These models were tested in the Walter H. Beech wind tunnel at Wichita State University and at the ONERA F1 facility, respectively. The data collected in the Wichita St.
Technical Paper

Additional Comparison of Iced Aerodynamic Measurements on a Swept Wing from Two Wind Tunnels

2019-06-10
2019-01-1986
Artificial ice shapes of various geometric fidelity were tested on a wing model based on the Common Research Model. Low Reynolds number tests were conducted at Wichita State University’s Walter H. Beech Memorial Wind Tunnel utilizing an 8.9% scale model, and high Reynolds number tests were conducted at ONERA’s F1 wind tunnel utilizing a 13.3% scale model. Several identical geometrically-scaled ice shapes were tested at both facilities, and the results were compared at overlapping Reynolds and Mach numbers. This was to ensure that the results and trends observed at low Reynolds number could be applied and continued to high, near-flight Reynolds number. The data from Wichita State University and ONERA F1 agreed well at matched Reynolds and Mach numbers. The lift and pitching moment curves agreed very well for most configurations.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Computer Model Results for a Carbon Nanotubes Electrothermal De-Icing System

2019-06-10
2019-01-2005
Results from a three-dimensional computer model of a Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) based de-icing system are compared to experimental data obtained at COLLINS-Ohio Icing Wind Tunnel (IWT). The experiments were performed using a prototype of a CNT based de-icing system installed in a section of a business jet horizontal tail. The 3D numerical analysis tools used in the comparisons are AIPAC [1] and CFD++. The former was derived from HASPAC, an anti-icing computer model developed at Wichita State University in 2010 [3, 9, 10]. AIPAC uses the finite volumes method for the solution of the icing problem on an airfoil leading edge (or other 3D surfaces) and relies on any CFD solver to obtain the external flow properties used as boundary conditions. AIPAC is capable of predicting 3D multi-step ice shapes under rime, glaze and mixed regimes, and can also deal with the complex dynamics of cyclic ice accretion, melting, and shedding present in the realm of aircraft electrothermal de-icing systems.
Technical Paper

An Explorative Study to Use Super-Hydrophilic/Super-Hydrophobic Hybrid Surfaces for Aircraft Icing Mitigation

2019-06-10
2019-01-1995
An explorative study was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of using a novel hybrid anti-/de-icing strategy for aircraft icing mitigation. The hybrid method was developed by combining the electro-thermal heating mechanism and specialized surfaces/coatings with different wettabilities. While an electrical film heater was utilized to provide thermal energy around the leading edge of a NACA0012 airfoil model, two different coating strategies, (i.e., (a). Superhydrophobic coating covering the entire airfoil surface to increase droplets bounce-off and accelerate surface water runback vs. (b). super-hydrophilic coating at the leading edge to increase evaporation area + superhydrophobic coating in downstream to prevent runback refreezing) were proposed and evaluated aiming at maximizing the anti-/de-icing efficiency of the hybrid method.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Dynamic Ice Accretion Processes on Bridge Cables with Different Surface Modifications

2019-06-10
2019-01-2018
An experimental study was conducted to investigate the dynamic ice accretion processes on bridge cables with different surface modifications (i.e., 1. Standard plain, 2. Pattern-indented surface, and 3. helical fillets). The icing experiments were performed in the unique Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (i.e., ISU-IRT). In order to reveal the transient ice accretion processes and the associated aerodynamic loadings on the different cable models under the different icing conditions (i.e., rime vs. glaze), while a high-speed imaging system was used to capture the transient details of the surface water transport and ice accretion over the cable surfaces, a high-accuracy dual-transducer force measurement system was also utilized to measure the aerodynamic loadings acting on the ice accreting cable models.
Technical Paper

Aero-Engine Inlet Vane Structure Optimization for Anti-Icing with Hot Air Film Using Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm

2019-06-10
2019-01-2021
An improved anti-icing design with film heating ejection slot and cover for the inlet part of aero-engine was brought out, which combines the interior jet impingement with the exterior hot air film heating and shows promising application for those parts manufactured with composite materials. A hybrid method based on the combination of the Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is developed to optimize the anti-icing design for a typical aero-engine inlet vane in two dimensions. The optimization aims to maximize the heating performance of the hot air film, which is assessed by the heating effectiveness. The film-heating ejection angle and the cover opening angle are the two geometric variables to be optimized. Numerical model was established and validated to generate training and testing samples for BPNN, which was used to predict the objective function and find the optimal design variables in conjunction with the GA.
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