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Training / Education

Aircraft Virtual Flight Testing and Certification in Off-nominal Multifactorial Situations

The behavior of a 'pilot-automaton-aircraft-operating environment' system (the System) in off-nominal situations with multiple risks can be unpredictably dangerous. Most multifactorial flight scenarios (corner cases) are considered as theoretically improbable. Such anomalies do nonetheless occur in operations and can lead to inconceivable accidents - 'black swan' events.
Technical Paper

A Study on Optimization of Brake Feeling and Method for Flexible Brake with Integrated Electronic Booster

Throughout the automotive industry, the application of an integrated electronic booster (IEB) system has been actively applied following with diversify powertrain types and expand autonomous vehicles. Compared to the existing vacuum boosters, the performance advantages of IEB are 1) robustness against environmental changes, 2) rapid hydraulic reactivity, etc., and the advantages of cost / university are 1) flexibility for powertrain changes 2) weight saving 3) package simplification. Although IEB has a great advantage in performance and cost, it still needs a lot of research in various fields to realize the braking feeling, which is the performance of the emotional aspect, similar to the existing system. The braking feeling of the existing system was determined by the mechanical action of the hardware connected from the input device, the brake pedal to the hydraulic line. However, IEB system has a completely different structure from the existing system.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Squeak and Rattle Noise of a Car Seat Using 3D Sound Intensity Measurements

Assessment of squeak and rattle noise of a car seat using 3D sound intensity measurements Squeak and Rattle (S&R) noises are transient sound events occurring when adjacent parts come into contact, either impacting or sliding. All components and sub-systems integrated in a vehicle may produce noise when excited with certain vibro-acoustic load. S&R noise can be linked to the perceived build quality, durability and even discomfort or annoyance. As a result, car manufacturers have strict regulations to prevent noise issues. Current vibro-acoustic validation tests can vary in complexity from full vehicle simulation to component level tests. Additionally, subjective assessments are often required to locate problematic areas and quantify their relevance. In this paper, S&R noise of a car seat is investigated using 3D sound intensity measurements. A multi-axial shaker is used to drive the seat with a short time-stationary excitation extracted from a road profile.
Technical Paper

A Diagnostic Technology of Powertrain Parts that Cause Abnormal Noises using Artificial Intelligence

In general, when a problem occurs in a component, various phenomena appear, and abnormal noise is one of them. The service technicians diagnose the noise through the analysis using hearing and equipment. Depending on their experiences, the analysis time and diagnosis accuracy vary widely. The newly developed AI-based diagnostic technology diagnoses parts that cause abnormal noises within seconds when a noise is input to the equipment. To create a learning model for diagnosis, we collected as many abnormal noises as possible from various parts, and selected good and bad data. This process is very important in the development of diagnostic techniques. Artificial intelligence was learned by deep learning with selected good data. This paper is about the technology that can diagnose the abnormal noises generated from the engine, transmission, drivetrain and PE (Power Electric) parts of the eco-friendly vehicle through the diagnosis model composed of various methods of deep learning.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Capable Wind and Rolling Noise Synthesis for a More Realistic Vehicle Simulator Experience

Nowadays a large proportion of the overall acoustic vehicle development takes place within virtual phases. Increasingly, projects require the auralization of virtual developed acoustics measures, e.g. from the disciplines of electro-acoustic, ride comfort, rolling noise or passive acoustic on dynamic or static driving simulators. In practice it turns out that in addition to engine noise also a realistic reproduction of rolling and wind noise is important. In this article, approaches to synthetic rolling and wind noise generators are discussed. We developed such real-time capable sound generators that are parametrizable according to arbitrary driving conditions. Furthermore, spacial reproduction of the driving sounds is achieved for binaural headphone, as well as for other arbitrary loudspeaker setups, like often found in driving simulators. Derived models and parametrization are based on measurements and recordings from several real vehicles.
Technical Paper

CAE Support to Vehicle Audio Installation Issues

Audio CAE is an emerging area of interest for a vehicle OEM, despite the fact that the development of the audio system is often left to a specialized supplier. Especially the questions regarding early stages of the vehicle design, like choosing the possible positions for speakers, deciding the installation details that can influence the visual design, and integration of the low frequency speakers with the body & closures structure, are of interest. Therefore, at VCC, the development of the CAE methodology for audio applications has been undertaken. The long term goal is to enable performing subjective evaluation of sound in a virtual car, and integrating audio evaluation in the NVH simulator. The key to all CAE applications is the loudspeaker model made available in the vibro-acoustic software used within the company. Such a model has been developed, implemented and verified in different frequency ranges and different applications.
Technical Paper

The Evaluation of Car Sharing Service Attributes to Raise Acceptance of Electric Vehicles: Evidences from an Italian Survey Among University Students

Sharing mobility has led to a reduction of car ownership with consequent decrease in impacts from a multiple economic, social and environmental perspective. One way of reducing emissions in traffic is to establish the use of electric vehicles (EVs). Insufficient knowledge and high uncertainty towards EV technology can represent a barrier to the acceptance of these new forms of mobility. University students are recognized as a prospective customer group for car sharing services, very receptive to technological innovation. This study proposed a methodology to investigate student user profile defining the heterogeneous preferences regarding a mix of attributes of the service design and to assess the impact of car-sharing experience on acceptance of EVs.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Efficiency of a New Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Concept

A practical Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Concept is presented that works on standard European 95 RON gasoline over the whole speed/load range. A spark is employed to assist the gasoline autoignition at low loads; this avoids the requirement of a complex cam profile to control the local mixture temperature for reliable autoignition. The combustion phasing is controlled by the injection pattern and timing, and a sufficient degree of stratification is needed to control the maximum rate of pressure rise and prevent knock. With active control of the swirl level, the combustion system is found to be relatively robust against variability in charge motion, and subtle differences in fuel reactivity. Results show that the new concept is able to achieve very low fuel consumption over a significant portion of the speed/load map, equivalent to diesel efficiency. The efficiency is worse than an equivalent diesel engine only at low load where the combustion assistance operates.
Training / Education

Methodology of Interactive Design and Study Using Driving Simulator

Driving simulator is a key component of automotive interactive design, which can provide objective data to support both the effectiveness of design and user experience. On the other hand, driving simulator and the design of its experiments are major challenges, as improper experiment design will lead to consequences such as failure in identifying designing errors of the interactive design itself.

Identification and Assessment of Damage to Composite Aircraft Structures Training Document

Individuals who complete the applicable modules aligned with this training document will be able to define the type of damage, define the extent of damage, determine if further inspection is required, evaluate the damage against published allowable damage limits, and provide accurate documentation of the damage. The intended outcome of the training is increased safety such that no aircraft is released with unknown damage and that the aircraft meets continued airworthiness requirements. The goal is to change the culture from damage discovery to damage reporting while also reducing or eliminating flight delays due to incorrect or insufficient information. Teaching levels have been assigned to the curriculum to define the knowledge, skills, and abilities graduates will need. Minimum hours of instruction have been provided to ensure adequate coverage of all subject matter including lecture and practical exercise.

Aircraft Ground Deicing/Anti-Icing Training and Qualification Program

This document establishes the minimum training and qualification requirements for ground-based aircraft deicing/anti-icing methods and procedures. All guidelines referred to herein are applicable only in conjunction with the applicable documents. Due to aerodynamic and other concerns, the application of deicing/anti-icing fluids shall be carried out in compliance with engine and aircraft manufacturers’ recommendations. The scope of training should be adjusted according to local demands. There are a wide variety of winter seasons and differences of the involvement between deicing operators, and therefore the level and length of training should be adjusted accordingly. However, the minimum level of training shall be covered in all cases. As a rule of thumb, the amount of time spent in practical training should equal or exceed the amount of time spent in classroom training.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Monitoring On-Road CO2 Emissions Compliance in Passenger Vehicles

The European Union road transport CO2 emissions regulation foresees mandatory targets for passenger vehicles. However, several studies have shown that there is a divergence between official and real-world values that could range up to 40% compared to the NEDC reference value. The introduction of the Worldwide Harmonized Test Protocol (WLTP) limited this divergence, but it is uncertain whether it can adequately address the problem, particularly considering future evolutions of vehicle technology. In order to address this issue, the recent EU CO2-standards regulation introduces the monitoring of on-road fuel consumption and subsequently CO2 emissions by utilizing On-Board Fuel Consumption Meters (OBFCM). In the near future, all vehicles should provide instantaneous and lifetime-cumulative fuel consumption signals at the diagnostics port. Currently, the fuel consumption signal is not always available.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Driving Cycles by Means of a Co-Simulation Framework for the Evaluation of IC Engine Tailpipe Emissions

The reliable prediction of pollutant emissions generated by IC engine powertrains during the WLTP driving cycle is a key aspect to test and optimize different configurations, in order to respect the stringent emission limits. This work describes the application of an integrated modeling tool in a co-simulation environment, coupling a 1D fluid dynamic code for engine simulation with a specific numerical code for aftertreatment modelling by means of a robust numerical approach, to achieve a complete methodology for detailed simulations of driving cycles. The main goal is to allow an accurate 1D simulation of the unsteady flows along the intake and exhaust systems and to apply advanced thermodynamic combustion models for the calculation of cylinder-out emissions.