Crash reconstruction is a scientific process that utilizes principles of physics and empirical data to analyze the physical, electronic, video, audio, and testimonial evidence from a crash to determine how and why the crash occurred. This course will introduce this reconstruction process as it gets applied to various crash types - in-line and intersection collisions, pedestrian collisions, motorcycle crashes, rollover crashes, and heavy truck crashes. Methods of evidence documentation will be covered. Analysis methods will also be presented for electronic data from event data recorders and for video.
A new appraisal of the thermomechanical behaviour of a hybrid composite brake disc in a formula vehicle Research Objective This paper presents a hybrid composite brake disc with reduced Un Sprung Weight clearing thermal and structural analysis in a formula vehicle.Main purpose of this study is to analyse thermomechanical behaviour of composite brake disc for a formula vehicle under severe braking conditions. Methodology In the disk brake system, the disc is a major part of a device used for slowing or stopping the rotation of a wheel. Repetitive braking of the vehicle leads to heat generation during each braking condition. Based on the practical understanding the brake disc was remodelled with unique slotting patterns and grooves, using the selected aluminium alloy of (AA8081) with reinforcement particle of Silicon carbide (SiC) and Graphite (Gr) as a hybrid composite material for this proposed work.
Vehicle weight reduction becomes important at the view point of fuel efficiency improvement and CO2 reduction in India also as well as developed countries. With this background, High tensile and Super high tensile steel application has become increasing. Similary, weight reduction of big plastic parts like bumper face is one of the most important items, so Honda has developed Thin-wall and light weight bumper face. In the development of light weight bumper, rigidity, impact strength and flowability which are main requirement are cotradictory property. It is necessary to develop new material to achieve this technical concern. Moreover, we verified part shape and thickness optimization to achieve part requirement. Established high property material and part manufacturing technology were applied for current CITY firstly, and it has been expanded to other models sequentially to contribute weight reduction for Honda vehicles.
To reduce the incidence of whiplash-associated disorders caused by rear impacts, head restraints should be closer to the head which decreases the amount of relative motion and it is believed to reduce the risk of soft tissue neck injury. Drivers are raising complaints that the head restraint causes discomfort by interfering with their preferred head position, forcing them to select a more reclined seat back angle . This paper is about the importance of head restraint system and how it can be improved by adjusting the angle between the head restraint and passenger`s head. It is essential to carry out research on head restraint that can be adjusted in forward and backward direction letting the cost of seats remain in budget.
Carbon Composites (CFRP) have been touted to be an essential component of future automobiles due to their mechanical properties and lightweight. CFRP has been adopted successfully for secondary and primary structures in Aerospace industry. In Automobiles, they are incorporated in models like the BMW i-series. CFRP suffers from 2 major problems. Delamination of Composites leads to catastrophic and rapid failure which could be dangerous in passenger vehicles. Delamination occurs whenever there is a shock on the composite. Secondly, Composites need regular expensive maintenance to ensure that the material is intact and will not compromise passenger safety. Carbon Nanotubes in composites have shown a substantial increase in delamination resistance. A 0.1wt% addition of HiPCO® Single-walled Carbon Nanotube provides both self-sensing and improved fracture resistance.
Mechanical Property Evaluation of Paper Honeycomb Reinforced Plastics Vignesh Balaji S G, Pradeep Hyundai Motor India Engineering Pvt. Ltd, Chennai. India Key Words: Paper Honeycomb, Epoxy Composites, Mechanical Properties, Tensile, Impact & Flexural Test Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective : Composite Materials are widely being used in many engineering applications because of their desirable properties & Cost, Weight Effectiveness. They are widely being used as their Strength-Weight Ratio is Higher than any Other Material. Paper Honeycomb Material is basically a paper made of honeycomb shapes enforced between layers of Glass Mat. This paper deals with the evaluation of Tensile Strength, Flexural (Three-Point Bending) Strength & Flexural Modulus, Impact Strength of Paper Honeycomb Reinforced Epoxy Composites. The Scope of this Material defines the quality of Paper Honeycomb Reinforced Composites which can be used for Automotive Trim Parts.
The Automotive industry is in ever more need for a lesser weight car due to progressively stringent emission norms and the demand of customer to have better mileage. It can be a gargantuan challenge for automotive manufacturers to search for lesser weight material to meet both customers as well as regulatory norms. But in some cases such lower weight material can increase the cost and adding a expensive material which increases overall cost to a price sensitive market like India is not favorable. One such solution is using the indigenous plant fiber (Jute) in combination with propylene (PP) to make Interior plastics components. Jute a vegetable fiber also referred to as "the golden fiber" has high tensile strength, low extensibility and is well established in fabric, packing, agriculture, construction industries. The biodegradable Jute lesser weight & abundance (India is the leading manufacturer of the Jute) can be utilized in making automobile trim parts in India.
The automotive industry is constantly trying to develop cost effective, high strength and lightweight components to meet the emission and safety norms while remaining competitive in the market. Forging process plays an important role to produce most of the structural components in a vehicle. Precision forging technology is used to produce components with little or no flash leading to elimination of machining process after forging. The load acting on the dies during net or near net forging is very high and leads to wear in the die. In order to have a good die it is important that die wear which is an inevitable phenomenon in a bulk metal forming processes is predicted mathematically. In this study a review on the vast number of studies done in the area of wear and various predictive models is carried out.
Objective: In ground vehicle industry, strain life approach is commonly used for predicting fatigue life. This approach requires use of fatigue material properties such as fatigue strength coefficient (σf'), fatigue strength exponent (b), fatigue ductility coefficient (εf'), fatigue ductility exponent (c), cyclic strength coefficient (K′) and cyclic strain hardening exponent (n′). These properties are obtained from stable hysteresis loop of constant amplitude strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests. Usually fatigue material properties represent 50th percentile experimental data and doesn't account possible material variation in the fatigue life calculation. However, for robust design of vehicle components, variation in material properties need to be taken into account. In this paper, methodology to develop 5th percentile (B5), 10th percentile (B10) and 20th percentile (B20) fatigue material properties are discussed.
Reliability states the degree to which the result of a measurement, calculation, or specification can be depended on to be accurate. And, tests according to GMW specifications represents a minimum of 15 years of vehicle life time with defined Reliability and Confidence level. In this work, actual number of thermal cycles for Thermal Fatigue tests (Thermal Shock and Power Temperature Cycle) are calculated for Copper Wire whose Coffin Manson exponent is 5. Overstressing the PEPS Antenna under thermal fatigue requirement (defined number of thermal cycles based on Reliability and Confidence requirements) will lead to broken Copper wire which will result in component’s functional failure and thus impossible to continue reliability testing. The objective of this paper is to determine thermal fatigue requirements for Antenna’s Copper wire whose Coffin Manson exponent is 5.
When i decided to buy a second hand car from a dealer to learn driving, i was sceptical of the mileage usage for which a particular price was charged. Though the well know dealer told me a about the car, its previous usage, the fact that there were no accidents, and so on, there was no reliable way to verify what the dealer was offering. In order to solve such issues, we are looking at a disruptive technique which will cause a complete paradigm shift - by using blockchain technique. This paper talks about the basics of the blockchain technology and its relevance in automotive industry. We also look at some real life scenarios, where this technology helps to build reliability as one of the implicit requirements. We will start looking at how the block chain will help to reliably select the right components in the assembly line. Also we look at different aspects of software architecture like security and how blockchain can provide solutions in this area.
This paper discusses the need for Emergency Vehicle Approaching Alert System (EVAAS) and building of EVAAS components for OTT (over- the-top content), and Media providers. According to a study by the Indian Journal of Surgery in 2006, 80 per cent of road accident victims in India do not receive any emergency medical care (Ambulance) within this ‘golden hour - the first hour after a traumatic injury, when emergency treatment is most likely to be successful.’ Due to increasing population and constructions of Roads and Buildings, Emergency Vehicles are not able to reach the desired location. Hence, there is a need of an Emergency Vehicle Approaching Alert System (EVAAS) in INDIA.
Research Objective The objective of the paper is to research what are the changes in experiences being brought about due to the advent of Electric Vehicles (EVs). EVs are silent, have less complex propulsion system, and have free space under the hood, amongst other things. Each change brings about both good and bad experiences across the spectrum of users. Some of the bad experiences can be safety incidents leading to death as well. Researching the areas that are harmful to end users, including pedestrians, will be our focus area. Methodology Our methodology will look at the changes at the vehicle architecture level which are inherent to the EV design. Research how are the experiences so far due to these changes. Are these just inconveniences or safety hazards? EVs have excellent NVH characteristics. A farmer may love a silent tractor, but a racing enthusiast may not like a relatively silent sports car.
The use of deposit control additives in European market gasoline is well documented for maintaining high levels of engine cleanliness and subsequent sustained fuel and emissions performance. Co-ordinating European Council (CEC) industry fuels tests have played a crucial role in helping to drive market relevant, effective and low-cost deposit control additives into European market fuels. Until now, there has not been a Gasoline Direct Injection engine test available to fuel marketers in any market globally. However, a new CEC engine test is currently being developed to address that gap. Based on an in-house VW injector coking test, it shows promise for becoming a useful tool with which to develop and measure the performance of deposit control additives. A key requirement of industry tests should be to replicate issues seen in consumer vehicles, thereby providing a platform for relevant solutions.
The existing rule no. 62 of CMVR, 1989 applies to various commercial vehicles and yet is unable to provide a promising template to have a concise format which will cover all the motor vehicles and their different components with more precise equipment plus virtual testing along with proper management of time during the bulk inspection of all the vehicles. This paper will include all the technicalities and the different course of actions which must be taken into account for the proper implementation of the desired regulations on the designated concern. The idea behind this paper is to have a compact procedural document for the periodical inspection and maintenance of all the motor vehicles running on the Indian Roads that adhere to the basic safety concerns of other on-road vehicles, the pedestrians and the surroundings.
According to research study 45% of death cause due to not getting help on time to the injured person. Research has proven that if injured person is not found any option of help then they also loose the power to fight such critical situation due to psychological effect. When vehicle met accident, people are not getting on time support, this delay is the major cause of death in developing nations. Presently there is no any robust system available in market for passenger & commercial vehicles which helps to provide on time help to the injured persons & saves human life. In current situation low cost life saving device is need of our society. This paper deals with the design & development of the low cost-life saving device. This paper also comprises the scenario when any vehicle meet an accidents within certain speed limit then how the intelligent life saving device will work & save the life's.
Generally brake pads are manufacturing by use of asbestos materials, these materials are chemically harmful and toxic, affects human health. The present investigation fabricates polypropylene composites with mixing constant volume [5 Vol.%] of alumina nano particles and different volume percentages [0%, 5%, 10% & 15%] of basalt fibre by hand layup compression technique. The wear characteristics of polypropylene matrix composites were tested by dry sliding condition using pin on disc apparatus configuration with hardened steel counter-face at elevated temperature. The load was applied 30N to 70N with the interval of 20N and varying of sliding speed 300 rpm to 900rpm with the interval of 300rpm for the time period of 0-180 sec. The wear rate was decreases with addition of alumina nano particle and also increases the frictional force for the effect of basalt fibre content present in the composites. The co-efficient of friction was increases from 0.1 to 0.66 under normal loading condition.
Currently automotive industry is facing bi-fold challenge of reduction in Greenhouse gases emissions as well as low operating cost. On one hand Emission regulations are getting more and more stringent on other hand there is major focus no customer value proposition. Engine blow by gases are one of the source of Greenhouse gases emission from engine. Blow by gases not only consist of unburn hydrocarbons but also carry large amount of oil. If oil is not separated from these gases, it will led to major oil consumption and hence increase total operating cost of Vehicle. In this paper, effort has been taken to develop a low cost closed crank case ventilation with oil mist separation system on diesel engine.
M. Priyanka, Mahindra & Mahindra, India Sai Himaja Nadimpalli , Mahindra & Mahindra, India Keywords-Safety, Connectivity, GPS Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: There are many times the driver or co-passenger can experience emergency conditions whenever the vehicle is running or it is in static. These kind of situations are tough to handle even if one is victimized . The victim can be rescued on time if proper information about the situation would reach his friends or family . Limitations: In existing system, if the accidental crash happens then signal from airbag unit will wake up the mobile, Once this wake up call happens,it will activate the gsm module. The emergency contacts stored in the mobile will be dialed up and the victim can convey his emergency situation through that. The driver will be rescued only if crash happens. There is no system to rescue the driver if heart attack happens when he is driving.