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Technical Paper

Design and Development of Constant speed diesel engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIS

2019-11-21
2019-28-2549
Design and Development of Constant speed diesel engine up to 20 bar BMEP with Inline FIS Remesan CB, Sanjay Aurora, Vasundhara V Arde, Vishal Kumar, Om Prakash Yadav, Piyush Ranjan Eicher Engines (A unit of TAFE Motors & Tractors Ltd.) Abstract Development trend in diesel engine is to achieve more power from same size of engine. With increase in brake mean effective pressure (BMEP), the peak firing pressure will also increase. The methodology to control the peak firing pressure on higher BMEP is the major challenge. We achieved better SFC with CPCB II emission targets on a constant speed engine. This study involves a systematic approach to optimize combustion parameters with a cost effective and robust inline Fuel Injection System. This paper deals with the strategies applied and experimental results for achieving the power density of 25kW/lit with Inline FIP by keeping lower Peak firing pressure.
Technical Paper

Development of high power density diesel engine for constant speed application

2019-11-21
2019-28-2566
Engine up gradation for higher power rating involves challenges that require hardware changes which not only increase cost but also demand higher space. This paper focuses on the up gradation of a 4 cylinder 4.9l CRDi engine from 24.03 kW/L to 30.75 kW/L by adjustment of various parameters to meet both emission and performance targets. Various challenges like higher exhaust temperature, increased peak firing pressure etc. were met using the proper calibration strategy. To meet SFC targets and keep peak firing pressures, exhaust temperatures within desired limits, different operating points for EGR, main injection timing, rail pressure have been optimized. The operating points for optimization were determined by conducting various drive trials on different type of load conditions in test bench. Calibration strategy involved the safe limits of NOx, soot, CO emissions, fuel consumption.pfp, and exhaust temperature.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization and In-cylinder NOx and PM Reduction by using EGR and Split Injection Technique

2019-11-21
2019-28-2560
Nowadays, the major most challenge in the diesel engine is the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) trade-off, with minimal reduction in Power and BSFC. Modern day engines also rely on expensive after-treatment devices, which may decrease the performance and increase the BSFC. In this paper, combustion optimization and in-cylinder emission control by introducing the Split injection technique along with EGR is carried out by 1-D (GT-POWER) simulation. Experiments were conducted on a 3.5 kW Single-cylinder naturally aspirated CRDI engine at the different load conditions. The Simulation model incorporates detailed pressure (Burn rate) analysis for different cases and various aspects of ignition delay, premixed and mixing controlled combustion rate, the injection rate affecting oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigations on CO2 recovery from petrol engine exhaust using adsorption technology

2019-11-21
2019-28-2577
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon-di-oxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is a difficult and energy consuming process when compared to the catalytic action of catalytic converters on CO, HC and NOX. The best way to reduce it is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industry applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. When compared to other methods of CO2 separation, adsorption technique consumes less energy and the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

2019-11-21
2019-28-2382
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly.
Training / Education

Designing On-Board Diagnostics for Light and Medium Duty Emissions Control Systems

2019-11-11
On-board diagnosis of engine and transmission systems has been mandated by government regulation for light and medium vehicles since the 1996 model year. The regulations specify many of the detailed features that on-board diagnostics must exhibit. In addition, the penalties for not meeting the requirements or providing in-field remedies can be very expensive. This course is designed to provide a fundamental understanding of how and why OBD systems function and the technical features that a diagnostic should have in order to ensure compliant and successful implementation.
Technical Paper

Design, Development and Analysis of Mullite Catalytic Converter for CI Engines

2019-10-11
2019-28-0017
Emissions of Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) are the largest concerns for fossil fuel driven automotive vehicles. Catalytic converter is an important component in the selective catalytic reduction process. It oxidizes harmful CO and HC emission to CO2 and H2O in the exhaust system and thus the emission is controlled. Different kinds of problems are associated with noble metal based catalytic converter. A catalytic converter with a new catalyst for compression ignition engine is considered in this study. The catalytic converter is designed and developed with a new catalyst. Due to better durable characteristics and poison resistant nature, non-noble metal based material limestone (Mullite) is selected as a catalyst for catalytic convertor and the emission characteristics are studied on four stroke single cylinder CI engine by using Mullite based catalytic converter. The results are compared without catalytic converter in the same engine.
Technical Paper

Emission and noise optimization of CRDe engine with pilot injection strategies

2019-10-11
2019-28-0019
he combustion strategies play a key role in emission improvisation and noise reduction on diesel engines equipped for higher emission norms. This paper clearly discussed on the selection of various operating points for optimization and employing of proper calibration strategies like pilot strategy, Main injection timing, EGR type and rail pressure variation for best emission and noise output. Various optimization techniques have been implemented in our study. Since the pilot injection quantity as well as timing are varied in our paper, careful matrix formulation is required to determine the best optimum point. Around 340 points were obtained on varying pilot quantity and pilot separation sweep chosen at single engine speed and load for both the pilots. Out of the above points, 5 sensitive points were selected ensuring the sensitivity of the emissions and noise.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injector cone angle and NTP on performance and emissions of CRDe engine for BS6 compliance

2019-10-11
2019-28-0108
The quality of combustion is affected by factors like engine components design, combustion chamber design, EGR, after treatments systems, engine operating parameters etc. The role of fuel injector is crucial on achieving the desired engine performance and emissions. Efficient combustion depends on the quantity of fuel injected, penetration, atomization and optimum injection timing. The nozzle through flow, cone angle, no of sprays and nozzle tip penetration are the factors which decide the selection of perfect injector for an engine. This paper focuses on the selection of the best fit injector suiting the BS6 application on evaluating the performance and emission characteristics. Injectors used were with varying cone angles and NTP which was varied by changing the sealing washer thickness. With all the above injector configuration, the performance and emission were thoroughly analysed at each level.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation on EGR technique and fuel antioxidant additive in CI engine fuelled with plastic oil blend for emission reduction

2019-10-11
2019-28-0079
Experimental investigation on EGR technique and fuel antioxidant (p-Phenylenediamine) additive in plastic oil + diesel blend as test fuel in diesel engine is reported in this paper. The plastic oil is produced by waste plastics by the pyrolysis method. This plastic oil gives twin advantage of plastic waste management and also as alternate fuel for possible diesel fuel replacement. The plastic oil blend performance and emissions were nearer to neat diesel fuel. To reduce the NO emissions first EGR is fitted and tested. NO emission reduced by 18% compared to without EGR. Then antioxidant is added in (100 ppm level) with blended test fuel and found the NO emission reduction to be 15%. Performance, combustion and emission analysis were done in a single cylinder, four stroke, 5.2 kW diesel engine. Investigation results showed that the combined effect of EGR and antioxidant additive drastically reduces the NO emissions by 28%.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Prediction of the Pressure Drop Reduction of Catalytic Converter under Various Mass Flow Rate of Exhaust Gas for a Naturally Aspirated Diesel Engine

2019-10-11
2019-28-0030
Nowadays, Diesel emission control strategies are stricter across the globe which caused the rise in need of diesel after treat treatment devices that are more reliable and efficient. The optimized design of the catalytic converter aids in the durability of the product as well as the improvement in efficient operation of the Indian driving cycle. By changing the convergent and divergent cone angles of the catalytic converter, the consequential decrease in pressure drop leads to efficient flow of exhaust gases. The purpose of this study is to design, test, and analyse the catalytic converter in order to reduce the pressure drop in the exhaust system of a naturally aspirated diesel engine using both experimental and CFD techniques. In this study, a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Catalytic Converter is investigated. For numerical analysis, ANSYS Fluent is used.
Technical Paper

Characterization of AlSi10Mg Alloy Produced by DMLS Process for Automotive Engine Application

2019-10-11
2019-28-0134
Considerable weight of an automobile is constituted by the engine and there is scope for improvement in fuel efficiency and emission control through optimization of weight in the engine. In this work, AlSi10Mg alloy produced by the DMLS is suggested for engine application which is a lightweight aluminum alloy. The mechanical properties like tensile strength, compressive strength, and hardness of both cast and additive manufactured alloy are compared followed by analysis of SEM images of tensile test fractured surfaces. The reciprocating wear test is carried out with lubrication (SAE 40 oil) for one lakh cycles at 125°C temperature and Co-efficient of friction (COF), wear rate of the cast and additive manufactured samples were compared. Wear patterns are analyzed using SEM images of the wear tracks.
Technical Paper

Effects of Prechamber on Efficiency Improvement and Emissions Reduction of a SI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and CNG

2019-10-07
2019-24-0236
The permanent aim of the automotive industry is the further improvement of the engine efficiency and the simultaneous pollutant emissions reduction. The aim of the study was the optimization of the gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG) combustion by means of a passive prechamber. This analysis allowed the improvement of the engine efficiency in lean-burn operation condition too. The investigation was carried out in an real small Spark Ignition (SI) engine fueled with Gasoline and CNG and equipped with a proper designed passive prechamber. In particular, Gasoline and CNG were used to analyze the effects of the prechamber on engine performance and associated pollutant emissions. Indicated Mean Effective Pressure, Heat Release Rate and Mass Burned Fraction were used to evaluate the effects on engine performance. Gaseous emissions were measured as well. Particulate Mass, Number and Size Distributions were analyzed.
Training / Education

Emissions-Related OBD Systems A Design Overview

2019-09-20
On-board diagnostics, required by governmental regulations, provide a means for reducing harmful pollutants into the environment. Since being mandated in 1996, the regulations have continued to evolve and require engineers to design systems that meet strict guidelines. This one day seminar is designed to provide an overview of the fundamental design objectives and the features needed to achieve those objectives for generic on-board diagnostics. The basic structure of an on-board diagnostic will be described along with the system definitions needed for successful implementation.
Technical Paper

Diesel Vehicle with Ultra-low NOx Emissions on the Road

2019-09-09
2019-24-0145
The paper discusses the technical approach to meet Euro 6d Real-Driving Emissions (RDE) requirements and beyond, with a particular focus on reducing diesel NOx emissions in urban driving situations. Novel technology aspects of the diesel powertrain are an RDE-optimized catalyst system layout to improve both low- and high-load DeNOx performance and a 48V P0-hybrid system. A key element of the powertrain concept is the advanced model based DeNOx control strategy. The optimized exhaust aftertreatment layout combines lean NOx Trap (LNT) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technologies. For maximum low load DeNOx performance, the close-coupled SCR, consisting of an additional slice upstream of an SCR coated on filter, is assisted by an LNT. High load conditions are covered by a 2-stage SCR system with twin AdBlue® dosing. The P0 48V electric motor supports the NOx control in addition to ensuring good driving performance and fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Purification Performance Enhancement by Early Activation of Three Way Catalysts for Gasoline Engines Used in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2019-09-09
2019-24-0148
Three-way catalyst (TWC) converters are used to purify the toxic substances such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and hydrocarbons (HC) emitted from gasoline engines. However, a large amount of emissions could be emitted before the TWC reaching its light-off temperature during cold start. For hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) powered by gasoline engines, the emission purification performance by TWC unfortunately become worse caused by mode switching from engine to battery and vice versa, which is possible to generate cold start conditions over and over for TWC In this study, targeting at reducing the emissions from series HEVs by early activation of TWC, numerical simulations with experiments are carried out. A HEV is tested on a chassis dynamometer under Worldwide Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) mode; the upstream and downstream gas conditions of the close-coupled catalyst converter are measured.
Technical Paper

Pressure Drop of Particulate Filters and Correlation with the Deposited Soot for Heavy-Duty Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0151
Particulate filters are a widely used emission control device on heavy-duty diesel engines. The accumulation of particulate matter, mostly consisting of soot, inside the filter results in increased filter pressure-drop (backpressure). This increased backpressure has been used by the on-board control systems as trigger for regeneration procedures, which aim to actively oxidize the accumulated soot. However, it is known that passive soot oxidation during normal operation affects the correlation between backpressure and the deposited soot mass in filter. Therefore, the backpressure alone cannot be a reliable trigger for regeneration. In this work we highlight operating conditions with very poor correlation between backpressure and accumulated soot mass in filter and evaluate the possible root causes. Experiments with several heavy-duty diesel engines and particulate filters were conducted on engine test bench.
Technical Paper

Sub-23 nm Particulate Emissions from a Highly Boosted GDI Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0153
The European Particle Measurement Program (PMP) defines the current standard for measurement of particle number (PN) emissions from vehicles in Europe. This specifies a 50% count efficiency (D50) at 23 nm and a 90% count efficiency (D90) at 41 nm. Particulate emissions from Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines have been widely studied, but usually only in the context of PMP or similar sampling procedures. There is increasing interest in the smallest particles – i.e. smaller than 23 nm – which can be emitted from vehicles. The literature suggest that by moving D50 to 10 nm, PN emissions from GDI engines might increase by between 35 and 50 % but there remains a lot of uncertainty.
Technical Paper

Water Injection Contribution to Enabling Stoichiometric Air-to-Fuel Ratio Operation at Rated Power Conditions of a High-Performance DISI Single Cylinder Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0173
The next generation of gasoline turbo-charged engines will have to deal with the continuous tightening of emissions regulations. In fact, to better represent real-world CO2 figures, WLTP and RDE cycles focus on stricter criteria; spanning higher speeds and loads potentially covering the whole engine operating map. It is common practice at present to use overfueling to avoid catastrophic failure of turbine and aftertreatment systems at very high engine speeds and loads due to excessive temperatures. A past technology, which is presently enjoying a resurgence of interest, is water injection. In particular for high-specific-power applications, this could be used as replacement strategy for overfueling, potentially enabling full operating range stoichiometric operation with no compromise in terms of maximum performance with respect to today.
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