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Technical Paper

Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

2019-11-21
2019-28-2382
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigations on CO2 recovery from petrol engine exhaust using adsorption technology

2019-11-21
2019-28-2577
Energy policy reviews state that automobiles contribute 25% of the total Carbon-di-oxide (CO2) emission. The current trend in emission control techniques of automobile exhaust is to reduce CO2 emission. We know that CO2 is a greenhouse gas and it leads to global warming. Conversion of CO2 into carbon and oxygen is a difficult and energy consuming process when compared to the catalytic action of catalytic converters on CO, HC and NOX. The best way to reduce it is to capture it from the source, store it and use it for industry applications. To physically capture the CO2 from the engine exhaust, adsorbents like molecular sieves are utilized. When compared to other methods of CO2 separation, adsorption technique consumes less energy and the sieves can be regenerated, reused and recycled once it is completely saturated. In this research work, zeolite X13 was chosen as a molecular sieve to adsorb CO2 from the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Computerized Experimental Investigation on Performance & Exhaust Emission of Twin Cylinder Adiabatic Diesel Engine coated with YSZ

2019-11-21
2019-28-2548
The fuel consumption and performance of the Internal Combustion engine is improved by adopting concepts of an adiabatic engine. An experimental investigation for different load conditions is carried out on a water-cooled, constant-speed, twin-cylinder diesel engine. This research is intended to emphasize energy balance and emission characteristic for standard uncoated base engine and adiabatic engine. The inner walls of diesel engine combustion chamber are thermally insulated by a top coat of Metco 204NS yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3ZrO2) powder (YSZ) of a thickness of 350 mm using plasma spray coating technology. The same combustion chamber is also coated with TBC bond coats of AMDRY 962 Nickle chromium aluminum yttria of thickness of 150 mm. The NiCrAlY powder specially designed to produce coating’s resistance to hot corrosion.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder CRDI Engine Fueled with Diesel-Methanol Blend

2019-11-21
2019-28-2380
The diesel engine is widely used for its high thermal efficiency and better fuel conversion efficiency. However, increasing usage of petroleum fuel and environmental degradation motivates to use renewable biofuels as a replacement to conventional diesel. Biofuels produced from non-edible sources can be used as a partial substitute of diesel for the significant growth of fuel economy and reduction of environmental pollution. Methanol can be implemented as a blended fuel in the diesel without affecting engine design. In this study, the effect of diesel methanol blends and injection parameters such as fuel injection pressure (FIP)and start of injection (SOI) on a common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine performance and emission were investigated. Four blends were prepared by mixing diesel with methanol (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass) and adding a certain amount of oleic acid and iso-butanol to get a stable blend.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Combined Effect of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Coated Combustion Chamber Components and Emulsification Approach on the Behaviour of a Compression Ignition Engine Fuelled with Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters

2019-10-11
2019-28-0164
Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) is generated in large quantity worldwide due to the increase in population and change of food habits. This work is about utilizing this WCO as an alternative fuel for Compression Ignition (CI) engine, in view of addressing the constraints in the domain of land as well as air pollution. A fuel and engine level modification were carried out to analyse the behaviour of the test engine. In the first phase of the study, collected WCO was converted into its methyl esters (i.e. WCOME) and tested for its properties. A single cylinder, water cooled, direct injection, compression ignition engine was developed with suitable emission and combustion parameters computing equipments in the second phase of the work. In the third phase of the work, the developed engine was tested with neat diesel, WCO and WCOME under different engine power outputs. WCOME was converted into its emulsion (WCOMEE) and tested in the developed engine in the fourth phase of the work.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of De-Lavel Restrictor with Throttle Body for Formula Vehicle

2019-10-11
2019-28-0009
The restrictor is a component which controls the mass flow of air passing to the engine. The proposed work focuses on design and analysis of air intake restrictor of Duke 390cc engine which is used in formula vehicles. As an constrain of this system, the air flows through a single circular throat of diameter 20mm. In past decades conventional venture nozzles were used as a restrictor but it leads to nominal press drop. A de lavel nozzle is a tube pinched in the middle, making an asymmetric hourglass shape. It is used to accelerate a higher supersonic speed in the axial direction. The main objective is to utilize De-Laval Nozzle for the minimal pressure drop. The change in pressure will increases the engine power output. The analysis is done by varying design conditions such as three levels of convergent (12,14 and 16 degrees) and three levels of divergent angles (4, 6 and 8 degrees) are taken into consideration.
Technical Paper

Design, Development and Analysis of Mullite Catalytic Converter for CI Engines

2019-10-11
2019-28-0017
Emissions of Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) are the largest concerns for fossil fuel driven automotive vehicles. Catalytic converter is an important component in the selective catalytic reduction process. It oxidizes harmful CO and HC emission to CO2 and H2O in the exhaust system and thus the emission is controlled. Different kinds of problems are associated with noble metal based catalytic converter. A catalytic converter with a new catalyst for compression ignition engine is considered in this study. The catalytic converter is designed and developed with a new catalyst. Due to better durable characteristics and poison resistant nature, non-noble metal based material limestone (mullite) is selected as a catalyst for catalytic convertor and the emission characteristics are studied on four stroke single cylinder CI engine by using mullite based catalytic converter. The results are compared without catalytic converter in the same engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Prediction of the Pressure Drop Reduction of Catalytic Converter under Various Mass Flow Rate of Exhaust Gas for a Naturally Aspirated Diesel Engine

2019-10-11
2019-28-0030
Nowadays, Diesel emission control strategies are stringent across the globe which caused the rise in need of diesel after treat treatment devices that are more reliable and efficient. The optimized design of the catalytic converter aids in the durability of the product as well as the improvement in efficient operation of the Indian driving cycle. By changing the convergent and divergent cone angles of the catalytic converter, the consequential decrease in pressure drop leads to efficient flow of exhaust gases. The purpose of this study is to design, test, and analyse the catalytic converter in order to reduce the pressure drop in the exhaust system of a naturally aspirated diesel engine using both experimental and CFD techniques. In this study, a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Catalytic Converter is investigated. For numerical analysis, ANSYS Fluent is used.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injector Cone Angle and NTP on Performance and Emissions of BS6 Engine

2019-10-11
2019-28-0108
The combustion phenomenon of diesel engines has got a very major impact on the performance and exhaust emission levels. Several important factors like engine components design, combustion chamber design, Exhaust gas recirculation, exhaust after treatments systems, engine operating parameters etc. decide the quality of combustion. The role of fuel injector is crucial on achieving the desired engine performance and emissions. Efficient combustion depends on the quantity of fuel injected, penetration, atomization and optimum timing of injection. The nozzle through flow, cone angle, no of sprays and nozzle tip penetration are the factors which lead to the selection of perfect injector for a given engine. This paper focusses on the selection of the best fit injector suiting the BS6 application on evaluating the performance and emission characteristics. Injectors used were with varying cone angles and NTP.
Journal Article

Effects of Water Injector Spray Angle and Injector Orientation on Emission and Performance of a GDI Engine - A CFD Analysis

2019-10-08
Abstract Higher water evaporation and proper water vapor distribution in the cylinder are very vital for improving emission and performance characteristics of water-injected engines. The concentration of water vapor should be higher and uniform near the walls of the combustion chamber and nil at the spark plug location. In direct water-injected engines, water evaporation, vapor distribution, and spray impingement are highly dependent on injector parameters, viz., water injector orientation (WIO), location, and spray angle. Therefore, in this article, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation is conducted to study the effects of water injector spray angle (WISA), and WIO on the water evaporation, emission, and performance characteristics of a four-stroke, wall-guided gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. The WISA is varied from 10° to 35°, whereas the WIO is varied from 15° to 35° in steps of 5°.
Technical Paper

Knock Onset Detection Methods Evaluation by In-Cylinder Direct Observation

2019-10-07
2019-24-0233
Improvement of performance and emission of future internal combustion engine for passenger cars is mandatory during the transition period toward their substitution with electric propulsion systems. In middle time, direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines could offer a good compromise between fuel economy and exhaust emissions. However, abnormal combustion and particularly knock and super-knock are some of the most important obstacles to the improvement of SI engines efficiency. Although knock has been studied for many years and its basic characteristics are clear, phenomena involved in its occurrence are very complex and are still worth of investigation. In particular, the definition of an absolute knock intensity and the precise determination of the knock onset are arduous and many indexes and methodologies has been proposed. In this work, most used methods for knock onset detection from in- cylinder pressure signal have been considered.
Technical Paper

How to Improve SI Engine Performances by Means of Supercritical Water Injection

2019-10-07
2019-24-0235
The efficiency of ICEs is strongly affected by exhaust gases and engine cooling system heat losses, which account for about 50% of the heat released by combustion. A promising approach is to transfer this exhaust heat to a fluid, like water, and inject it into the combustion chamber under supercritical conditions. In such a way, the recovered energy is partially converted into mechanical work, improving both engine efficiency and performance. A quasi-dimensional model has been implemented to simulate an SI engine with supercritical water injection. Specifically, a spark ignition ICE, four-stroke with Port Fuel Injection (PFI) has been considered. The model accounts for gas species properties, includes valves opening/closing, wall heat transfer, a water injection model and a combustion model. The influence of some injection parameters, i.e.
Technical Paper

Effects of Prechamber on Efficiency Improvement and Emissions Reduction of a SI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline

2019-10-07
2019-24-0236
The permanent aim of the automotive industry is the further improvement of the engine efficiency and the simultaneous pollutant emissions reduction. The aim of the study was the optimization of the gasoline combustion by means of a passive prechamber. This analysis allowed the improvement of the engine efficiency in lean-burn operation condition too. The investigation was carried out in a commercial small Spark Ignition (SI) engine fueled with gasoline and equipped with a proper designed passive prechamber. It was analyzed the effects of the prechamber on engine performance, Indicated Mean Effective Pressure, Heat Release Rate and Fuel Consumption were used. Gaseous emissions were measured as well. Particulate Mass, Number and Size Distributions were analyzed. Emissions samples were taken from the exhaust flow, just downstream of the valves. Four different engine speeds were investigated, namely 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 rpm.
Standard

Performance Engine Building Recommended Practices

2019-10-03
CURRENT
J2379_201910
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to the function of building reciprocating spark-ignition engines which are used in conjunction with standard and high-performance ancillary components in applications intended to achieve a minimum of 1 hp/in₃. This document does not apply to rebuilt engines which may only be partially repaired with little or no machining, nor does it apply to second-hand or used engines.
Standard

Heater and Accessories, Aircraft Internal Combustion Heat Exchanger Type

2019-10-01
CURRENT
AS8040C
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers combustion heaters and accessories used in, but not limited to, the following applications: a. Cabin heating (all occupied regions and windshield heating) b. Wing and empennage anti-icing c. Engine and accessory heating (when heater is installed as part of the aircraft) d. Aircraft deicing
Technical Paper

Advanced Exergy Analysis of an Air Craft Gas Turbine Engine at Different Power Loading Operations

2019-09-16
2019-01-1863
The innovations in aircraft propulsion have been identified as the key parameter towards the progress in transportation. Continuous advancement in the performance and efficiency of propulsion has enabled aircraft to travel over larger distances with higher speed. Aviation is also responsible for approximately 2% of total greenhouse gas emission and is expected to grow around 3% by 2050. The present article aims to use the exergetic analysis of a turboprop engine which should be helpful in designing of such engines and also helps these engine users to regulate and select the operation modes. A gas turbine with film air cooling of turbine blades has been proposed to be the turboprop engine. The engine is analyzed on exergy point of view at different power loading operation modes and the performance is studied.
Technical Paper

Development of a CFD Solver for Primary Diesel Jet Atomization in FOAM-Extend

2019-09-09
2019-24-0128
Ongoing development of a CFD framework for the simulation of primary atomization of a high pressure diesel jet is presented in this work. The numerical model is based on a second order accurate, polyhedral Finite Volume (FV) method implemented in foam-extend-4.1, a community driven fork of the OpenFOAM software. A geometric Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method isoAdvector is used for interface advection, while the Ghost Fluid Method (GFM) is used to handle the discontinuity of the pressure and the pressure gradient at the interface between the two phases: n-dodecane and air in the combustion chamber. In order to obtain highly resolved interface while minimizing computational time, an Adaptive Grid Refinement (AGR) strategy for arbitrary polyhedral cells is employed in order to refine the parts of the grid near the interface. Dynamic Load Balancing (DLB) is used in order to preserve parallel efficiency during AGR.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling and Validation of the ECN Spray G Experiment under a Wide Range of Operating Conditions

2019-09-09
2019-24-0130
The increasing diffusion of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines requires a more detailed and reliable description of the phenomena occurring during the fuel injection process. As well known the thermal and fluid-dynamic conditions present in the combustion chamber greatly influence the air-fuel mixture process deriving from GDI injectors. GDI fuel sprays typically evolve in wide range of ambient pressure and temperatures depending on the engine load. In some particular injection conditions, when in-cylinder pressure is relatively low, flash evaporation might occur significantly affecting the fuel-air mixing process. In some other particular injection conditions spray impingement on the piston wall might occur, causing high unburned hydrocarbons and soot emissions, so currently representing one of the main drawbacks of GDI engines.
Technical Paper

Optical Evaluation of Directly Injected Methane Using a Newly Developed Highly Repetitive Laser Diagnostics System

2019-09-09
2019-24-0134
Gaining detailed knowledge about the injection and mixture formation inside engines and combustion chambers during different operation modes is of major importance for improving conventional systems as well as developing new, innovative concepts. To reduce pollutants while maintaining high performance and efficiency an advanced understanding of these mechanisms is necessary. Additional challenges arise when it comes to analyzing transient engine operation and cyclic fluctuations as well as rating their contribution to the formation of emissions. This study contains the evaluations of the injection and mixture formation inside a rapid compression machine (RCM) with directly injected methane. A newly developed highly repetitive optical measurement system based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is used for the quantitative visualizations of the air-fuel equivalence ratio (λ).
Technical Paper

Reduction of NOx in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Emissions Using Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) with In-Cylinder Injection of Aqueous Urea

2019-09-09
2019-24-0144
The subject of this study is the effect of in-cylinder selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of NOx emissions in diesel exhaust gas by means of direct injection of aqueous urea ((NH2)2CO) into the combustion chamber. A single cylinder diesel test engine was modified to accept an electronically controlled secondary common rail injection system to deliver the aqueous urea directly into the cylinder during engine operation. Direct in-cylinder injection was chosen to ensure precise delivery of the aqueous urea without the risk of any premature reactions taking place. The injection strategy was four molar ratios, 4.0, 2.0, 1.0 and 0.5 with five varying injection timings of 60, 20, 10, 0, and -30 degrees after top dead center (ATDC). The main secondary injection fluid, aqueous urea, was mixed with glycerol (C3H8O3) in an 80-20 ratio, by mass, with the desire to function as a lubricant for the secondary injector.
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