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Technical Paper

Impact of Internal Vortex Generator Length on Wing Aerodynamics

2019-09-16
2019-01-1892
Flow separation is among the major causes of aerodynamic drag experience by wings. Vortex generators are regularly used as a means of flow separation control in wings, their use leading to delayed flow separation and drag reduction. A disadvantage of external vortex generators has been observed to be high momentum loss and inefficiency in vortex generation. Internal vortex generators minimize the penalty of momentum loss and generate vortices closer to the surface. In this paper, the impact of the length of internal vortex generators on the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing have been investigated. Internal vortex generators have been placed at 30% chord distance on the suction side of a NACA 0012 airfoil. Analysis is carried out using the Computational Fluid Dynamics software ANSYS Fluent. The length of the vortex has been varied between H and 5H, H being the thickness of the boundary layer, at air flow Reynolds Number between 1,000,000 and 5,000,000.
Technical Paper

Design and Experimental Verification of a High Force Density Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Motor for Aerospace Application

2019-09-16
2019-01-1911
This paper presents the design and construction of a high force density tubular permanent-magnet (PM) linear motor. A strut structure of a tubular PM linear motor developed to improve resistance to impurities and structural rigidity is described. In the design, computationally efficient two-dimensional finite-element analysis is used to estimate the motor force density. The motor’s design is optimized for the major pole number/slot number combinations of 8/24, 16/24, 20/24, 28/24, 32/24, and 40/24. The optimized motor design of a three-phase 16/24 combination with one-layer winding achieved the highest force-to-mass density. The force-to-mass density of the designed motor is higher than that of the first prototype motor by a factor of 5. The validity of the proposed design method and the expected drive characteristics are experimentally verified using the prototype.
Technical Paper

A new take on porous medium approach for modelling monoliths and other multiple channel devices

2019-08-15
2019-24-0049
Porous medium approach is widely used in modelling high resistance devices such as heat exchangers, automotive catalysts or filters, where details of flow distribution inside the channels are not important. This reduces the computational time considerably, as the whole length of the monolith does not need to be modelled, and the thin boundary layers in each channel do not need to be resolved. The drawback of the approach is compromised accuracy of the flow predictions downstream of the monolith, because the mixing of the individual jets coming out of the monolith channels is not accounted for. Very few studies exist where this issue has been addressed. The methods include artificial turbulence generation, inferring turbulence information from upstream, or using hybrid modelling approach to separate the flow into channels.
Article

Lockheed Martin announces latest hypersonic progress at Le Bourget

2019-06-17
Lockheed Martin successfully flight tested the AGM-183A Air-Launched Rapid Response Weapon (ARRW) on a U.S. Air Force Boeing B-52 Stratofortress. The captive carry flight – announced during the 2019 International Paris Air Show – marks Lockheed Martin’s most recent demonstration of hypersonic technology development.
Technical Paper

Computational Simulation of an Electrically Heated Ice Protection System for Composite Leading Edges of Aircraft

2019-06-10
2019-01-2041
The performance of an electrically heated aircraft ice protection system for a composite leading edge was evaluated. The composite leading edge of the model is equipped with a Ni alloy resistance heater. A state-of-the-art icing code, FENSAP-ICE, was used for the analysis of the electrothermal de-icing system. Computational results, including detailed information of conjugate heat transfer, were validated with experimental data. The computational model was then applied to the composite leading edge wing section at various metrological conditions selected from FAR Part 25 Appendix C.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Aircraft and Variable-Pitch Propeller Icing with Explicit Coupling

2019-06-10
2019-01-1954
A 3D CFD methodology is presented to simulate ice build-up on propeller blades exposed to known icing conditions in flight, with automatic blade pitch variation at constant RPM to maintain the desired thrust. One blade of a six-blade propeller and a 70-passenger twin-engine turboprop are analyzed as stand-alone components in a multi-shot quasi-steady icing simulation. The thrust that must be generated by the propellers is obtained from the drag computed on the aircraft. The flight conditions are typical for a 70-passenger twin-engine turboprop in a holding pattern in Appendix C icing conditions: 190 kts at an altitude of 6,000 ft. The rotation rate remains constant at 850 rpm, a typical operating condition for this flight envelope.
Technical Paper

Lattice Boltzmann Simulations of Flow Over an Iced Airfoil

2019-06-10
2019-01-1945
This paper presents an aerodynamic degradation study of an iced airfoil, using the Lattice Boltzmann approach with the commercial software PowerFLOW. Three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed with an extruded constant section of the GLC-305 airfoil with a leading-edge double-horn ice shape using periodic boundary conditions. The freestream Reynolds number, based on the chord, is 3.5 million and the Mach number is 0.12. An extensive comparison of the main flow features with experimental data is performed, including aerodynamic coefficients, pressure coefficient distributions, velocity and turbulence contours along with its profiles at several positions, and stagnation streamlines. The drag coefficient agrees well with experiments, in spite of a small shift. Two different wind tunnel measurements, using different measurement techniques, were compared to the CFD results, which mostly stayed in between the experimental data.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Dynamic Ice Accretion Processes on Bridge Cables with Different Surface Modifications

2019-06-10
2019-01-2018
An experimental study was conducted to investigate the dynamic ice accretion processes on bridge cables with different surface modifications (i.e., 1. Standard plain, 2. Pattern-indented surface, and 3. helical fillets). The icing experiments were performed in the unique Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (i.e., ISU-IRT). In order to reveal the transient ice accretion processes and the associated aerodynamic loadings on the different cable models under the different icing conditions (i.e., rime vs. glaze), while a high-speed imaging system was used to capture the transient details of the surface water transport and ice accretion over the cable surfaces, a high-accuracy dual-transducer force measurement system was also utilized to measure the aerodynamic loadings acting on the ice accreting cable models.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Atmospheric Icing Process on Power Transmission Line

2019-06-10
2019-01-2019
Atmospheric icing poses a major threat to power transmission lines in cold regions. In the present study, an experimental investigation was conducted to examine the atmospheric icing process on high-voltage power transmission lines and characterize the effects of the ice accretion on the aerodynamic forces acting on the transmission lines. The experimental study was conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT). A cylinder model with the same diameter of commonly-used high-voltage power transmission lines (i.e., D = 29mm) is subjected to a typical glaze icing condition at an incoming wind speed of 20 m/s, a liquid water content (LWC) of 2.0 g/m3 and an ambient temperature of -5 0C. A high-resolution 3D scanner was used in the present study to extract the 3D shapes of the ice structures accreted over surface of the cylindrical test model as a function of the ice accretion time.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Comparison of Freezing Rain and Freezing Drizzle Conditions at the RTA Icing Wind Tunnel

2019-06-10
2019-01-2023
The simulation of icing conditions in icing wind tunnels (IWTs) is a significant element in the certification of aircraft components and offers unique possibilities for research purposes. Up to 2014 only the conditions defined in Appendix C of the EASA Certification Specification 25, respectively the FAA Code of Federal Regulations Title 14 Part 25 were used for the certification processes in IWTs. In addition, Appendix O was introduced in 2014 to cover the supercooled large droplet (SLD) icing conditions of freezing drizzle and freezing rain, which pose a potential risk for flight safety. The simulation of SLD icing in IWTs is, due to the different behavior of the large droplets, very challenging and not all required conditions have successfully been recreated yet. RTA Rail Tec Arsenal Fahrzeugversuchsanlage GmbH has focused on the simulation of in-flight icing conditions since 2012 and increased effort was put in the simulation of SLDs in recent years.
Article

Lockheed Martin validates heatshield for the Mars 2020 rover mission

2019-05-07
Lockheed Martin Corporation successfully completed development and testing for the heatshield that will protect NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Mars 2020 rover during its descent to the Martian surface. After completing the flight hardware structure, Lockheed Martin tested the heatshield’s physical integrity by exposing it to ‘flight-like’ thermal conditions.
Technical Paper

Designing for Turbine Housing Weight Reduction Using Thermal Fatigue Crack Propagation Prediction Technology

2019-04-02
2019-01-0533
Turbine housings in car engine turbochargers, which use costly stainless steel castings, account for nearly 50% of the parts cost of a turbocharger. They are also the component which controls the competitiveness of the turbocharger, in terms of both function and cost. In this research, focusing on thermal fatigue resistance which is one of the main functions demanded of a turbine housing, achieving reduction in wall thickness while securing sufficient thermal fatigue resistance, it is possible to reduce the amount of material used in the turbine housing and aimed for cost reduction. Therefore, we built a method to quantitatively predict, using 3D FEM, the lifespan from the initiation of thermal fatigue cracking to the formation of a penetrating crack which leads to gas leakage.
Technical Paper

Research on Technique for Correction of Running Resistance with Focus on Tire Temperature and Tire Thermal Balance Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-0623
At present, measurements of running resistance are conducted outdoors as a matter of course. Because of this, the ambient temperature at the time of the measurements has a considerable impact on the measurement data. The research discussed in this paper focused on the temperature characteristic of the tires and developed a new correction technique using a special rolling test apparatus. Specifically, using a tire rolling test apparatus that made it possible to vary the ambient temperature, measurements were conducted while varying the levels of factors other than temperature that affect rolling resistance (load, inflation pressure, and speed). Next, a regression analysis was applied to the data for each factor, and coefficients for a relational expression were derived, making it possible to derive a quadratic equation for the tire rolling resistance correction formula.
Technical Paper

Validating Heavy-Duty Vehicle Models Using a Platooning Scenario

2019-04-02
2019-01-1248
Connectivity and automation provide the potential to use information about the environment and future driving to minimize energy consumption. Aerodynamic drag can also be reduced by close-gap platooning using information from vehicle-to-vehicle communications. In order to achieve these goals, the designers of control strategies need to simulate a wide range of driving situations in which vehicles interact with other vehicles and the infrastructure in a closed-loop fashion. RoadRunner is a new model-based system engineering platform based on Autonomie software, which can collectively provide the necessary tools to predict energy consumption for various driving decisions and scenarios such as car-following, free-flow, or eco-approach driving, and thereby can help in developing control algorithms.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations of Performance of Plate Fin Tube Heat Exchanger Using Rectangular Winglet Type Vortex Generator with Punched Holes

2019-04-02
2019-01-0145
Heat transfer performance of fin-tube heat exchanger can be enhanced by using longitudinal vortex generators which produces longitudinal vortices. In the present work numerical simulations have been performed to investigate the heat transfer and flow resistance characteristics of rectangular winglet pair type vortex generators (VGs) with punched hole of circular shape (RWPH). RWPH have been placed in Common Flow Down (CFD) and Common Flow Up (CFU) configuration in downstream as well as upstream direction. Heat transfer characteristics and flow behavior have been compared for both the configurations i.e. CFD and CFU, in downstream as well as upstream using Colburn’s factor(j), friction factor(f) and performance evaluation criterion, R = (j/j0)/(f/f0)1/3. Simultaneously, Reynolds number have been varied from 1400 to 9000. The punched hole considerably improves the thermohydraulic performance of RWP and decreases the flow resistance due to reduction in face area.
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