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Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Study of HCCI Combustion using Cooled EGR

2015-11-17
2015-32-0770
Unresolved issues of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion include an extremely rapid pressure rise on the high load side and resultant knocking. Studies conducted to date have examined ways of expanding the region of stable HCCI combustion on the high load side such as by applying supercharging or recirculating exhaust gas (EGR). However, the effect of applying EGR gas to supercharged HCCI combustion and the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, the effect of EGR gas components on HCCI combustion was investigated by conducting experiments in which external EGR gas was applied to supercharged HCCI combustion and also experiments in which nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were individually injected into the intake air pipe to simulate EGR gas components. In addition, HCCI combustion reactions were analyzed by conducting chemical kinetic simulations under the same conditions as those of the experiments.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Mechanism Producing Autoignition in an HCCI Engine Using In-Cylinder Spectroscopy and Chemical Kinetic Simulation

2012-10-23
2012-32-0079
This study examined Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion characteristics in detail on the basis of in-cylinder combustion visualization, spectroscopic measurements of light emission and absorption and chemical kinetic simulations. Special attention was focused on investigating and comparing the effects of the fuel octane number and residual gas on combustion characteristics. The results made clear the relationship between the production/consumption of formaldehyde (HCHO) in the HCCI autoignition process and flame development behavior in the cylinder. Additionally, it was found that both the fuel octane number and residual gas have the effect of moderating low-temperature oxidation reactions. Furthermore, it was observed that residual gas has the effect of shifting the temperature for the occurrence of the hot flame to a higher temperature range.
Technical Paper

Spectroscopic Study of Two-Stage High Temperature Heat Release Behavior in a Supercharged HCCI Engine using Blended Fuels

2011-08-30
2011-01-1788
This study examined the effects of fuel composition and intake pressure on two-stage high temperature heat release characteristics of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Light emission and absorption spectroscopic measurement techniques were used to investigate the combustion behavior in detail. Chemical kinetic simulations were also conducted to analyze the reaction mechanisms in detail. Blended fuels of dimethyl ether (DME) and methane were used in the experiments. It was found that the use of such fuel blends together with a suitable intake air flow rate corresponding to the total injected heat value gave rise to two-stage heat release behavior of the hot flame, which had the effect of moderating combustion. The results of the spectroscopic measurements and the chemical kinetic simulations revealed that the main reaction of the first stage of the hot flame heat release was one that produced CO from HCHO.
Technical Paper

Influence of Various Biodiesel Fuels on Diesel Engine Performance

2009-11-03
2009-32-0100
The composition ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) is depended on feedstock. Three FAMEs: soybean (SME), palm (PME) and coconut oil (CME) methyl esters were mixed to make fuels which have different composition ratio. The ignitability of fuel which mainly consisted of unsaturated FAME was inferior. Power was slightly reduced with increasing of mixing ratio of CME; however exhaust gas emissions were improved because CME contained a lot of oxygen atoms. Fuel which was equal mixture SME and CME indicated almost the same ignition characteristic as that of PME because they have same composition ratio.
Journal Article

A Study of HCCI Combustion using Spectroscopic Techniques and Chemical Kinetic Simulations

2009-11-03
2009-32-0070
This study was conducted to investigate the influence of low-temperature reactions on the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process. Specifically, an investigation was made of the effect of the residual gas condition on low-temperature reactions, autoignition and the subsequent state of combustion following ignition. Light emission and absorption spectroscopic measurements were made in the combustion chamber in order to investigate low-temperature reactions in detail. In addition, chemical kinetic simulations were performed to validate the experimental results and to analyze the elemental reaction process. The results made clear the formation behavior of the chemical species produced during low-temperature HCCI reactions.
Technical Paper

Light Emission and Absorption Spectroscopic Study of HCCI Combustion

2009-06-15
2009-01-1846
In this study, light emission and absorption spectroscopic measurement techniques were used to investigate the Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion process in detail, about which there have been many unclear points heretofore. The results made clear the formation behavior and wavelength bands of the chemical species produced during low-temperature reactions. Specifically, with a low level of residual gas, a light emission band was observed from a cool flame in a wavelength range of 370–470 nm. That is attributed to the light emission of formaldehyde (HCHO) produced in the cool-flame reactions. Additionally, it was found that these light emission spectra were no longer observable when residual gas was applied. The light emission spectra of the combustion flame thus indicated that residual gas has the effect of moderating cool-flame reactions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Characteristics of HCCI Combustion and ATAC Combustion Using the Same Test Engine

2004-09-27
2004-32-0097
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has attracted considerable interest in recent years as a new combustion concept for internal combustion engines. On the other hand, two combustion concepts proposed for two-cycle spark-ignition (SI) engines are Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustion (ATAC) and Activated Radical (AR) combustion. The authors undertook this study to examine the similarities and differences between HCCI combustion and ATAC (AR) combustion. Differences in the low-temperature oxidation reaction behavior between these two combustion processes were made clear using one test engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of EGR-Induced Hot Residual Gas on Combustion when Operating a Two-Stroke Engine on Alcohol Fuels

2000-10-16
2000-01-2972
In this research, the effect of high-temperature residual gas, resulting from the application of a certain level of EGR, on combustion was investigated using a two-stroke engine and alcohol fuels (ethanol and methanol) and gasoline as the test fuels. Measurements were made of the light emission intensity of the OH radical on the intake and exhaust port sides of the combustion chamber and of the combustion chamber wall temperature (spark plug washer temperature) and the exhaust gas temperature. Data were measured and analyzed in a progression from normal combustion to autoignited combustion to preignition and to knocking operation.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study Concerning the influence of Hot Residual Gas On Combustion

2000-01-15
2000-01-1419
This research focused on the light emission behavior of the OH radical (characteristic spectrum of 306.4 [nm]) that plays a key role in combustion reactions, in order to investigate the influence of the residual gas on autoignition. Authors also analyzed on the heat release and thermodynamic mean temperature due to research activity state of unburned gas. The test engine used was a 2-stroke, air-cooled engine fitted with an exhaust pressure control valve in the exhaust manifold. Raising the exhaust pressure forcibly recirculated more exhaust gas internally. When a certain level of internal EGR is forcibly applied, the temperature of the unburned end gas is raised on account of heat transfer from the hot residual gas and also due to compression by piston motion. As a result, the unburned end gas becomes active and autoignition tends to occur.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Characteristic Length on Performance of Plasma Jet Igniters

1994-10-01
942051
The investigation regarding performance of plasma jet igniters was explored by using a constant volume vessel. This study focused on investigating the relationship between the jet effect, the hot gas jet issued from the igniter, and combustion enhancement. The hot gas penetration was visualized by the schlieren system with CCD camera and image intensifier. In the cases of small energies, 0.63 and 0.90 J, the combustion enhancement effect is similar to that of combustion jet igniter. In cases of supplied energies, 2.45 and 5.00 J, the jet effect influences on the combustion enhancement effect for small characteristic length of the igniter.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Measurement of Light Emission and Absorption Behavior of Unburned Gas During Knocking Operation

1993-10-01
932754
With the aim of elucidating the mechanism generating knock, an examination was made of the preflame reaction behavior of end gas in the combustion chamber in the transition from normal combustion to abnormal combustion characterized by the occurrence of knocking. Simultaneous measurements were made in the same cycle of the light absorption and emission behavior of the OH (characteristic spectrum of 306.4 nm), CH (431.5 nm) and C2 (516.5 nm) radicals in the end-gas region using spectroscopic methods. The absorbance behavior of a blue flame prior to autoignition is believed to be an important factor in the mechanism causing knock.
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