A new appraisal of the thermomechanical behaviour of a hybrid composite brake disc in a formula vehicle Research Objective This paper presents a hybrid composite brake disc with reduced Un Sprung Weight clearing thermal and structural analysis in a formula vehicle.Main purpose of this study is to analyse thermomechanical behaviour of composite brake disc for a formula vehicle under severe braking conditions. Methodology In the disk brake system, the disc is a major part of a device used for slowing or stopping the rotation of a wheel. Repetitive braking of the vehicle leads to heat generation during each braking condition. Based on the practical understanding the brake disc was remodelled with unique slotting patterns and grooves, using the selected aluminium alloy of (AA8081) with reinforcement particle of Silicon carbide (SiC) and Graphite (Gr) as a hybrid composite material for this proposed work.
Keywords – Miniaturization, Low Profile (LP) Relays, Low Profile (LP) Fuses, Fuse box, Wiring Harness Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective With the exponential advancement in technological features of automobile’s EE architecture, designing of power distribution unit becomes complex and challenging. Due to the increase in the number of features, the overall weight of power distribution unit increases and thereby affecting the overall system cost and fuel economy. The scope of this document is to scale down the weight and space of the power distribution unit without compromising with the current performance. Methodology Miniaturization involves replacing the mini fuses and J-case fuses with LP mini and LP J-case fuses respectively. The transition doesn’t involve any tooling modification and hence saves the tooling cost.
Generally brake pads are manufacturing by use of asbestos materials, these materials are chemically harmful and toxic, affects human health. The present investigation fabricates polypropylene composites with mixing constant volume [5 Vol.%] of alumina nano particles and different volume percentages [0%, 5%, 10% & 15%] of basalt fibre by hand layup compression technique. The wear characteristics of polypropylene matrix composites were tested by dry sliding condition using pin on disc apparatus configuration with hardened steel counter-face at elevated temperature. The load was applied 30N to 70N with the interval of 20N and varying of sliding speed 300 rpm to 900rpm with the interval of 300rpm for the time period of 0-180 sec. The wear rate was decreases with addition of alumina nano particle and also increases the frictional force for the effect of basalt fibre content present in the composites. The co-efficient of friction was increases from 0.1 to 0.66 under normal loading condition.
In sheet metal painting for various applications like Tractor, Automobile, most attractive coating is metallic paints and it is widely applied using 3 coats 2 bake or 3 coat 1 bake technology. Both options, results in high energy consumption, higher production throughput time & lower productivity in manufacturing process. During various brainstorming & sustainable initiatives, paint application process was identified for alternative thinking to reduce burden on environment & save energy. Various other industry benchmarking & field performance requirement studies helped us identify the critical to quality parameters. We worked jointly with supplier to develop mono-coat system without compromising the performance & aesthetical properties. This results in achieving better productivity, elimination of two paint layers, substantial reduction in volatile organic content, elimination of one baking cycle and energy saving.
While advanced automotive system assemblies contribute greater value to automotive safety, reliability, emission/noise performance and comfort, they are also generating higher temperatures that can reduce the functionality and reliability of thesystem over time. Thermal management and insulation are extremely important and highly demanding in BSVI, RDE and Non-IC engine operating vehicles. Passenger vehicle and Commercial vehicle exhaust systems are facing multiple challenges such as packaging constraints, weight reduction andthermalmanagement requirements.Frugal engineering is mandatory to develop heat shield in the exhaust system with minimum heat loss. The focus of the paper is to design, develop and validate heat shield products with different variables such as design gap, insulation material, sheet metal thickness and manufacturing processes. 1D and 3D computational simulations are performed with different gaps from 3 mm to 14 mm are considered.
Mechanical Property Evaluation of Paper Honeycomb Reinforced Plastics Vignesh Balaji S G, Pradeep Hyundai Motor India Engineering Pvt. Ltd, Chennai. India Key Words: Paper Honeycomb, Epoxy Composites, Mechanical Properties, Tensile, Impact & Flexural Test Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective : Composite Materials are widely being used in many engineering applications because of their desirable properties & Cost, Weight Effectiveness. They are widely being used as their Strength-Weight Ratio is Higher than any Other Material. Paper Honeycomb Material is basically a paper made of honeycomb shapes enforced between layers of Glass Mat. This paper deals with the evaluation of Tensile Strength, Flexural (Three-Point Bending) Strength & Flexural Modulus, Impact Strength of Paper Honeycomb Reinforced Epoxy Composites. The Scope of this Material defines the quality of Paper Honeycomb Reinforced Composites which can be used for Automotive Trim Parts.
Carbon Composites (CFRP) have been touted to be an essential component of future automobiles due to their mechanical properties and lightweight. CFRP has been adopted successfully for secondary and primary structures in Aerospace industry. In Automobiles, they are incorporated in models like the BMW i-series. CFRP suffers from 2 major problems. Delamination of Composites leads to catastrophic and rapid failure which could be dangerous in passenger vehicles. Delamination occurs whenever there is a shock on the composite. Secondly, Composites need regular expensive maintenance to ensure that the material is intact and will not compromise passenger safety. Carbon Nanotubes in composites have shown a substantial increase in delamination resistance. A 0.1wt% addition of HiPCO® Single-walled Carbon Nanotube provides both self-sensing and improved fracture resistance.
The future of mobility is being driven towards fully autonomous driving. As a result, people spend majority of the time in vehicles for chores other than driving. The focus of automotive makers shifts towards providing best-in-class passenger comfort. One of the least focused area in passenger comfort is vehicle interior cleanliness which requires periodic human intervention. An intelligent vehicle can outsmart a human by self-caring to maintain the cleanliness elements on floor, seat and roof. This paper addresses subjects like wetness, dirt and stains in the vehicle interior utilizing the capability of Interior sensing platform. An internally mounted camera in the vehicle can capture images of the interior and apply image processing techniques to identify the subjects mentioned above. The wetness on the floor mats can lead to moldy odor, corrosion, failure of the electronic components in the car.
According to research study 45% of death cause due to not getting help on time to the injured person. Research has proven that if injured person is not found any option of help then they also loose the power to fight such critical situation due to psychological effect. When vehicle met accident, people are not getting on time support, this delay is the major cause of death in developing nations. Presently there is no any robust system available in market for passenger & commercial vehicles which helps to provide on time help to the injured persons & saves human life. In current situation low cost life saving device is need of our society. This paper deals with the design & development of the low cost-life saving device. This paper also comprises the scenario when any vehicle meet an accidents within certain speed limit then how the intelligent life saving device will work & save the life's.
Plastics are prone to photo oxidative and thermal oxidative degradation under usage conditions due to their chemical nature. From sustainability and cost standpoint, there is an increasing focus on Mold-In-Color (MIC) plastic materials. Simultaneously customer’s expectations on the perceived quality of these MIC parts has been increasing with attractive color and glossy appearance. A study was conducted to analyze the product quality and durability aspects over a prolonged exposure to accelerated weathering condition. Material selected for this study were injection molded specimens of ABS and PC/ABS used in automotive passenger vehicles.
The ground mobile robotics study is structured on the two pivotal members namely Sensor perception and Motion planning. Sensor perception or Exteroception comprises the ability of measurement of the layout of environment relative to vehicle’s frame of reference which is a necessity for the implementation of safe navigation towards the goal destination in an unstructured environment. Environment scanning has played a significant role in mobile robots application to investigate the unexplored environment in the sector of defence while transporting and handling material in warehouse and hospitals. Motion Planning is a conjunction of analysing the sensor’s information about the local frame and global map while being able to plan the route from starting point to the target destination. In this paper, a 3600 2-D LiDAR is used to capture the spatial information of the surrounding, the scanning results are presented in a local and global map.
The maximum power produced by the Engine is utilized in overcoming the Aerodynamic resistance while the remaining has been used to overcome rolling and climbing resistance. Increasing emission and performance demands paves way for advanced technologies to improve fuel efficiency. One such way of increasing the fuel efficiency is to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle. Buses emerged as the common choice of transport for people in India. By improving the aerodynamic drag of the Buses, the diesel consumption of a vehicle can be reduced by nearly about 10% without any upgradation of the existing engine. Though 60 to 70 % of pressure loads act on the frontal surface area of the buses, the most common techniques of reducing the drag in buses includes streamlining of the surfaces, minimizing underbody losses, reduced frontal area, pressure difference between the front & rear area and minimizing of flow separation & wake regions.
Showing and streamlining of cutting parameters are a champion among the most essential components in drilling processes. This examination displays the change of drilling procedures parameters on AlSi7Cu4 made by Gravity Die Casting and with replies in light of OA with Taughi GRA and ANOVA. The effects of alloying parts were bear on the Chemical Composition, microstructures, mechanical property, Hardness, X-Ray and S Das response is particularly analyzed. Motivations on the progression of Drilling parameters using the Taguchi strategy to obtain slightest surface Roughness (Ra), Circularity Error, Burr size and Thrust Force. Different Drilling Trails were coordinated using the L9 OA on CNC Milling machine. The examinations were accomplished on AlSi7Cu4 composite piece cutting tool of an ISO 460.1-1140-034A0-XM GC3 of 12 mm measurement with Tool 140 degrees, used all through the preliminary work under dry cutting conditions.
Inconel 825 is nickel (Ni)-iron (Fe)-chromium (Cr) alloy with additions of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), and titanium (Ti). The alloy has excellent resistance to corrosion and is often the most cost-effective alloy in sulphuric acid piping vessels and chemical process equipment. No attempt of applying MQL with three nanofluids was reported conferring to the works accessed. The present study is focused on evaluating the effect of the addition of three nanoparticles (CuO, Al2O3, and CNT) in vegetable oil applied by MQL mode during turning of Inconel 825 with coated carbide tool. Cutting force, surface roughness, and tool wear are evaluated. The results showed that the addition of nCNT substantially improved the machining performance and smaller flank the tool edge, while the adhesion and abrasion are observed as wear mechanism and better results are obtained at 0.5% of nCNT+ vegetable oil to produce the lowest values.
The Cardinal goal of this research work is to fabricate hybrid composites of AA8011 with reinforcement particles of Zr2O3 and Al2O3 which was taken in equal (5wt%) weight percentage. The hybrid composites were cast in a square shape (50x50x50 mm size) under the optimal stir casted process parametric condition, further, it was taken for the forging process. The prepared specimens were induced for uni-direction (x), bi-direction (x and y) and multi-direction (x,y, and z) forging route and the response of microhardness of 53, 68, 81 and 96 VHN were obtained respectively due to microstructural phase changes with an even distribution of particles in the matrix. Thus, the tribological properties of prepared specimens were tested using pin-on-disc Tribometer at room temperature under dry sliding condition of load 5,10,15,20 N and by adjusting the sliding speed as 266 and 531 rpm respectively.
Automotive is getting advanced and increasingly comfortable with new technologies and demand from customers. Car cabins have become much quieter as compared yesteryears. Where the outside noise has gone down significantly, secondary and small noises like squeak and rattle have become more prominent. Squeak though a transient and short lived, is an unexpected noise and often considered as an irritant. There is an increasing need felt to eliminate squeak completely from the interiors of the vehicle where choice materials play dominant role. This article briefs about the work done on evaluating different plastic interfaces for squeak behavior using Stick-Slip method. Some plastic surfaces were even tested with other interfaces like leather and vinyl coated fabrics. Choice of plastic material and interfaces to be tested were shortlisted after studying many different vehicles and benchmarking.
Inconel 600 is a face-centered cubic structure and nickel-chromium alloy. Alloy 600 has good resistance to oxidation, corrosion-resistant, excellent mechanical properties, and good creep rupture strength at a higher temperature. Alloy 600 is used in heat treating, phenol condensers, chemical and food processing, soap manufacture, vegetable, and fatty acid vessels. In this context, the present paper investigates the machinability characteristics of Alloy 600 under dry environment. Also, the parametric effect of cutting speed, feed rate, and cutting depth on the force, surface roughness, and tool wear is carried out using 3-Dimensional surface and 1-Dimensional plots. The optimal parameters are determined systematically based on Taguchi-desirability analysis with turned with TiAlN coated carbide insert. From the graphical analysis of collected data, the low rate of feed and moderate cutting for roughness and cutting force and average feed rate for tool wear with low cutting depth.
Application of advance composites in place of the various conventional materials such as steel can give significant weight and performance advantages. The application of composites is now finding it’s way in the automotive industry due to the growing requirement of the lightweight solutions and high strength to weight ratio. However, their low mechanical properties have limited their application in automotive structural components. The study presented here is focused on the explicit dynamic analysis of a bumper beam and advance composites are used for the study. Different configurations and designs of the bumper are considered to be able to make a comparative study of the stress and deformation levels. The analysis was done in coherence to the Euro NCAP tests and the offset frontal impact analysis was done. The boundary conditions were aligned with the real time impact conditions for proper prediction of the results.