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Training / Education

Vehicle Crash Reconstruction Principles and Technology

2020-02-17
Crash reconstruction is a scientific process that utilizes principles of physics and empirical data to analyze the physical, electronic, video, audio, and testimonial evidence from a crash to determine how and why the crash occurred. This course will introduce this reconstruction process as it gets applied to various crash types - in-line and intersection collisions, pedestrian collisions, motorcycle crashes, rollover crashes, and heavy truck crashes. Methods of evidence documentation will be covered. Analysis methods will also be presented for electronic data from event data recorders and for video.
Training / Education

Side Impact Occupant Safety and CAE

2019-11-25
Side impact crashes account for approximately twenty-six percent of all motor vehicle fatal crashes, second only to frontal crashes, according to a report by the National Highway Transportation and Safety Administration (NHTSA). While car companies and suppliers continue to develop new technologies that make vehicles safer, NHTSA rolled out updated safety regulations (FMVSS 214) based on new research studies, making vehicle safety design more and more complex. This seminar is designed to familiarize participants with the engineering principles behind vehicle and restraint designs for occupant safety.
Technical Paper

High rigidity and light weight bumper material development in India

2019-11-21
2019-28-2553
Vehicle weight reduction becomes important at the view point of fuel efficiency improvement and CO2 reduction in India also as well as developed countries. With this background, High tensile and Super high tensile steel application has become increasing. Similary, weight reduction of big plastic parts like bumper face is one of the most important items, so Honda has developed Thin-wall and light weight bumper face. In the development of light weight bumper, rigidity, impact strength and flowability which are main requirement are cotradictory property. It is necessary to develop new material to achieve this technical concern. Moreover, we verified part shape and thickness optimization to achieve part requirement. Established high property material and part manufacturing technology were applied for current CITY firstly, and it has been expanded to other models sequentially to contribute weight reduction for Honda vehicles.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Car in India

2019-11-21
2019-28-2522
Automation is expanding in every possible direction and it was only time before it reached the Automobile sector. There has been tremendous traction towards autonomous cars since last 2-3 yrs as a probable solution to reduce accidents and promote safe and comfortable commute. Many companies have expressed their interest in developing some part(s) of it and when would all of this culminate resulting in a fully autonomous car. But as every coin has two aspects so same does automation. This paper covers the future of autonomous cars from Indian perspective, covering possible challenges, complex use cases, advantages, technology enablers, economy outlook etc. India has the dubious honor of ranking first in road deaths in the world at present & accounts for 10 percent of global road accidents with more than 1.46 lakh fatalities annually.
Technical Paper

C123 Methodology for concept design of the Chassis Frame

2019-11-21
2019-28-2534
Objective This paper explores the usage of Altair simulation driven concept process, C123 for developing the chassis frame of the SUV along with Multidisciplinary optimisation tool. C123 process is useful for strategic & systematic usage of optimisation to generate design alternatives, trade-off information, best balanced designs, design sensitivities, to actively support the concept development process on daily basis. Methodology C123 is used for developing initial concept design of the chassis frame of the SUV. C123 process is independent of vehicle architectures, manufacture process (e.g. extrusions, sheet metal) & material selection (e.g. metals, composites, mixed etc.) and platform sharing strategy. C1 process is used for identification of optimum Structural Layout, C2 is for rapid optimum Sizing of idealized Sections, C3 is used for detailed optimum Sizing of Manufacturable Sections. Automatic process is used for handling pre and post processing process very efficiently.
Technical Paper

Design of Additive Manufactured Thermoplastic Component as FMVSS 201U Countermeasure

2019-11-21
2019-28-2547
Research and/or Engineering Questing/Objectives: Safety of the occupant in passenger cars is one of the regulatory requirements in many developed countries. This includes upper interior head impact load case of the unbelted occupant during crash (FMVSS 201U) as one of them. During a crash event the occupant head can collide with the interior parts of the vehicle, such as a headliner, pillar trim and other subsequent components in the loading direction. Injury on the head is quantified in terms of the Head Injury Criterion of a crash test dummy (HIC(d)) value which should be less than 1000 per standard. Several ways can be adopted to reduce the HIC(d) value. These include a change in the design of ribs in the safety plastic components, headliner profile change, use of countermeasure foam between headliner and the exterior sheet metal parts, or a combination of any of these to absorb the energy of impact.
Technical Paper

Injury Reduction in Vehicle to Pedestrian Collision using Deployable Pedestrian Protection System in Vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2551
Head injuries are the main source of road fatalities in when a pedestrian is involved in an accident with the vehicle. The frontal part of vehicle such as engine hood, lower-windshield area and A-pillars are the possible location of head impact in such accidents. The head impact with hard points located in these areas result in the fatal head injuries. The effect of impact can be reduced by using the deployable pedestrian protection systems (DPPS) such as hood-lifters and windshield airbag in the vehicle. The study shows how these systems are effective in reducing the fatalities in pedestrian accidents and how to evaluate the performance of these deployable systems.
Technical Paper

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF LOW CYCLE FATIGUE PROPERTIES IN METALS FOR ROBUST DESIGN

2019-11-21
2019-28-2576
Objective: In ground vehicle industry, strain life approach is commonly used for predicting fatigue life. This approach requires use of fatigue material properties such as fatigue strength coefficient (σf'), fatigue strength exponent (b), fatigue ductility coefficient (εf'), fatigue ductility exponent (c), cyclic strength coefficient (K′) and cyclic strain hardening exponent (n′). These properties are obtained from stable hysteresis loop of constant amplitude strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests. Usually fatigue material properties represent 50th percentile experimental data and doesn't account possible material variation in the fatigue life calculation. However, for robust design of vehicle components, variation in material properties need to be taken into account. In this paper, methodology to develop 5th percentile (B5), 10th percentile (B10) and 20th percentile (B20) fatigue material properties are discussed.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the critical parameters affecting the fuel lid performance

2019-11-21
2019-28-2413
Fuel lid is one of the parts which are mostly operated mechanically by the end user while filling the fuel. Therefore part design should be done in such a manner that it can be operated smoothly without any hassles. The conventional steel fuel filler doors are of two types: Three-piece type fuel filler doors also known as the dog-leg type and two-piece type fuel filler doors also known as the butterfly type. Both types of fuel filler doors have a pin that acts as a rotational hinge axis about which the fuel filler door opens and closes. Depending on the styling and shape of the side body outer, fuel lid type is decided. In the current study, dog-leg type fuel lid is considered. The factors that primarily affect the opening-closing performance are the weight of fuel lid, hinge axis, and the friction at the hinge area. The orientation of the hinge axis is derived from the profile of the side body outer panel. The fuel lid weight and hinge axis are decided in the initial design stage.
Technical Paper

A Machine Learning based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for Lightweighting the Automotive Structures

2019-11-21
2019-28-2424
The present work involves Machine Learning (ML) based Multi-objective Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MMDO) for lightweighting the automotive structures. The challenge in deployment of MMDO algorithms in solving real-world automotive structural design problems is the enormous time involved in solving full vehicle finite element models that involve large number of design variables and multiple performance constraints pertaining to vehicle dynamics, durability, crash and NVH domains. With the availability of powerful workstations and using the advanced Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools, it has become possible to generate huge sets of simulation data pertaining to multiple domains.
Technical Paper

A V2V communication protocol to avoid Blind turn accidents and accidents happen

2019-11-21
2019-28-2444
Nowadays the sonar system is used to avoid accidents, which is not effective in case of high-speed at blind turn situation or through side crossing in high ways. That's because vehicle position is not along the line and speed is very high so sonar will not detect danger within avoidable time limits. it seems we need to develop some fast enough system to avoid these type of accidents.
Technical Paper

Proposed Model to Implement a Blockchain for Secure Vehicle to Vehicle Communication

2019-11-21
2019-28-2433
This paper proposes a model to implement a blockchain network that can host a system of autonomous vehicles which communicate through generic V2V protocols like DSRC and CV2X. The blockchain will be designed to function like a global database for V2V communication. The purpose behind the proposal of this model was to ensure a transparent and secure network between all autonomous vehicles which indirectly leads to reduced traffic congestion and takes us a step closer to zero crashes. This is made possible by the blockchain ledger’s enhanced encryption systems.
Technical Paper

DEVELOPMENT OF SMART BIKE FOR RIDER’S SAFETY THROUGH HELMET DETECTION

2019-11-21
2019-28-2458
In today’s era, especially in young generation, the craze of motor bikes is really remarkable. As the bikers in our country are increasing, the road mishaps are also increasing day-by-day, due to which many deaths occur and most of them are caused by the negligence in wearing helmet. According to the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, 1,50,785 people were killed in 4,80,652 road crashes in India in 2016. This translates into 55 crashes and 17 deaths every hour. In case of road crash deaths, Two-Wheeler topped the list with a percentage share of 29.42% followed by Trucks, Tempos, Tractors(25.9%) and Cars, Jeeps, Taxis (21.61%). In order to overcome the above mentioned problem, we are designing an intelligent system that detects the helmet and prevent the rider to ride the bike without wearing helmet which helps to reduce the death cases during an accident. Our task as an automobile engineer was to design a smart helmet that could automatically detected by the two-wheeler.
Technical Paper

MASS OPTIMIZED HOOD DESIGN FOR CONFLICTING PERFORMANCES

2019-11-21
2019-28-2546
MASS OPTIMIZED HOOD DESIGN FOR CONFLICTING PERFORMANCES Santosh Swamy, Gulshan Noorsumar, Shivakumar Chidanandappa General Motors Technical Center, India Keywords Hood; Head Injury Criterion (HIC); Stiffness; Shape optimization; Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) Research and/or Engineering Questions/ Objective The objective of this work is to obtain a light weight hood which has least possible mass, and at the same time meets all contradicting performances of pedpro (pedestrian protection) and structural stiffness disciplines. Passenger vehicles have stringent safety norms from pedpro perspective to meet child and adult head injury criteria (HIC). These pedestrian safety requirements often conflict with structural stiffness performance criteria which pose a challenge for most automotive OEMs. Therefore, there is a growing need for mass optimization and performance balancing to meet both the requirements simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Analysis of occupant dynamics and optimization of Driver airbag performance against all FMVSS208 frontal impact cases using validated Finite element Methodology

2019-11-21
2019-28-2545
Several people die every year due to vehicle accidents. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) are U.S. federal regulations stating design, structure, performance, and durability necessities for vehicles. The objective of a crash test for FMVSS No. 208 is to measure how well a passenger vehicle would protect its occupants in the event of a frontal crash. FMVSS 208 consists of series of tests including different impact surface type as well as occupant sizes. It also covers the belted and unbelted occupant behavior at the time of front impact. Each test scenario has different ways to injure the occupant. Airbags are the part of passive safety equipment family in any automobile and play an imperative role to reduce the occupant head and chest injuries at the time of crash or accidents. This study covers the evaluation of airbag performance in all FMVSS 208 load cases using validated Finite Element Methodology (FEM).
Technical Paper

Passenger "Sleeper Bus" Structure, an Optimization Study using Finite Element Analysis

2019-11-21
2019-28-2537
Sleeper buses are increasingly used as connectivity between cities and remote areas with sleeping comfort for passengers. During the normal operation, the bus body is subjected to several loads, external loads from the road (i.e. crossing over a speed bump, breaking & cornering). Moreover, there is a substantial possibility that these loads may lead to a structural failure. Hence, it is necessary to determine stresses occurred in the bus body to ensure its integrity under these driving scenarios. During the accident, rollover/front/rear/side impact, energy absorbing capacity of bus body structure is crucial for safety of passengers. The objective of this study is to reduce weight of bus structure while maintaining cost & safety as constraint. 3D Model prepared in NX and finite element model created in hypermesh ,LS-dyna/optistruct used as solver and post processing done in hyperview. In this study, fully loaded bus with passengers as well as maximum language mass, considered.
Technical Paper

Body Structure Strength Of Sleeper Coaches During Rollover Test As Per AIS 119

2019-11-21
2019-28-2567
Bus passenger safety has always been a concern considering various impacts like side impact, front impact, rollover etc. happening in real life scenarios. Various standards have been formulated for simulating these conditions and with respect to rollover, standards like ECE-R66 are being used to understand the superstructure strength. In India, we have AIS-052 (bus body code) and AIS-031 specific for bus rollover testing. AIS-119 has been published for rollover testing of sleeper coaches with modifications in the survival space creation in sleeper coaches for berths. With physical testing being more expensive, CAE simulations are being considered as vital option which also helps in design modification in a lesser time. This paper discusses the scope of numerical simulation of sleeper coach rollover using an explicit dynamic solver RADIOSS to understand the structure deformations, survival space clearances/intrusions.
Technical Paper

FABRICATION AND WEAR CHARACTERISTICS BASALT FIBER REINFORCED POLYPROPYLENE MATRIX COMPOSITES

2019-11-21
2019-28-2570
Generally brake pads are manufacturing by use of asbestos materials, these materials are chemically harmful and toxic, affects human health. The present investigation fabricates polypropylene composites with mixing constant volume [5 Vol.%] of alumina nano particles and different volume percentages [0%, 5%, 10% & 15%] of basalt fibre by hand layup compression technique. The wear characteristics of polypropylene matrix composites were tested by dry sliding condition using pin on disc apparatus configuration with hardened steel counter-face at elevated temperature. The load was applied 30N to 70N with the interval of 20N and varying of sliding speed 300 rpm to 900rpm with the interval of 300rpm for the time period of 0-180 sec. The wear rate was decreases with addition of alumina nano particle and also increases the frictional force for the effect of basalt fibre content present in the composites. The co-efficient of friction was increases from 0.1 to 0.66 under normal loading condition.
Technical Paper

Optimization of vehicle side panel to improve crashworthiness.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2573
The front of a car, though susceptible to the biggest impacts in terms of magnitude, has space and additional reinforcement to incorporate various safety measures. The rear has considerable amount of space to contain a proper crash box. The side of the car, though, doesn’t have this flexibility in design, the main limiting parameter being space. Any intrusion into the passenger cabin can result in serious injury or even death. The objective of this work is to improve the crashworthiness of a vehicle’s side so as to reduce intrusion into the passenger cabin. The work is focused on optimizing the door and B pillar. The optimized side panel is compared with the baseline model as per standard. ANSYS solver is used for the simulation. The optimized design applied to the door and B pillar will significantly improve crashworthiness of the vehicle side panel as a whole.
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