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Combustion and Emissions for Engineers

2019-12-09
Public awareness regarding pollutants and their adverse health effects has created an urgent need for engineers to better understand the combustion process as well as the pollutants formed as by-products of that process. To effectively contribute to emission control strategies and design and develop emission control systems and components, a good understanding of the physical and mathematical principles of the combustion process is necessary. This seminar will bring issues related to combustion and emissions "down to earth," relying less on mathematical terms and more on physical explanations and analogies.
Technical Paper

C123 Methodology for concept design of the Chassis Frame

2019-11-21
2019-28-2534
Objective This paper explores the usage of Altair simulation driven concept process, C123 for developing the chassis frame of the SUV along with Multidisciplinary optimisation tool. C123 process is useful for strategic & systematic usage of optimisation to generate design alternatives, trade-off information, best balanced designs, design sensitivities, to actively support the concept development process on daily basis. Methodology C123 is used for developing initial concept design of the chassis frame of the SUV. C123 process is independent of vehicle architectures, manufacture process (e.g. extrusions, sheet metal) & material selection (e.g. metals, composites, mixed etc.) and platform sharing strategy. C1 process is used for identification of optimum Structural Layout, C2 is for rapid optimum Sizing of idealized Sections, C3 is used for detailed optimum Sizing of Manufacturable Sections. Automatic process is used for handling pre and post processing process very efficiently.
Technical Paper

A review on influence of different flushing methods on Material Removal Rate using EDM.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2543
Electrical release machining (EDM), is a material removal procedure whereby a coveted shape is acquired by utilizing electrical releases (sparks). Material is expelled from the work piece by a progression of quickly repeating current releases between cathode and anode, isolated by a dielectric fluid and subject to an electric voltage. At the point when the voltage between the two terminals is expanded, the power of the electric field in the volume between the anodes winds up more prominent than the quality of the dielectric (in any event in a few spots), which separates, enabling current to stream between the two cathodes. This wonder is the equivalent as the breakdown of a capacitor (condenser). Accordingly, material is expelled from the cathodes.
Technical Paper

High rigidity and light weight bumper material development in India

2019-11-21
2019-28-2553
Vehicle weight reduction becomes important at the view point of fuel efficiency improvement and CO2 reduction in India also as well as developed countries. With this background, High tensile and Super high tensile steel application has become increasing. Similary, weight reduction of big plastic parts like bumper face is one of the most important items, so Honda has developed Thin-wall and light weight bumper face. In the development of light weight bumper, rigidity, impact strength and flowability which are main requirement are cotradictory property. It is necessary to develop new material to achieve this technical concern. Moreover, we verified part shape and thickness optimization to achieve part requirement. Established high property material and part manufacturing technology were applied for current CITY firstly, and it has been expanded to other models sequentially to contribute weight reduction for Honda vehicles.
Technical Paper

An alternate cost effective material for rocker arm for heavy commercial vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2550
Rocker arm in internal combustion engine is very important part which transfer the cam motion and force to the valve. In heavy commercial vehicles, the engine components are design for an infinite life (considerable higher than other components). Recently industries are working for light weight and optimized cost material. Hence it is required to have an optimized cost effective design of rocker arm without affecting its performance. A rocker arm should meet the stiffness and strength requirement. The objective of this study is to find out the alternate material for rocker arm which can provide the similar strength & stiffness as conventional rocker arm material. To achieve the performance and cost target, alternate material cast iron has been evaluated for rocker arm. Cast iron is lighter than the forged steel rocker arm, also it has a good frictional characteristic. Further bush is eliminated from the rocker arm assembly due to self-lubricant property of the cast iron rocker arm.
Technical Paper

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF LOW CYCLE FATIGUE PROPERTIES IN METALS FOR ROBUST DESIGN

2019-11-21
2019-28-2576
Objective: In ground vehicle industry, strain life approach is commonly used for predicting fatigue life. This approach requires use of fatigue material properties such as fatigue strength coefficient (σf'), fatigue strength exponent (b), fatigue ductility coefficient (εf'), fatigue ductility exponent (c), cyclic strength coefficient (K′) and cyclic strain hardening exponent (n′). These properties are obtained from stable hysteresis loop of constant amplitude strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests. Usually fatigue material properties represent 50th percentile experimental data and doesn't account possible material variation in the fatigue life calculation. However, for robust design of vehicle components, variation in material properties need to be taken into account. In this paper, methodology to develop 5th percentile (B5), 10th percentile (B10) and 20th percentile (B20) fatigue material properties are discussed.
Technical Paper

Automobile Exhaust Emmision Control- A review

2019-11-21
2019-28-2382
Since the 20th century increase in the number of cars in the major cities is been a point of concern because of the toxic gasses being emitted from the engine of an automobile. These gasses are polluting the atmosphere and degrading the air to breathe. The main gasses responsible for the degradation of air quality are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen. There is a necessity to find ways to reduce the pollution emitted into the atmosphere from the automobile. The source of emission is either evaporation from fuel tank or carburetor which is easy to be dealt with or harmful gasses due to improper combustion which is a concern for the environment. The two ways to reduce these emissions are, modification in the engine to minimize the production of harmful gases and to treat the harmful gasses emitted from the engine before blowing it into the atmosphere from the exhaust. Catalysts help to break harmful gasses into smaller compounds that are environment-friendly.
Technical Paper

Thermal Challenges in Automotive Exhaust System through Heat Shield Insulation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2539
While advanced automotive system assemblies contribute greater value to automotive safety, reliability, emission/noise performance and comfort, they are also generating higher temperatures that can reduce the functionality and reliability of thesystem over time. Thermal management and insulation are extremely important and highly demanding in BSVI, RDE and Non-IC engine operating vehicles. Passenger vehicle and Commercial vehicle exhaust systems are facing multiple challenges such as packaging constraints, weight reduction andthermalmanagement requirements.Frugal engineering is mandatory to develop heat shield in the exhaust system with minimum heat loss. The focus of the paper is to design, develop and validate heat shield products with different variables such as design gap, insulation material, sheet metal thickness and manufacturing processes. 1D and 3D computational simulations are performed with different gaps from 3 mm to 14 mm are considered.
Technical Paper

Experimental investigation on performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder CRDI engine fuelled with a diesel-methanol blend.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2380
The diesel engine is widely used for its high thermal efficiency and better fuel conversion efficiency. However, increasing usage of petroleum fuel and environmental degradation motivates to use renewable biofuels as a replacement to conventional diesel. Biofuels produced from non-edible sources can be used as a partial substitute of diesel for the significant growth of fuel economy and reduction of environmental pollution. Methanol can be implemented as a blended fuel in the diesel without affecting engine design. In this study, the effect of diesel methanol blends and injection parameters such as fuel injection pressure (FIP)and start of injection (SOI) on a common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine performance and emission were investigated. Four blends were prepared by mixing diesel with methanol (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass) and adding a certain amount of oleic acid and iso-butanol to get a stable blend.
Technical Paper

Replacing twin electric fan radiator with Single fan radiator

2019-11-21
2019-28-2381
Downsizing is one of the crucial activities being performed by every automotive engineering organization. The main aim is to reduce – Weight, CO2 emissions and achieve cost benefit. All this is done without any compromise on performance requirement or rather with optimization of system performance. This paper evaluate one such optimization, where-in radiator assembly with two electric fan is targeted for downsizing for small commercial vehicle application. The present two fan radiator is redesigned with thinner core and use of single fan motor assembly. The performance of the heat exchanger is tested for similar conditions back to back on vehicle and optimized to get the balanced benefit in terms of weight, cooling performance and importantly cost. This all is done without any modification in vehicle interface components except electrical connector for fan. The side members and brackets design is also simplified to achieve maximum weight reduction.
Technical Paper

EMISSION REDUCTION OF A DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH BLENDS OF BIOFUEL UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF 1,4-DIOXANE AND RICE HUSK NANO PARTICLE.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2387
Research Objectives. In this modern era increase in Pollution became a huge impact in the lives of all living creatures, in this automobile tends to be one of the major contributors in terms of air pollution thanks to their exhaust emissions. The objective of the present study is to reduce the amount of harmful pollutants emitted from the automobiles by the utilization of a biofuel further influenced by two additives (liquid and a Nano additive). Methodology In this study, first the bio oil is extracted, Then the biofuel is mixed with diesel fuel at different proportions of 20%, 40% by volume. Experiments are carried out in a direct injection compression ignition engine, which is a stationary test engine manufactured by Kirloskar, connected to a computer setup. The emission values in the exhaust gases are obtained using AVL exhaust gas analyzer.
Technical Paper

Approach for CO2 Reduction in India’s Automotive Sector

2019-11-21
2019-28-2388
India has gone through a lot of transformation over the last decade. Today it is the 6th largest and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rising income level, increased consumerism, rapid growth in urbanization and digitization have attributed to this change. Government focus on “Make in India” for promoting trade and investment in India have ensured that India emerge as one of the largest growing economies in the world. The automotive industry played a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector to boost economic activities in India. The passenger car market has increased 3 times over the last decade and it has led to increased mobility options for many people across India. However, this has put concerns on the country’s energy security and emission levels. According to IEA’s recent report on global CO2 emission, 32.31 Gt of CO2 emissions were from fuel combustion in 2016, out of which transport sector contributed ~25%.
Technical Paper

A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas – Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

2019-11-21
2019-28-2390
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds.
Technical Paper

Prospects of Bio Diesel and blends as a fuel supplement for diesel engines.

2019-11-21
2019-28-2393
Biodiesel can supplement petroleum product as a "perfect vitality source". It can ensure nature by diminishing CO2, SO2, CO, HC emission to an extent. The carbon cycle of Biodiesel is dynamic through the photosynthesis procedure .Plants ingest CO2, or, in other words those released by the biodiesel ignition process. Utilizing biodiesel can all the more adequately lessen the outflow of CO2, secure the indigenous habitat and keep up the environmental equalization, contrasted with the utilization of petroleum product. This paper considers the issues and gives understanding on the utilization of bio diesel in existing passenger vehicles which runs on diesel as a fuel. Because of increment in use of non-renewable energy sources viz., petroleum products are on an exponential decline. Today we have an option of electric vehicle or fuel cell based vehicles but what about the existing infrastructures of Billions of vehicles plying on Indian road. Bio diesel as a fuel solves this issue.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the critical parameters affecting the fuel lid performance

2019-11-21
2019-28-2413
Fuel lid is one of the parts which are mostly operated mechanically by the end user while filling the fuel. Therefore part design should be done in such a manner that it can be operated smoothly without any hassles. The conventional steel fuel filler doors are of two types: Three-piece type fuel filler doors also known as the dog-leg type and two-piece type fuel filler doors also known as the butterfly type. Both types of fuel filler doors have a pin that acts as a rotational hinge axis about which the fuel filler door opens and closes. Depending on the styling and shape of the side body outer, fuel lid type is decided. In the current study, dog-leg type fuel lid is considered. The factors that primarily affect the opening-closing performance are the weight of fuel lid, hinge axis, and the friction at the hinge area. The orientation of the hinge axis is derived from the profile of the side body outer panel. The fuel lid weight and hinge axis are decided in the initial design stage.
Technical Paper

Occupant Controlled Ventilation

2019-11-21
2019-28-2461
Keywords-Coolant,Ventilation Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: Number of Occupants is the major parameter when we consider Air Conditioning System. The number of person who stays in the room may vary in the same way the person who travels in the automobile also vary throughout the distance. This is more prevalent in transportation system like bus, train and where lot of people will travel together and where dropping station in the vehicle is too frequent.In this type,operating A.C has to be varied Methodology: . Instead the number count in the vehicle will be monitored from time to time. Based on the number of count, the cabin has to be cooled or heated and accordingly corresponding power has to be drawn by the compressor from the engine. This human count can be detected based on the number of CO2 sensor located in the cabin. the amount of fresh air that should be added to a cabin can be controlled by a carbon dioxide level transmitter.
Technical Paper

Future hybrid Vehicles with advanced 48V electrified drive train technology to reduce Co2 emission

2019-11-21
2019-28-2487
Future hybrid vehicles with advanced 48V electrified drive train technology to reduce CO2 emission. Chandrakant Palve* Pushkaraj Tilak * * Mercedes-Benz Research & Development India Pvt. Ltd. Bangalore. India. Key Words: 48V, CO2, P3 Hybrid, Electrified powertrain, AMT, emission, shift comfort, motor Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective Global automotive industry is putting effort in moving from conventional powertrain technology to hybrid & electric powertrains. This efforts plays a vital role to achieve cleaner environment, improved performance, reduced fossil-fuel dependency, low noise for meeting regulatory & customer requirements. Automotive industry is facing a challenge of meeting stringent CO2 emission targets of 95g & 175g per kilometer for passenger cars & light commercial vehicles respectively. 48V is an important stepping stone in this direction.
Technical Paper

Engine Fuel Economy Optimization for different Hybrid Architectures using 1-D Simulation technique

2019-11-21
2019-28-2496
In order to improve fuel economy of the 3.3 litre tractor model, various kinds of engine hybridization is studied. This paper presents a methodology to predict engine fuel consumption using 1-D software by coupling Ricardo Wave and Ricardo Ignite. Engine fuel consumption and emission maps are predicted using Ricardo WAVE. These maps are used as an input to IGNITE for predicting cumulative fuel consumption. There is good agreement within 10% deviation between simulated cumulative fuel consumption and experimental cumulative fuel consumption. Same calibrated model is used further for studying series hybridization, parallel P1 type and Parallel P2 type of hybridization. A design of experiment (DOE) model is run for different electric motor sizes, battery capacity and battery state of charge condition, to understand their effects on overall engine fuel consumption and cycle soot emission. Model predicts overall significant reduction in cumulative fuel consumption and soot emission.
Technical Paper

FI system of single cylinder Engine for motorcycle

2019-11-21
2019-28-2527
In India, due to the progress of air pollution problem in major cities, exhaust emission regulations had been planned to become stricter for motorcycles as so as automobile. And effective date has been also announced. The fuel supply system to small displacement engines of motorcycles used to be a carburetor, however, to meet the regulations it should be replaced by electronic fuel injection (FI). This paper introduces "i-Beat II system", the FI system for small motorcycles developed by Mikuni, meant for single cylinder and small displacement gasoline engine which accounts for more than 90% of the motorcycle market.  We developed adaptable FI system for motorcycles with simplified structure of the system, more suitable logic for single cylinder engine, and then achieved emission regulation also better drivability, fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Challenges of fuel economy determination with gaseous fuels

2019-11-21
2019-28-2512
The importance of fuel economy (FE) has significantly increased for new technologies like hydrogen fuel cells or compressed natural gas (CNG) engines. Regarding conventional combustion engine driven vehicles, the current gap between the official CO2 emissions and the real-world emissions on the road is quite big. One main reason for this gap might be a non-authentic test environment for combustion engines in comparison to real road conditions. New standards like the world harmonized driving cycle (WLTC) try to reduce the above-mentioned gap. Such standards underline the importance of complex speed and torque profiles. It appears that steady state consumption measurement is not sufficient anymore. Replacing the conventional vehicle engine by a fuel cell system does not eliminate this performance requirements on the measurement equipment. Performance testing methods are well known for conventional liquid fuels. However, new media like hydrogen or CNG represent new challenges.
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